47 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www

ITIL 47 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www

References [1] David Clifford, Jan van Bon (2008).

Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap.

ITSM Library.

Van Haren Publishing.

ISBN 908753082X. [2] Office of Government Commerce (UK) CCTA and OGC (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ index.


Retrieved May 5, 2005. [3] Office of Government Commerce (UK) (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ guidance_itil.


Retrieved August 19, 2009. [4] Office of Government Commerce (2000).

Service Support.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300158. [5] Office of Government Commerce (2001).

Service Delivery.

IT Infrastructure Library.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300174. [6] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

ICT Infrastructure Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308655. [7] Cazemier, Jacques A.; Overbeek, Paul L.; Peters, Louk M. (2000).

Security Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 011330014X. [8] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Application Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308663. [9] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Planning to Implement Service Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308779. [10] Office of Government Commerce (2005).

ITIL Small Scale Implementation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113309805. [11] http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ itil_ogc_withdrawal_of_itil_version2.

Asp [12] Majid Iqbal and Michael Nieves (2007).

ITIL Service Strategy.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310456. [13] Vernon Lloyd and Colin Rudd (2007).

ITIL Service Design.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310470. Information Technology Infrastructure Library [14] Shirley Lacy and Ivor Macfarlane (2007).

ITIL Service Transition.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310487. [15] David Cannon and David Wheeldon (2007).

ITIL Service Operation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310463. [16] George Spalding and Gary Case (2007).

ITIL Continual Service Improvement.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310494. [17] http:/ / wiki.


It-processmaps.com/ index.

Php/ Service_Portfolio_Management [18] http:/ / wiki.


It-processmaps.com/ index.

Php/ Financial_Management [19] http:/ / www.itskeptic.org/ free-itil [20] http:/ / www.nationalarchives.


Uk/ doc/ open-government-licence/ open-government-licence.

Htm [21] Meyer, Dean, 2005. “Beneath the Buzz: ITIL” (http:/ / web.

Archive.org/ web/ 20050404165524/ http:/ / www.cio.com/ leadership/ buzz/ column.

Html?ID=4186), CIO Magazine, March 31, 2005 [22] Survey: “The ITIL Experience – Has It Been Worth It”, author Bruton Consultancy 2004, published by Helpdesk Institute Europe, The Helpdesk and IT Support Show, and Hornbill Software. [23] Microsoft Operations Framework; Cross Reference ITIL V3 and MOF 4.0 (http:/ / go.

Microsoft.com/ fwlink/ ?LinkId=151991).

Microsoft Corporation.

May 2009. . [24] http:/ / www.thefitsfoundation.org [25] Van Bon, Jan; Verheijen, Tieneke (2006), Frameworks for IT Management (http:/ / books.

Google.com/ books?id=RV3jQ16F1_cC), Van Haren Publishing, ISBN 9789077212905, [26] http:/ / www.itsmsolutions.com/ newsletters/ DITYvol2iss3.

Htm [27] ISACA (2008), COBIT Mapping: Mapping of ITIL V3 With COBIT 4.1 (http:/ / www.isaca.org/ Knowledge-Center/ Research/ ResearchDeliverables/ Pages/ COBIT-Mapping-Mapping-of-ITIL-V3-With-COBIT-4-1.

Aspx), ITGI, ISBN 9781604200355, [28] Brooks, Peter (2006), Metrics for IT Service Management (http:/ / books.

Google.com/ books?id=UeWDivqKcm0C), Van Haren Publishing, pp. 76–77, ISBN 9789077212691, [29] Morreale, Patricia A.; Terplan, Kornel (2009), “ Matching ITIL to eTOM” (http:/ / books.

Google.com/ books?id=VEp0aMmH3iQC), CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications, Second Edition (2 ed.), CRC Press, ISBN 9781420078008, [30] APMG (2008). “ITIL Service Management Practices: V3 Qualifications Scheme” (http:/ / www.itil-officialsite.com/ nmsruntime/ saveasdialog.

Asp?lID=572& sID=86). .

Retrieved 24 February 2009. [31] “EXIN Exams” (http:/ / www.exin-exams.com/ ).

EXIN Exams. .

Retrieved 2010-01-14. [32] “ISEB Professionals Qualifications, Training, Careers BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT” (http:/ / www.bcs.org/ server.

Php?show=nav. 5732).

BCS. .

Retrieved 2010-01-14. [33] http:/ / www.peoplecert.org [34] http:/ / www.apmgroupltd.com/ [35] Office of Government Commerce (2006). “Best Practice portfolio: new contracts awarded for publishing and accreditation services” (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ About_OGC_news_4906.

Asp). .

Retrieved 19 September 2006. [36] http:/ / www.apmgroup.


Uk/ ITILSCRquery.

Asp [37] http:/ / www.certification-register.org/ [38] Office of Government Commerce (2008). “Best Management Practice: ITIL V3 and ISO/IEC 20000” (http:/ / www.best-management-practice.com/ gempdf/ ITIL_and_ISO_20000_March08.

Pdf). .

Retrieved 24 February 2009. 47 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www.itil-officialsite.com/home/home.asp) • The OGC website (http://www.ogc.gov.uk/) Software engineering 48 Software engineering Software engineering (SE) is a profession dedicated to designing, implementing, and modifying software so that it is of higher quality, more affordable, maintainable, and faster to build.

It is a “systematic approach to the analysis, design, assessment, implementation, test, maintenance and reengineering of software, that is, the application of engineering to software.” [1] The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference, and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived The Airbus A380 uses a substantial amount of software to create a “paperless” “software crisis” at the time.[2] [3] The IEEE cockpit.computer Society’s Software Engineering Body of Knowledge defines “software engineering” as the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software.[4] It is the application of Engineering to software because it integrates significant mathematics, computer science and practices whose origins are in Engineering.[5] Software development, a much used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm.

Although it is questionable what impact it has had on actual software development over the last more than 40 years,[6] [7] the field’s future looks bright according to Money Magazine and Salary.com [8], which rated “software engineer” as the best job in the United States in 2006.[9] History When the first modern digital computers appeared in the early 1940s,[10] the instructions to make them operate were wired into the machine.

Practitioners quickly realized that this design was not flexible and came up with the “stored program architecture” or von Neumann architecture.

Thus the first division between “hardware” and “software” began with abstraction being used to deal with the complexity of computing.

Programming languages started to appear in the 1950s and this was also another major step in abstraction.

Major languages such as Fortran, ALGOL, and COBOL were released in the late 1950s to deal with scientific, algorithmic, and business problems respectively.


Dijkstra wrote his seminal paper, “Go To Statement Considered Harmful”,[11] in 1968 and David Parnas introduced the key concept of modularity and information hiding in 1972[12] to help programmers deal with the ever increasing complexity of software systems.

A software system for managing the hardware called an operating system was also introduced, most notably by Unix in 1969.

In 1967, the Simula language introduced the object-oriented programming paradigm.

These advances in software were met with more advances in computer hardware.

In the mid 1970s, the microcomputer was introduced, making it economical for hobbyists to obtain a computer and write software for it.

This in turn led to the now famous Personal Computer (PC) and Microsoft Windows.

The Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC was also starting to appear as a consensus for centralized construction of software in the mid 1980s.

The late 1970s and early 1980s saw the introduction of several new Simula-inspired object-oriented programming languages, including Smalltalk, Objective-C, and C++. Software engineering Open-source software started to appear in the early 90s in the form of Linux and other software introducing the “bazaar” or decentralized style of constructing software.[13] Then the World Wide Web and the popularization of the Internet hit in the mid 90s, changing the engineering of software once again.

Distributed systems gained sway as a way to design systems, and the Java programming language was introduced with its own virtual machine as another step in abstraction.

Programmers collaborated and wrote the Agile Manifesto, which favored more lightweight processes to create cheaper and more timely software.

The current definition of software engineering is still being debated by practitioners today as they struggle to come up with ways to produce software that is “cheaper, better, faster”.

Cost reduction has been a primary focus of the IT industry since the 1990s.

Total cost of ownership represents the costs of more than just acquisition.

It includes things like productivity impediments, upkeep efforts, and resources needed to support infrastructure. 49

Read more about 47 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www:

Accredited ITIL Foundation, Intermediate and Expert Certifications

Accredited ITIL Foundation, Intermediate and Expert Certifications, Learn more about ITIL HERE:

ITIL and     47    External links  • Official ITIL Website (http://www

ITIL - 47 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www

ITIL and     47    External links  • Official ITIL Website (http://www

ITIL - 47 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www