4 What is ITIL®?

ITIL4 What is ITIL®?

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For users of Internet Explorer 7 a solution involves DESELECTING “Allow active content to run files on my computer” in Internet Explorer –>Tools, Options, Advanced, Security settings. 5 ©Emereo Learning Contents 1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 1.1 The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 Figure 1.A – Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8 1.2 Benefits of ITSM …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 1.3 Business and IT Alignment…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 1.4 What is ITIL®? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12 1.4.1 Good practices …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13 2.1 What are Services? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16 2.2 Processes & Functions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17 2.2.1 Defining Processes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17 2.2.2 Defining Functions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19 2.2.3 RACI Model ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20 3 The Service Lifecycle ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..22 3.1 Mapping the Concepts of ITIL® to the Service Lifecycle……………………………………………………………………….24 3.2 How does the Service Lifecycle work? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….25 4 Service Strategy……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..27 4.2 Benefits of Service Strategy ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27 4.3 Major Concepts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29 4.3.1 Creating Service Value ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29 4.34 Risk ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33 4.3.5 The Service Portfolio ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34 4.4 Service Strategy Processes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36 4.4.2 Demand Management……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………39 4.5 Service Strategy Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..46 5.1 Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………52 5.2 Major Concepts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53 5.2.1 Service Design Packages ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53 5.3 Service Design Processes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54 5.3.1 Service Level Management ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54 5.3.2 Supplier Management ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………61 5.3.3 Service Catalog Management ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….66 5.3.4 Capacity Management……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………70 5.3.5 Availability Management ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….75 5.4 Service Design Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..93 5.5 Service Design Scenario…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….93 ©Emereo Learning 6 6 Service Transition …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..98 6.1 Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………98 6.2 Service Transition Processes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..99 6.2.1 Knowledge Management ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………99 6.2.3 Change Management …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 109 6.2.4 Release and Deployment Management …………………………………………………………………………………………… 119 6.3 Service Transition Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126 6.4 Service Transition Scenario ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127 6.5 Service Transition Review Questions……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 128 7 Service Operation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131 7.1 Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131 7.2 Major Concepts ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132 7.3 Service Operation Functions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134 7.3.1 The Service Desk ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 135 7.3.2 Technical Management ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142 7.3.4 Application Management …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146 7.4 Service Operation Processes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148 7.4.1 Event Management……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149 7.4.2 Incident Management ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152 7.4.4 Request Fulfillment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169 7.4.5 Access Management……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171 7.5 Service Operation Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174 7.6 Service Operation Scenario …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175 7.7 Service Operation Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176 8 Continual Service Improvement ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179 8.1 Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179 8.2 Major Concepts ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 180 8.2.1 The Continual Service Improvement Model ……………………………………………………………………………………. 180 8.2.2 Relationships within the Service Lifecycle:………………………………………………………………………………………. 182 8.2.3 The Deming Cycle ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 182 8.2.4 IT Governance ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184 8.3 Continual Service Improvement Processes ………………………………………………………………………………………… 185 8.3.1 Service Measurement and Reporting……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185 8.5 Continual Service Improvement Scenario ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188 8.6 Continual Service Improvement Review Questions ………………………………………………………………………….. 189 9 ITIL® Foundation Exam Tips ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 190 10 Answers for review questions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191 10.1 Service Strategy …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 191 7 ©Emereo Learning 10.2 Service Design ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194 10.3 Service Transition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197 10.4 Service Operation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 200 10.5 Continual Service Improvement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203 11 Glossary……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205 12 Certification ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214 12.1 ITIL® Certification Pathways ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214 12.2 ISO/IEC 20000 Pathways ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215 13 Index ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 216 ©Emereo Learning 8 1 Introduction Looking back on a year where corporate giants fell and government bailouts were measured in the billions, the challenges faced by a typical IT Service Provider may seem of low priority.

But now that IT budgets have come under more financial scrutiny than ever before, the value provided by managing IT with controlled, repeatable and measurable processes has become all the more obvious.

So for the modern Chief Information Officer (CIO), employing quality IT Service Management (ITSM) practices can often help in achieving a quality sleep each night.

The term IT Service Management is used in many ways by different management frameworks and the organizations that seek to use them.

While there are variations across these different sources of guidance, common elements for defining ITSM include: • Description of the processes required to deliver and support IT Services for customers. • A focus on delivering and supporting the technology or products needed by the business to meet key organizational objectives or goals. • Definition of roles and responsibilities for the people involved including IT staff, customers and other stakeholders involved. • The management of external suppliers (partners) involved in the delivery and support of the technology and products being delivered and supported by IT.

The combination of these elements provide the capabilities required for an IT organization to deliver and support quality IT Services that meet specific business needs and requirements.

The official ITIL® definition of IT Service Management is found within the Service Design volume (page 11), describing ITSM as “A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services”.

These organizational capabilities are influenced by the needs and requirements of customers, the culture that exists within the service organization and the intangible nature of the output and intermediate products of IT services.

However IT Service Management comprises more than just these capabilities alone, being complemented by an industry of professional practice and wealth of knowledge, experience and skills.

The ITIL® framework has developed as a major source of good practice in Service Management and is used by organizations worldwide to establish and improve their ITSM practices. 9 — Our Business: A fashion store What are some of our organization’s objectives or strategic goals? • We want to increase profits by 15% each year • We want to have a good image and reputation, with a loyal customer base.

What Business Processes aid in achieving those objectives? • Retail/sales • Marketing • Manufacturing • Procurement, HR, finance etc.

What IT Services are these business processes dependent on? • Web sites (internal and external) • Communication services (email, video conferencing) • Automatic procurement system for buying products • Point of Sale Services. Figure 1.B – Business and IT Alignment We have ITSM in order to make sure the IT Services are: • What we need (Service Level Management, Capacity Management etc.) • Available when we need it (Availability Management, Incident Management etc.) • Provisioned cost-effectively (Financial Management, Service Level Management) If we don’t manage the IT Services appropriately we cannot rely on these services to be available when we need.

If too many disruptions occur, we cannot adequately support our business processes effectively and efficiently.

If the business processes are operating as they should, we will ultimately fail to support and achieve our overall organization’s objectives! 13 ©Emereo Learning Also note the relationship between IT Service Management processes and the technical activities below.

Used properly, ITSM processes can optimize the time, effort and other resources spent performing technical activities, ensuring that all staff actions are working in accordance to agreed business priorities and objectives.

This is just a simple example used to illustrate the relationship between ITSM and the organization.

Any approach used to improve ITSM practices should always be carefully considered to ensure that the plans suit the organization, in terms of: • • • • Size (number of staff, customers, IT devices etc.) Geographical dispersion Culture and ethos Current maturity and capability levels. 1.4 What is ITIL®? ITIL® stands for the Information Technology Infrastructure Library.

ITIL® is the international de facto management framework describing “good practices” for IT Service Management.

The ITIL® framework evolved from the UK government’s efforts during the 1980s to document how successful organizations approached service management.

By the early 1990s they had produced a large collection of books documenting the “best practices” for IT Service Management.

This library was eventually entitled the IT Infrastructure Library.

The Office of Government Commerce in the UK continues to operate as the trademark owner of ITIL®.

ITIL® has gone through several evolutions and was most recently refreshed with the release of version 3 in 2007.

Through these evolutions the scope of practices documented has increased in order to stay current with the continued maturity of the IT industry and meet the needs and requirements of the ITSM professional community.

ITIL® is only one of many sources for ITSM good practices, and should be used to complement any other set of practices being used by an organization.

Five volumes make up the IT Infrastructure Library (Version 3). • Service Strategy • Service Design • Service Transition • Service Operation ©Emereo Learning 14 • Continual Service Improvement. Each volume provides the guidance necessary for an integrated approach, and addresses capabilities’ direct impact on a service provider’s performance.

The structure of the ITIL framework is that of the service lifecycle.

It ensures organizations are able to leverage capabilities in one area for learning and improvements in others.

The framework is used to provide structure, stability and strength to service management capabilities with durable principles, methods and tools.

This enables service providers to protect investments and provide the necessary basis for measurement, learning and improvement.

In addition to the core publications there is also ITIL Complimentary Guidance.

This consists of a complimentary set of publications with guidance specific to industry sectors, organization types, operating models and technology architectures.

At present, this complimentary guidance is available by subscription from http://www.bestpracticelive.com. 1.4.1 Good practices Ignoring public frameworks and standards can needlessly place an organization at a disadvantage.organizations should seek to cultivate their own proprietary knowledge on top of a body of knowledge developed from using public frameworks and standards.

Public frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, CMMI etc.): Frameworks are scaled and adapted by the organization when implemented, rather than following a prescriptive set of practices (standards).

Examples of public frameworks for ITSM include: • ITIL ®. • COBIT – The Control Objectives for Information and related Technology. • Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) for IT Services.

Standards: Usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices.

Unlike frameworks, they are prescriptive in declaring mandatory elements that must be demonstrated.

Examples of standards relating to ITSM are: • ISO/IEC 20000 – International Standard for IT Service Management. • ISO/IEC 27001 – International Standard for Information Security Management Systems.

Proprietary knowledge of organizations and individuals: Specific expertise developed for internal purposes, or developed in order to sell to other organizations (EG Gartner).

Generally good practices are defined as those formalized as a result of being successful in wideindustry use. 15 ©Emereo Learning 2 Common Terminology Critical to our ability to participate with and apply the concepts from the ITIL® framework is the need to be able to speak a common language with other IT staff, customers, end-users and other involved stakeholders.

This chapter documents the important common terminology that is used throughout the ITIL® framework.

Care should be taken when attempting the ITIL Foundation exam, as there will be a number of questions that seek to ensure the candidate has an effective grasp of the terminology used throughout the framework.

Terminology IT Service Management: Capabilities: Explanations A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services.

The ability of an organization, person, process, application, CI or IT service to carry out an activity.

Capabilities can be described as the functions and processes utilized to manage services.

These are intangible assets of an organization that cannot be purchased, but must be developed and matured over time.

The ITSM set of organizational capabilities aims to enable the effective and efficient delivery of services to customers.

A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure, people, money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service.

Resources are also considered to be tangible assets of an organization.

A set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders.

Processes are strategic assets when they create competitive advantage and market differentiation.

They may define roles, responsibilities, tools, management controls, policies, standards, guidelines, activities and work instructions if they are needed. Resources:

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