11 INTRODUCTION TO WEB SERVICES PROTOCOLS …………………………… 97 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 BEEP …………………………………………………………………………………. 97 EBUSINESSXML …………………………………………………………………….. 98 HESSIAN ……………………………………………………………………………… 98 HTTP…………………………………………………………………………………. 98 JSON-RPC ………………………………………………………………………….. 99 SOAP ………………………………………………………………………………… 99 UDDI……………………………………………………………………………….. 100 CONCLUSION TO WEB SERVICES PROTOCOLS ………………………………….. 100 12 13 WRAPPING THE WEB RESOURCES SURVEY ………………………………… 101 APPLYING WEB APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT TO BUSINESS PRACTICES 105 13.1 DEVELOPING BUSINESS CENTRIC WEB APPLICATIONS ………………………… 109 14 15 APPLYING CONTROL TO WEB APPLICATION OFFERINGS ………………. 113 USING ITIL IN WEB APPLICATIONS ……………………………………………. 117 15.1 ADAPTING SERVICE STRATEGY …………………………………………………… 119 15.2 ADAPTING SERVICE DESIGN ……………………………………………………… 121 15.2.1 Capacity Management ……………………………………………… 123 15.2.2 Availability Management ………………………………………….. 124 15.2.3 Service Level Management ……………………………………….. 124 15.3 ADAPTING SERVICE TRANSITION ………………………………………………… 125 15.3.1 Release Management ………………………………………………. 127 15.3.2 Configuration Management………………………………………. 129 4 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 15.3.3 Change Management……………………………………………….. 130 15.4 ADAPTING SERVICE OPERATION …………………………………………………. 130 15.4.1 Incident Management ………………………………………………. 131 15.4.2 Problem Management ……………………………………………… 132 15.5 CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT …………………………………………… 134 16 17 18 19 20 USING THE WEB TO PROMOTE ITIL …………………………………………… 135 HOSTING APPLICATIONS ON THE WEB ……………………………………… 143 BENEFITS FOR WEB APPLICATIONS …………………………………………… 147 SUMMARY ……………………………………………………………………………. 151 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………. 153 5 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 6 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 1 Introducing Applications on the Web The task of computing has always to apply logic to inputs in order to provide a consistent and acceptable output.

Programming code is set up to create a processing method that can be used and reused.

In early days, the code may have been self-contained by individual machines, where one machine would provide processing for one task while another machine is used for another task.

Eventually, programming code become self-contained into files called applications.

The advantage to computing was that multiple applications could be found on a single machine.

Use of the application was derived by accessing the file that contains the desired programming code.

The primary focus of applications in these early days was used to aid scientific research and statistical analysis.networking allowed programming code to be shared by multiple users.

To do this, the application sat on a single machine that was connected to each of the users.

To access the application, the users simply needed to be connected to the server and access the file on the single machine, usually called a server.

The machine that the 7 Web Applications – A Complete Guide — 111 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 112 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 14 Applying Control to Web Application Offerings Whether a company has decided to develop a web application for internal use or to market that application for use by other companies, there is still a need for control over the infrastructure and support of the application.

To properly support a web application, process and procedures must be developed to handle any number of situations that may arise during the life of product.

Though many methodologies may exist to assist the company in supporting the application, the first recommendation is to find a method that is recognizable and its use is encouraged as a standard.

Specifically for applications that are used in institutions of finance, health, and government, the regulations surrounding IT support are extensive and are in place to ensure availability, confidentiality, and integrity of the systems.

One of the increasingly recognized methods is ITIL.

The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a series of books covering the each major topic of IT management under Service Support and Delivery.

Rather than being a methodology of instructions and how to, it is a framework of concepts and policies for managing the infrastructure, development and operations of information 113 Web Applications – A Complete Guide technology.

The practices that it entails are considered best practices for supporting IT and include components such as checklists, tasks, and procedures that can be tailored by any IT organization.

Certification in ITIL by an organization means that their IT processes adhere to the concepts and policies provided by ITIL.

From a business perspective, ITIL certification is a marketing advantage because it provides a foundation for understanding the positioning of the IT focus for both the customer and the supplier.

Within the subject of developing web applications, there are two directions that can be taken when approaching the topic ITIL.

The first approach is the ensuring that the infrastructure supporting the application is ITIL compliant.

The second is the creation of web applications that allow the management of the infrastructure using ITIL concepts and policies.

Almost immediately the lines seemed to blur between the approaches, but they are distinct.

The key to the distinction is the web application that needs to be supported.

If the application is based on supporting IT management, there is definitely a blur, but not all web applications support the management of IT.

Some support the financial aspect of the business, others the supply chain, others the customer relationship, human resources, or project management.

Unfortunately in almost every example listed here and others that were possible, some form of IT can be found that manages these business functions or need to be 114 Web Applications – A Complete Guide managed itself.

So to make the distinction very clear, let’s use an application that has the least amount of IT management requirements attached to it at least from a business perspective, the online game.

A game is built on an infrastructure comprises of hardware, software, and network components.

To support the success of the game, the infrastructure needs to be managed.

This is the first approach.

In order to successfully manage the infrastructure used by the game a series of process and procedures are developed.

To make the management of these processes and procedures more effective and efficient, a set of tools are created to support them.

To these tools automation is added, as well as reporting mechanisms for understanding the current condition of the infrastructure.

This set of tools eventually become a suite of applications sued to manage the infrastructure used to support the game.

This is the second approach and does not take into much account the reason for the infrastructure, the game, but rather the processes and procedures for the infrastructure.

Where the distinctions tend to complicate themselves is when the game is actually an application for a specific IT solution, like incident management.

Now you have the incident management application, the infrastructure supporting incident management, and the process and procedures supporting the infrastructure which will include incident management and may in fact be using the same application it’s supporting. 115 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 116 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 15 Using ITIL In Web Applications As mentioned, ITIL is a series of books covering every major topic of IT management.

Since its inception, the library grew to over 30 volumes.

The release of ITIL version 3 consolidated the volumes into five core titles: ? Service Strategy pertain to the processes used to identify market opportunities where services can be developed to meet a requirement.

The key areas of this title are Service Portfolio Management and Financial Management. ? Service Design pertain to all the activities required to develop the strategy in a design document covering every aspect of the propose service.

The key areas of this tile contain Availability Management, Capacity Management, Continuity Management, and Security Management. ? Service Transition pertains to the implementation of the service design and implementation of a production service or modification to an existing service.

The key areas found under this tile are Change Management, Release Management, Configuration Management, and Service Knowledge Management. ? Service Transition pertains to the activities 117 Web Applications – A Complete Guide ? necessary to operate the service and maintain functionality.

Key areas in this title are Incident Management, Problem Management, Request Fulfilment, and Event Management.

Continual Service Improvement pertains to creating the ability to deliver improvements to the existing services.

This title covers the key areas of Service Reporting, Service Measurement, and Service Level Management. ITIL is a management protocol that change IT management from being IT bound to being business bound and is one of the most used Business Driven IT Management (BDIM) tools.

As mentioned, Web services have become another major driver for how business is done.

Cloud computing services for platforms, applications, even storage, have become available to provide a low cost, low maintenance solution to traditional in-house solutions that consume much of a company’s IT budget as well as their overall business finances.

These services are marketed as pay-as-you-use solutions that have the possibility to fit nicely into a company’s IT strategy either to replace or extend the current infrastructure.

Whether a company is looking to utilize one of these services or are providing these services themselves, the opportunity of ITIL is equally important for their focus on effective delivery of IT services.

The problem with applying ITIL principles to the support of web applications is the nature of web application being an interwoven set of 118 Web Applications – A Complete Guide resources, web pages, and services.

The problem escalates the more systems that are tied into the web application.

The underlining problem is based on the concern of who to call when a failure occurs.

With traditional network problems, the application administrator was usually the last person to call, having most incidents being routed to network or server administrators to resolve the applicable network or server problems.

Since many web applications are portals for viewing the results of business logic which may reside in those more traditional systems, the incident routing tables may be more convoluted.

However, with careful planning, the adaption of ITIL to meet the requirements for supporting web applications is both possible and highly advantageous. 15.1 Adapting Service Strategy The Service Strategy is an important aspect of ITIL for companies looking to utilize the web infrastructure to hosting or utilize applications on the web.

The framework focuses on implementing the best practices for developing a long term service strategy.

For enterprises looking to utilize the web, this means identifying the potential benefits to utilizing the web for all or part of their IT strategy.

In cases where it is a transition from a traditional approach to using web services, the decision needs to be made pertaining to the transition period from one approach to the next.

But why would a 119 Web Applications – A Complete Guide company want to take a web approach to deliver IT services.

Most reasons for such a move for into one of three areas: Scalability, Availability, and Cost.

Web services are highly scalable.

This is one of the selling points for the many pay-as-you-go services available on the web.

For using web applications, the company can pay for a single instance of use or multiple instances.

For most business applications, storage is required to house any data that is used with the applications.

The more that application is used, the more storage that is required.

Storage-as-a-service solutions allow companies to define how much storage they need progressively increase their storage as time continues.

The same concept is applied to the data throughput of the network.

Every company will experience spikes in usage every once and while due to increased workloads, new releases, or even effective marketing campaigns.

Web services can scale those increases appropriately to handle those spikes automatically or with prior communication.

One of the primary concerns of companies is the availability of their applications and the data used by those applications.

When of the benefits of using the web is inherent ability to increase availability: anyone can access the web at any time or from any location.

This provides a great advantage for a company because they don’t have to increase their current infrastructure to increase availability.

Additionally, proper implementation of workload balancing, backup and restore, and redundancy procedures can 120 Web Applications – A Complete Guide provide additional assurances to availability.

Typically, these procedures are part of the service, though additional requirements may be available through a custom design.

The greatest benefit of cloud computing solutions is the cost to businesses.

To provide the scalability and availability mentioned, companies traditionally needed to expand their existing infrastructures to provide the physical support required and build traditional fat applications to take over or expand existing software capabilities.

These solutions take on a great cost in time and money for companies.

By utilizing the web, the costs of these solutions are shared with the provider of the service.

In fact, the cost is drastically because the service provider absorbs the buck of the cost with the intention of sharing those portions of the cost with other companies requiring the services.

For the company seeking these services, they simply need to understand what they need and find the service provider who is willing to provide it. 15.2 Adapting Service Design Designing the infrastructure and applications required to provide companies with a solution that works for their needs falls heavily on the service provider, though the customer should have a clear understanding of the process and requirements of IT design.

This is especially true for 121 Web Applications – A Complete Guide regulated industries seeking ITIL compliance.

Simply because they have place the buck of IT concerns on the shoulders of a service provider does not prevent the company from removing themselves from the process.

Service design is particularly interested in all aspects of the architecture, processes, policies, documentation, and requirement handling.

Each of these components have some control in how the entire infrastructure behaves to ensure that it meets the greatest benefit to the customer.

ITIL topics which have oversight to these components are the processes and concepts of Service Catalogue Management, Service Level Management, Capacity Management, IT Service Continuity, Security Management, Supplier Management, and Availability Management.

For service providers, concentration in developing each of these concepts provide a greater understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the service they offer.

It also allows greater flexibility in parsing out the required bandwidth, storage, and server platforms for their customers.

This isn’t just a technical support concern, but a marketing strategy.

Understanding the design of the implemented infrastructure and applications that are being provided allow the sales team the much needed information required to satisfied even the most difficult customer.

Since the remaining disciplines of ITIL fall entirely on the shoulders of the service provider, the topic of service design became the most important topic for the customer.

These are the topics are greatest concern to the basic customer: am I getting the right service, will it meet my 122 Web Applications – A Complete Guide needs, will I have enough capacity, will my data and applications be available, is it all secure? Applying ITIL disciplines serves two purposes.

As a framework for delivering IT services, it provides the concepts and processes that can ensure that every aspect of the offering is working independently sufficient and interdependently with other processes appropriately.

The result is a solution that in theory should consistently meet the requirements of the customer.

This point is theoretical because designs require the proper implementation for it to effectively deliver.

The other purpose for applying ITIL disciplines is essentially a customer service and marketing purpose: customers who are hoping to comply with ITIL standardization require the service providers of their IT technologies to be ITIL.

Three processes are of considerable note: Capacity Management, Availability Management and Service Level Management. 15.2.1 Capacity Management For ensuring that resources are properly optimized and provisioned according to the organizations requirements in a manner that provide a high level of performance and is cost effective, the process of Capacity Management is used.

The high level activities define how applications are sized, workloads are managed, capacity is planned, and resources are managed, as well as performance. 123 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 15.2.2 Availability Management Availability Management is concerned with delivery the highest level of systems availability at a justifiable cost.

In particular, the process attempts to ensure that an IT component performs at a specific level over a period of time as agreed to between customer and supplier.

To maintain availability, the IT department needs to monitor the following points: ? Reliability – how well does the component function under normal and described conditions? ? Maintainability – how well can the component remain in or be restored to its operational state? ? Serviceability – how well can a component be maintained by an external supplier under a third party contract? ? Resilience – how well can the component resist operational failure? ? Security – How well can the component maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability? — ? ? ? expected.

Working with the processes of Availability Management, Capacity Management, Incident Management, and Problem Management to ensure that the quality and effectiveness of the services are being met with the resources agreed with the process of Financial Management.

Production and maintenance a Service Catalogue.

Ensuring that an appropriate IT Service Continuity Plan is in place. 15.3 Adapting Service Transition Service Transition from the ITIL perspective is a series of disciplines that consistent takes design into production.

The topics found within this area consist of Configuration Management, Release Management, Change Management, and Knowledge Management.

In each of these disciplines, the requirement for clear and current information is of utmost concern.

Mapping the distinct parts of the information to each other is similar opportunity for ensuring that cross-process relationships are cemented properly.

Some of the concepts introduced in this area might be difficult to superimpose onto the transition or development of applications.

The governing body over ITIL has seen this difficulty as well and introduced an additional set of best practices for improving the quality of IT software development and support called ITIL Application Management.

With this new discipline is another topic 125 Web Applications – A Complete Guide called Software Asset Management which provides a framework for integrating people, processes, and technology to ensure that software licenses and usage are appropriately tracked, evaluated and managed.

In terms of supporting a web application, the lines can be even more difficult.

Configurations within a web environment provides considerable amounts of virtualization.

The level that is this is done requires a high level of detailed awareness of the environment, an awareness that is completed supported by the ITIL discipline.

Knowledge related to the application and its support is also required and supported.

Where a problem persists is in the area of release management and change management.

The root of the problem is in the nature of applications on the web and the problem is not only a challenge to these disciplines but also a call for greater effort within them.

Many web applications are considered open source solutions: that is that they are presented to the community to use and manipulate as they see fit to provide the functionality and features that are most important to them .In some instances this means that the company owns and supports only the core code: the resources, plugins and API may be developed and owned by third parties.

All of these pieces breakdown to the basic fact: there is very few “releases” of applications and “changes” can be made to the functionality and behaviours of the application without actually “changing” the application.

Unfortunately the 126 Web Applications – A Complete Guide success or failure of these additional “changes” can have an impact on the success and failure on the core applications.

Additionally, some developers have decided to explore what customers really want by adding new functionality to an application every day.

If the new function is used, it remains; if it isn’t, the functionality is removed.

Therefore, clear documentation on the release and changes to the core application code and the “approved” developers of additional code should be meticulously tracked.

Some companies own web applications that are developed and released on cloud platforms that are provided by a third party.

In these cases, the service provider is responsible for the infrastructure and its support of the application.

The company is responsible for the support of the application itself.

For this reason, it behoves the company to adopt processes that support and manage changes to the application as well as its use.

In particular are three processes that require some notice: Release Management, Configuration Management and Change Management. 15.3.1 Release Management Release Management covers the distribution of software without limitation on platform or method of distribution.

The discipline concerns itself with ensuring that the software is properly developed and tested before being introduced to the production environment.

Release management also 127 Web Applications – A Complete Guide — Web Applications – A Complete Guide 15.5 Continual Service Improvement Service Improvement practices are implemented to ensure that IT services are aligned and realigned to the changing needs of the business.

When an IT organization is established, it must decide what services can and will be provided.

The infrastructure, applications, configurations, and processes required to deliver those services are designed and implemented into the environment.

Unfortunately, simply implementing the components for delivering the services is not enough; the organization has to utilize those resources effectively.

Additionally, the requirements the business has its IT support is constantly changing, requiring the services to be revaluated and changed accordingly.

Starting from scratch is not practical, so the goal is to continually apply improvements to the environment to meet and exceed service expectations.

However, continual improvement is not something that happens.

It must be supported by every person within the organization and manage appropriately through well defined goals, processes, procedures, and roles and responsibilities.

Continual improvements for web applications, particularly those that are open source driven, may not lack in the continual improvement aspect but may be lapse in the control of such improvements.

The result may be stringent controls on improvements to the core application code and guidelines to code which is attachable to the application to add features and functionality. 134 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 16 Using the Web to Promote ITIL The technology of the web is very conducive for implementing and monitoring the disciplines of ITIL.

Three types of applications can be built to support the processes: ? Monitoring ? Workflow ? Documentation Libraries ITIL is a standard which to manage the IT environment effectively and efficiently.

A possibility of being evaluated for ITIL compliance adds a certain assurance that the disciplines will be properly implemented.

As a standard, some guarantees are in place.

The first guarantee is that data is available to show how the different aspects of the IT solution are working to meet the service requirements place on them.

The second guarantee is that the processes and its components are clearly defined, including roles and responsibilities and cross process relationships.

The third guarantee is that the required databases are in place to support the IT service.

These guarantees all mention the existence of the components that make up the requirement framework for effective ITIL implementation, but their 135 Web Applications – A Complete Guide existence does not guarantee that the components are being used effectively.

Fortunately with these guarantees in place, the foundation for creating web application around ITIL are also in place.

The first type of application possible is monitoring the services required by the customer.

One of the web technologies for applications is the mashup.

With this technology, three possibilities can be fulfiller: the ability to monitor two or more distinct functions in parallel; the ability to combine the data for two or more distinct functions together to do trend analysis, for instance, combining measurements for availability and capacity to identify the relationship between the two; and the ability to combine the data of two of more distinct functions in a cause and effect relationship, for instance the number of changes that are the result of problems.

The advantage of the mashup for monitoring the IT infrastructure lies in the user interface.

In mashups, the user defines what they want to see in the interface and, ultimately, the interface can be different for each user.

This promotes supporting the diverse responsibilities in business.

For instance, a system administrator will want to see more detail in what they are monitoring than the overview statistics appropriate to an executive manager.

It the same comparison, the system administrator is wants to map data to ensure that the operation is intact, while the executive is looking to map the data to finances.

For each user, how the information is interpreted is just as important 136 Web Applications – A Complete Guide as having the information available and the ability to build their own interface only serves to have the data interpreted in the desire way.

Additionally if the mashup component that allows the data to be interpreted in the desire way does not exist, the development of such a component is made simpler using web technologies.

Even if the system from which the data is retrieved is a traditional non-web implementation, the technologies of the web hold the keys for tapping into these applications and retrieving the data necessary for monitoring.

And the web technologies do not stop there.

If they can be used to retrieve information, they can also be used to enter information into the system.

One of the problems faced in any IT organization is the diverse range of applications in place to ensure that operations are maintained.

These applications are diverse in the languages they use, their handling of data, and their functional purposes.

To have two or more of these applications communicating with each other used to require a bridge that was extensively developed and acting as a third application between the two primary systems.

Web development can create this bridge as a add-on to both applications and maybe even all the applications used within the environment.

In creating these “bridges,” the possibility of creating applications that contribute to workflow management are realized. 137 Web Applications – A Complete Guide Workflow management specifically focuses on moving work through several process and in doing so identifying bottlenecks for work and improvements to the support infrastructure or processes.

For IT support, workflow opportunities are everywhere.

For instance, when a incident happens, a “ticket” is created and routed to the first level of support.

If a resolution cannot be applied at this level, the ticket is routed to the next level of support.

This routing usually involves moving the ticket from one support team’s queue to the next.

Depending on the context of the incident and its severity, further notification may be required.

Furthermore, if the incident is caused by a known error, the resolution may be attached to the ticket for purposes of understanding how often a particular resolution is utilized.

If a the incident is not caused by a known error, then the resolution or workaround will be placed in the ticket when it is found, allowing the database holding all known errors and resolutions to be populated with the new information.

But the workflow doesn’t necessarily end at this point.

If a incident is unresolved, it is now taken over by the problem management process where the problem is diagnosed and a resolution sought out.

Once a resolution is found, the change management process is now initiated to implement the resolution accordingly.

And since all changes are essentially changes to one or more configuration items, the process configuration management process is not evoked to complete the change.

The work can continue depending on the impact of the problem and resolution, but this short 138 Web Applications – A Complete Guide description will suffice.

Essentially, a single ticket can move through the incident management, the problem management, the change management, and the configuration processes.

Unfortunately since the processes are different, the likelihood exists that the databases supporting the processes are different and may not communicate between each other.

Using web technologies, a ticket can be created and based on sufficient checkpoints be automatically routed through the processes, updating the appropriate databases along the way.

Every ticket has specific information that can act as triggers for how it should be handled.

Severity, which describes the potential impact on the business from critical to minor, will require that ticket be handled as a major event even a disaster if the severity is considered critical.

The normal processes for handling incidents are not bypassed, only that additional processes are invoked that run in parallel.

In a critical disruption of service, the technical support teams are still attempting to resolve the incident and potential problem and, at the same time, business management is attempting to minimize the impact of the disruption.

Tracking the activities of both groups may be necessary for ensuring that everything that is being done is communicated and the results can be analysed at a later time.

So not only is workflow necessary but some capability around collaboration.

Web applications have already shown some success in build components that allow successful collaboration. 139 Web Applications – A Complete Guide Finally, a number of databases exist within the IT support environment with the goal of supporting the processes.

Each of these databases serve a specific purpose and are typically assigned to a specific process.

For instance, the Configuration Management Database is assigned to the process called configuration management.

Change records are housed in a change management database that is assigned to change management.

Known errors are stored in their own database and assign to both the incident management and problem management processes.

These databases usually consist of information that is similar and as such have relationships that are not usually exploited by a service organization.

Web application development can create a solution that can assist in establishing their relationships, retrieving the information from several databases to compile into a single record and updating the databases when new information is created.

However simply connecting databases and displaying the results are not the only advantages available using the web for documentation purposes.

First of all, the web has always been a documentation centric technology, using hyperlinks as a way to holistically apply relationships inherent with information.

With the advent of Web 2.0 technologies, the area of document management are advanced with blogs and wikis.

A combination of the two provide a method to distribute technical support information through subscriptions and encourage obtaining technical information from every person supporting IT.

What if change management was essentially a blog with forms and 140 Web Applications – A Complete Guide the reviewers and approvers could cater their subscriptions to allow only different types of changes? What if the Known Error database was a wiki that fed the problem management database and vice versa; so that resolutions would be readily available depending on the problem description or the wiki could be updated and refined where no resolution was found.

The benefits attributed to any web application are present with applications designed to promote ITIL.

Tapping into the collective intelligence of the entire technical support group provides the foundation for collaboration during and in between incidents.

In traditional support architectures, the different levels of support are distinct and often uncommunicative.

This is typically due to the skill set difference and the organization of the department.

Tapping into the collective intelligence provides an opportunity to not only communicate information but seek out information when knowledge is not known or published.

The object is to create a richer set of support knowledge to understand the application and the customer better. 141 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 142 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 17 Hosting Applications on the Web Applications on the web insinuate that some hosting is required.

There are a couple of avenues available to developers who have web applications.

Of course, the very first avenue is to provide the hosting environment themselves but this can be a very costly endeavor simply in purchasing the server, storage and necessary components to successfully host on the web.

In addition, the developer has to be concerned with the costs and benefits of hosting the application within the development lab.

The Second avenue is to find a service provider that has the infrastructure in place to host the application.

Several new businesses are now available who provide such infrastructures as a service.

These services cost the developer only what they used, as the infrastructures are typically built to farm out resources to multiple companies with the same desire: to host their application.

Unfortunately, some of these service providers will only host the application in production.

Development must still be done separate from the hosting environment.

Still other service providers provide the opportunity to host the application during development and the customer has to find another hosting environment for production. 143 Web Applications – A Complete Guide — 153 Web Applications – A Complete Guide Perfetti, Christine.

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Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AJAX Wikipedia.


Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITIL 156 Web Applications – A Complete Guide INDEX* A ability 14, 19, 21-2, 32, 41-3, 52-3, 55, 67, 72, 83, 87, 105-6, 110, 136-7, 144-5, 151 [3] ActionScript 64 Adapt ITIL to Distributed Web Applications 155 adaptability 41, 76 Adapting ITIL to Distributed Web Applications 155 Adapting Service Design 4, 121 Adapting Service Operation 5, 130 Adapting Service Strategy 4, 119 Adapting Service Transition 4, 125 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) 9 Ajax 61-2, 144 Ajax application 62 Ajax engine 62 Ajax paradigm 61-2 AJAX technologies 45 Amazon 30, 35-7 anomalies 133 ANSI 69 APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) 49, 53, 58, 75, 109, 126, 129, 151 Apple 43-4 applets 45, 49, 72 application administrator 119 application architecture 91 application code 68, 128 application component 145 application design 145, 152 application developer 59, 145 application developers share 132 application development 8, 125 increased 23 rapid 77 application development projects 145 application engine 59 Application Frameworks 57, 63 application installation 110 application instance 23 application layers 91 application load 66 157 Web Applications – A Complete Guide Application Offerings 113 Application Programming Interfaces, see APIs application usage 133 applications 7-8, 17-18, 21-3, 43-9, 51-3, 57-61, 65-6, 73-4, 90-4, 108-11, 113-15, 118-23, 125-32, 134-7, 143-4, 147-9 [19] based 82 building 65 common 32 desktop 26, 109, 147 developing 61 efficient run-time 69 embedded third party 145 enterprise scale 46 graphical 77 incident management 115 interview 48 iTunes 44 legacy 40 mashup 55 multiple 7, 49, 151 new 71, 92 non-browser 111 non-web 18 popular 17 resident 9 robust 46 server 9 server-based 147 software 18, 74 standalone 48 third 137 traditional 28 traditional client/server 68 traditional desktop 19, 48, 110 traditional distributed 145 traditional fat 121 web-based 47 web-delivered 51 ? Communication 18 applications development projects 145 Applying Web Application Development 4 Applying Web Application Development to Business Practices 105 architecture 93, 98, 122, 151 ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) 9 158 Web Applications – A Complete Guide ARPAnet 10-12 ASP.NET 3, 65-6 ASP.NET applications 67 assets 52, 129 attributes 84, 129 availability 41, 92, 113, 120-1, 124-5, 136, 149, 151 Availability Management 4, 117, 122, 124 Availability Management and Service Level Management avenues 143 123 — 163 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 97, 103, 113, 119, 123 [4] most 58-9, 81 functionality 17, 39, 52, 64, 68-9, 74, 94, 101, 108, 110, 118, 1267, 134, 151 functions 48, 57, 65, 67, 82, 91, 103, 107, 127-8 distinct 136 first-class 74, 76 G game 18, 115 General Markup Language (GML) 83 General User Interfaces (GUIs) 8, 68 GML (General Markup Language) 83 Google 26-7, 35-8, 45, 78 governments 21, 36, 84, 86, 113 graphics 16, 72, 83, 87 Groovy 3, 70-1, 154 growth 18, 34, 38-9, 90 guarantees 135-6 GUIs (General User Interfaces) 8, 68 H hardware 13, 21, 73, 75, 115 Hessian 98 host 71-2, 143-4 hosting 119, 143-4 Hosting Applications 5, 143 hosting environment 143 hub 48, 153 human languages 11, 86 hyper texting 12-14 hyperlinks 13-14, 29, 140 hypertext 13, 15-16, 156 I IDE (Individual Development Environment) 144 images 14-15, 99, 102 implementations 28, 53, 63, 69, 91, 103, 117, 120, 123, 128, 152 improvements 37, 39, 64, 118, 134, 138 continuous 39-40 incident management 5, 115, 118, 125, 130-1, 139-40 incidents 131-3, 138-9, 141 indexing, common enterprise systems xf0b7 File 68 Indiana University Information Technology Services 153 164 Web Applications – A Complete Guide Individual Development Environment (IDE) 144 industry 37, 40, 84 information security 78 information 9-10, 13-14, 16, 28-9, 35-7, 42, 48, 52-5, 58-9, 62, 86, 92-3, 102-3, 107, 125, 136-41 [6] information management system 14 Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) 9-10 information provider 42 Information Technology Infrastructure Library, see ITIL infrastructure 22, 31, 102, 107, 109, 113-15, 118, 120-2, 127, 1301, 134, 136, 143 innovation 21, 42, 44, 51, 74, 147, 151-2 instant 44 integration 54-5, 100 intelligence 3, 29, 32 collective 3, 26, 29-32, 34, 141, 151 interaction 16, 35, 48, 62, 90 interface 11, 48, 55, 65, 76-7, 93, 108, 111, 124, 136-7, 151 International Standards Organization (ISO) 83 Internet 3, 8-9, 12-13, 15-18, 21, 25, 33-4, 36, 38, 41, 43-5, 48, 85, 100-2, 110-11, 148-9 [6] Internet and World Wide Web 147-8 Internet applications 35, 64 Internet companies 30-1, 38, 89 Internet platform 94 Internet Protocol (IP) 97 Internet protocol, popular 15 Internet protocols, standard 92 Internet users 13 interoperability 74, 129 interview type applications request information 48 Introducing Applications 7 introduction 8, 12-13, 15, 17, 30, 44-5, 62, 72, 85 introduction of Web 25 Introduction to Enterprise Mashups 154 Introduction to Web Services Protocols 97 Introduction Web Application Framework 3 invaluable information 32 inventory 53 investments 37 IP (Internet Protocol) 97 IPTO (Information Processing Technology Office) 9-10 ISO (International Standards Organization) 83 ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) 5, 113-14, 165 Web Applications – A Complete Guide 117-19, 123, 125, 135-6, 141, 156 ITIL Application Management 125 iTunes 18, 35, 44 J Java 3, 45, 69-72, 74, 81, 89, 101, 154 Java and Java-compatible languages 70 Java applications 72-3 Java bytecode 72-3 Java-compatible applications ? 70 Java EE application 68 Java frameworks 60 Java platform 71, 154 Java programming language 71 Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 72 Java Virtual Machine, see JVM JavaScript 16, 45, 62, 74-5 JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) 62, 99 JavaServer Pages 67 JRE (Java Runtime Environment) 72 JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) 62, 99 JVM (Java Virtual Machine) 71-4 K key areas 117-18 keywords 28, 31, 78 knowledge 32, 93, 126, 141, 144, 151 L language 14, 63-4, 70-6, 78-80, 83, 85-6, 99, 102, 137 layers, governance 55 level 17-18, 35, 41, 48, 60, 70, 105, 124, 126, 130, 138, 141 high 71, 123, 126 level of influence 81 leverage customer self-service 27 Lichleder 10 lightweight 3, 26, 36, 40, 75, 99 links 11, 13, 15, 30, 32-4, 99 permanent 33 return 34 Lisp 69, 76, 79 location 23, 37, 49, 51, 93, 102, 106, 120, 129, 144, 148-9 remote 90, 102 long term service strategy 119 166 Web Applications – A Complete Guide Lua 3, 75 M machine 7, 72, 107, 147 single 7 management 51, 82, 113-15, 117-18, 125 mapping facilities 59 MapQuest 18, 36 market 8, 18, 23, 30, 32, 36-7, 40, 46, 73, 102, 108, 113 markup languages 4, 83, 87 mashups 3, 36, 49, 51-5, 136, 151, 154 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 16 matter 18, 22, 28, 39, 51 media 30, 32, 36-7 mediation layer 53 merge 107-8 metadata, external 53 methodologies 113 micro-applications 52 Microsoft 26, 36, 39, 45, 65, 67 Minimal disruption of services 130 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 16 models 29, 39, 80, 109 modes 66-7 monitor 124, 136 monitoring 131, 135-7 Mosaic 15 Most applications 8, 73 movies 30, 44 N National Centre for Supercomputing Applications 15 National Science Foundation 11 NCP (Network Control Program) 11, 155 NET and Sun Microsystems’ JavaServer Pages 77 Netflix 44 Netscape 16, 26, 45 Network Control Program (NCP) 11, 155 network problems 91 networks 10-13, 21, 89, 93, 99, 119-20, 149 hundred 12 traditional 148-9 New Success for Web Applications in AJAX 61 New World 25 167 Web Applications – A Complete Guide


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