ITIL : Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library ITIL Das folgende Glossar wurde….

ITILITIL : Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library ITIL Das folgende Glossar wurde….

Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Das folgende Glossar wurde aus einigen Büchern der ITIL zusammengetragen.

Die Beschreibungen sind über die einzelnen Bücher der ITIL nicht konsistent beibehalten worden.

Dies ist u.a.

aus den unterschiedlichen Erstellungsdaten und Überarbeitungsintervallen zu begründen.

Sofern es Abweichungen gegeben hat, sind im folgenden die einzelnen Begriffe auch mehrfach genannt.

Der Arbeitskreis Service Management wird in den kommenden Monaten dieses Glossar durch Aufnahme weiterer, insbesondere wissenschaftlicher Quellen ausbauen und soweit möglich übersetzen.

Falls Ihnen Definitionen und Quellen bekannt sind, die in dieses Glossar aufgenommen werden sollten, bitten wir um Benachrichtigung unter berndholtz@gmx.de.

Weitere Informationen zum Arbeitskreis Service Management finden Sie unter www.koelnnet.com/aksm und www.gi-ev.de.

Stichwort Absorbed overhead Originaltext Overhead which, by means of absorption rates, is included in costs of specific products or saleable services, in a given period of time.

Under or over-absorbed overhead.

The difference between overhead cost incurred and overhead cost absorbed: it may be split into its two constituent parts for cost control purposes.

A principle whereby fixed as well as variable costs are allotted to cost units and total overheads are absorbed according to activity level.

The term may be applied where production costs only, or costs of all functions are so allotted.

The time during which a particular IT service or system is agreed to be available, ideally as defined in the Service Level Agreement.

A warning that an incident has occurred Quelle [Cost Management] Absorption costing [Cost Management]; [Management & Marketing] [Availability Management] Agreed service time — Alert Allocated cost Apportioned cost [Help Desk]; [Problem Management] A cost that can be directly identified with a business [Cost unit.

Management] A cost that is shared by a number of business units (an [Cost indirect cost).

This cost must be shared out between Management] these units on an equitable basis.

GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 1 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Asynchronous / synchronous Asynchronous in a communications sense is the ability [Capacity to transmit each character as a self-contained unit of Management] information, without additional timing information.

This method of transmitting data is sometimes called start / stop.

Synchronous working involves the use of timing information to allow transmission of data, which is normally done in blocks.

Synchronous transmission is usually more efficient than the asynchronous method.

Ability of a component or service to perform is required [Service function at a state instant or over a stated period of a Support] time.

It is usually expressed as the availability ratio, i.e.

the proportion of time that the service is actually available for use by the customers within the agreed service hours.

In this module, availability is an umbrella term to also [Availability include serviceability, resilience, reliability and Management] maintainability.

A common definition of availability is shown below.

The ability of a component or IT service (under combined aspects of its reliability, maintainability and maintenance support) to perform is required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of a time.

It is usually expressed as the availability ratio, i.e.

the proportion of time that the service is actually available for use by the customers within the agreed service time.

This calculated as follows: (agreed service time downtime) / agreed service time The ability of a component or a service to perform its [Security required function at a stated instant or over a stated Management] period of a time.

A snapshot of the state of a CI and any component CIs, [Configuration frozen at a point in time for a particular purpose.

Management]; [Software Control and Distribution] The security level adopted by the IT organization for its own security and from the point of view of good “due diligence”.

A Bridge is equipment and techniques used to match circuits to each other ensuring minimum transmission impairment.

The final stage in producing a usable configuration.

The process involves taking one or more input Configuration Items and processing them (building them) to create one or more output Configuration Items e.g.

software compile and load.

[Security Management] [Capacity Management] [Service Support] Availability Availability Availability Baseline Baseline Security — Build environment see live build environment and test build environment [Software Control and Distribution] GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 2 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Business Operations Business unit CAB CAB/EC Categorization [Help Desk]; [Problem Management] Category Classification of a group of Configuration Items, Change [Service documents or Problems.

Support] CC88 CCTA Rules for tendering and general conditions of [Help Desk] contract covering services and supply for IT systems.

Change The addition, modification or removal of approved, [Service supported or baselined hardware, network, software, Support] application, environment, system, desktop build or associated documentation.

Change Advisory Board A group of people who can give expert advice to [Service Change Management on the implementation of Support] Changes.

This board is likely to be made up of representatives from all areas within IT and representatives from business units.

Change Advisory Board A representative group of people who are responsible [Problem for assessing, from both a business and a technical Management] viewpoint, all requests for change (RFCs).

They advise on the priorities of RFCs and propose allocations of resources to implement those changes.

Change authority A group that is given the authority to approve Change, [Service e.g.

by a project board.

Sometimes referred to as the Support] Configuration Board.

Change control The procedure to ensure that all Changes are [Service controlled, including the submission, analysis, decision Support] making, approval, implementation and post implementation of the Change.

Change document Request for Change, Change control form, Change [Service order, Change record.

Support] Change history Auditable information that records, for example, what [Service was done, when it was done, by whom and why.

Support] Change log A log of Requests for Change raised during a project, [Service showing information on each Change, its evaluation, Support] what decisions have been made and its current status, e.g.

raised, reviewed, approved, implemented, or closed.

Change Management Process of controlling Changes to the infrastructure or [Service any aspect of service, in a controlled manner, enabling Support] approved Changes with minimum disruption.

Activities and procedures carried out by the user community in performing the business role of a Organization.

This module is concerned with those business operations that use an IT-based business system.

A segment of the business entity by which both revenues are received and expenditure are caused or controlled, such revenues and expenditure being used to evaluate segmental performance.

Change Advisory Board Change Advisory Board / Executive Committee See Incident Categorization [Help Desk] [Cost Management] GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 3 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Change Management Change Record a process of identifying and defining the configuration items in a system, recording and reporting the status of configuration items and requests for change, and verifying the completeness and correctness of configuration items.

A record containing details of which CIs are affected by an authorized change (planned or implemented) and how.

[Problem Management] Channel Charging [Configuration Management]; [Software Control and Distribution]; [Service Support] Channel is the physical connection from CPU to an I/O [Capacity device, usually a controller, or indeed another CPU.

Management] The process of establishing charges in respect of business units, and raising the relevant invoices for recovery from customers.

Configuration Item [Cost Management] [Configuration Management]; [Help Desk] [Help Desk] [Service Support] CI — See Incident Classification Process of formally grouping Configuration Items by type, e.g.

software, hardware, documentation, environment, application.

Process of formally identifying Changes by type e.g.

project scope Change request, validation Change request, infrastructure Change request.

Process of formally identifying Incidents, Problems and Known Errors by origin, symptoms and cause.

When the Customer is satisfied that the incident has been resolved.

Configuration Management Database Contractually Maintained Hardware A software tool for programmers.

It provides help in the planning, analysis, design and documentation of computer software.

Configuration of a product or system established at e specific point in time, which captures both the structure and details of that product or system, and enables that product or system to rebuilt at later date.

A snapshot or a position which is recorded.

Although the position may be updated later, the baseline remains unchanged and available as a reference of the original state and as a comparison against the current position (PRINCE2).

[Service Support] [Service Support] [Service Support] GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 4 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Configuration control Activities comprising the control of changes to [Service configuration items after formally establishing its Support] configuration documents.

It includes the evaluation, coordination, approval or rejection of Changes.

The implementation of Changes includes changes, deviations and waivers that impact on the configuration.

Configuration documentation Documents that define requirements, system design, [Service build, production, and verification for a Configuration Support] Item.

Configuration Activities that determine the product structure, the [Service identification selection of Configuration Items, and the documentation Support] of the Configuration Item’s physical and functional characteristics, including interfaces and subsequent Changes.

It includes the allocation of identification characters or numbers to the Configuration Items and their documents.

It also includes the unique numbering of configuration control forms associated with Changes and Problems.

Configuration Item A component of an IT infrastructure – or an item, such [Configuration as a request for change, associated with an IT Management]; infrastructure- which is (or is to be) under the control of [Software configuration management.

CIs may vary widely in Control and complexity, size and type – from an entire system Distribution]; (including all hardware, software and documentation) to [Service a single module or a minor hardware component.

(Abk.: Support]; CI) [Problem Management] Configuration Item A component of an IT Infrastructure, normally the [Help Desk]; smallest unit that can be changed independently of [Change other components.

CIs may vary widely in complexity, Management] size and type, from an entire system (including all hardware, software and documentation) to a single program module or a minor hardware component.

Configuration Item (CI) A component of an IT infrastructure – or an item, such [Security as a request for change, associated with an IT Management] infrastructure- which is (or is to be) under the control of configuration and asset management.

CIs may vary widely in complexity, size and type – from an entire system (including all hardware, software and documentation) to a single module or a minor hardware component.

(Abk.: CI) Configuration The process of identifying and defining the configuration [Help Desk]; Management items in a system, recording and reporting the status of [Change configuration items and requests for change, and Management]; verifying the completeness and correctness of [Problem configuration items.

Management]; [Service Support] Configuration A database which contains details about the attributes [Software Management Database and the history of each CI and details of the important Control and relationships between CIs.

Distribution] GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 5 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Configuration A database that contains all relevant details of each CI [Service Management Database and details of the important relationships between CIs.

Support] Configuration Management plan Document setting out the organization and procedures for the Configuration Management of a specific product, project, system, support group or service.

Configuration A software product providing automatic support for Management tool Change, Configuration or version control.

Configuration structure A hierarchy of all the CIs that comprise a configuration.

Cost Cost Management [Service Support] [Service Support] [Service Support] The amount of expenditure (actual or notional) incurred [Cost on, or attributable to, a specific activity or business unit.

Management] Cost Unit Costing Customer Customer Data transfer time DBMS Definitive Software Library The term used in this module to describe all the [Cost procedures, tasks and deliverables that are needed to Management] fulfil an organization’s costing and charging requirements.

In the context of CSBC the cost unit is a functional cost [Cost unit which establishes standard cost per workload Management] element of activity, based on calculated activity ratios converted to cost ratios.

The process of identifying the costs of the business and [Cost of breaking them down and relating them to the various Management] activities of the organization.

Recipient of a service; usually the Customer [Service management has responsibility for the cost of the Support]; service, either directly through charging or indirectly in [Security terms of demonstrable business need.

Management] The recipient of the IT service; usually the customer will [Service Level have responsibility for the cost of the IT service, either Management] directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business needs.

Data transfer time is the length of time taken for a block [Capacity or sector of data to be read from or written to an I/O Management] device, such as a disk or tape.

Database Management System The library in which the definitive authorized versions of [Service all software CIs are stored and protected.

It is a physical Support] library or storage repository where master copies of software versions are placed.

This one logical storage area may in reality consists of one ore more physical software libraries or filestores.

They should be separate from development and test filestore areas.

The DSL may also include a physical store to hold master copies of bought-in software, e.g.

a fireproof safe.

Only authorized software should be accepted into the DSL, strictly controlled by Change and Release Management.

The DSL exists not directly because of the needs of the Configuration Management process, but as a common base for the Release Management and Configuration Management process.

GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 6 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Definitive Software Library Delta release Delta Release Depreciation Differential charging Direct Cost Discounted cash flow Discounting Disk cache controller A library where all quality-controlled versions of all [Configuration software configuration items (CIs) are held in their Management] definitive form.

(Abk.: DSL) A release that replaces all component CIs of a release [Software unit, but rather includes only those CIs that have Control and changed since the last version of the software.

Distribution] A Delta, or partial, Release is one that includes only [Service those CIs within the Release unit that have actually Support] changed or are new since the last full or Delta Release.

For example, if the Release unit is the program, a Delta Release contains only those modules that have changed, or are new, since the last full release of the program or the last Delta Release of certain modules.

See also “Full Release”.

Depreciation is the loss in value of an asset due to its [Cost use and / or the passage of time.

The annual Management] depreciation charge accounts represents the amount of capital assets used up in the accounting period.

It is charged in the cost accounts to ensure that the cost of capital equipment is reflected in the unit costs of the services provided using the equipment.

There are various methods of calculating depreciation for the period, but the Treasury usually recommend the use of current cost asset valuation as the basis for the depreciation charge.

Charging business customers different rates for the [Cost same work, typically to dampen demand or to generate Management] revenue for spare capacity.

This can also be used to encourage off-peak or night time running.

A cost which is incurred for, and can be traced in full to [Cost a product, service, cost center or department.

This is an Management] allocated cost.

Direct costs are direct materials, direct wages and direct expenses.

An evaluation of the future net cash flows generated by [Cost an capital project, by discounting them to their present- Management] day value.

The two methods most commonly used are: a) yield method, for which the calculation determines the internal rate of return (IRR) in the form of a percentage, b) net present value (NPV) method, in which the discount rate is chosen and the answer is a sum of money.

Discounting is the offering to business customers of [Cost reduced rates for the use of off-peak resources (see Management] also Purchasing).

Disk cache controllers have memory which is used to [Capacity store blocks of data which have been read from the disk Management] devices connected to them.

If a subsequent I/O requires a record which is still resident in the cache memory, it will be picked up from there, thus saving another physical I/O.

GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 7 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Domain DSL Duplex Duplex (full or half) Echoing EIFIT Elements of cost [Help Desk]; [Problem Management] Definitive Software Library; see there [Configuration Management] Duplex equipment provides two, usually identical, IT [Availability components each of which is capable of performing the Management] full task if the other fail.

Full duplex line / channel allows simultaneous [Capacity transmission in both directions.

Half duplex line / Management] channel is capable of transmitting in both directions, but only in one direction at a time.

Echoing is a reflection of the transmitted signal from the [Capacity receiving end, a visual method of error detection in Management] which the signal from the originating device is looped back to that device so that it can be displayed.

Environmental Infrastructure for Information Technology The constituent parts of costs according to the factors [Cost upon which expenditure is incurred viz, materials, labor Management] and expenses.

see User [Service Support] A collection of hardware, software, network [Service communications and procedures that work together to Support] provide a discrete type of computer service.

There may be one or more environments on a physical platform e.g.

test, production.

An environment has unique features and characteristics that dictate how they are administered in similar, yet diverse, manners.

see Known error [Problem Management] The process of identifying, recording, classification and [Problem progressing known errors; includes the resolution Management]; phase, until successful implementation of an [Help Desk] amendment or replacement CI is confirmed.

See Super User [Service Support] One of the measures against which a delivered IT [Service Level service is compared, expressed in terms of the Management] customer’s business.

The termination of the ability of a function unit to [Availability perform its required function.

Management] A condition that causes a functional unit to fail to [Availability perform the required function.

Management] The financial year is an accounting period covering 12 [Cost consecutive months.

In the public sector this financial Management] year will generally coincide with the fiscal year which runs from 1 April to 31 March.

See IT infrastructure domain — Error Error Control Expert User External target Failure Fault Financial year GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 8 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Forward Schedule of Change Full Cost Full release Full Release Gateway Hard charging A schedule that contains details of all the Changes [Service approved for implementation and their proposed Support] implementation dates.

It should be agreed with the Customers and the business, Service Level Management, the Service Desk and Availability Management.

Once agreed, the Service Desk should communicate to the User community at large any planned additional downtime arising from implementation the Changes, using the most effective methods available.

Full cost is the total cost of all the resources used in [Cost supplying a service i.e.

the sum of the direct costs of Management] producing the output, a proportional share of overhead costs and any selling and distribution expenses.

Both cash costs and notional (non-cash) costs should be included, including the cost of capital.

A release that replaces all components of a release [Software unit, regardless of whether or not they have changed Control and since the last version of the software.

Distribution] All components of the Release unit that are built, tested, [Service distributed and implemented together.

See also Delta Support] release.

A gateway is equipment which is used to interface [Capacity networks so that a terminal on one network can Management] communicate with services or a terminal on another.

Descriptive of a situation where, within an organization, [Service Level actual funds are transferred from the customer to the IT Management] directorate in payment for the delivery of IT services.

Hard faults describe the situation in a virtual memory [Capacity system when the required page of code or data, which a Management] program was using, has been redeployed by the operating system for some other purpose.

This means that another piece of memory must be found to accommodate the code or data, and will involve physical reading / writing of pages to the page file.

The single point of contact within the IT directorate for [Service Level users of IT services.

Management] A host computer comprises the central hardware and [Capacity software resources of a computer complex, e.g.

CPU, Management] memory, channels, disk and magnetic tape I/O subsystems plus operating and applications software.

The term is used to denote all non-network items.

Measure of the business criticality of an Incident.

Often [Service equal to the extent to which an Incident leads to Support] distortion of agreed or expected service levels.

See Incident Impact Code [Help Desk] A simple code assigned to incidents, showing the extent [Problem of deterioration in normal user service levels.

It is the Management] major means of assigning priority for dealing with incidents.

— Help Desk Host Impact Impact Code Impact Code GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 9 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Incident Incident An operational event which is not part of the standard [Help Desk] operation system.

It will have an impact on the system, although this may be slight and may even be transparent to users.

Any event that is not part of the standard operation of a [Service service and that causes, or may cause, an interruption Support] to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service.

An operational event which is not part of the standard [Problem operation of a system.

It will have an impact on the Management], system, although this may be slight and may even be [Service level transparent to users.

Management] Incident An event which is not part of the normal operation of an [Availability IT service.

It will have an impact on the service, Management] although this may be slight and may even be transparent to customers.

Incident Any event which is not part of the normal operation of a [Security system.

It will have an impact on the system, although Management] this may be slight and may be even transparent to users.

Incident Categorization A sub-division of Classification (q.v.), which provides a [Problem means of identifying the root cause of incidents, Management]; problems and known errors using a structured code.

[Help Desk] The category code is an element within the classification data string (see Incident Classification) and is essential for fault analysis purposes.

Incident Classification The process of formally identifying incidents, problems [Help Desk] and known errors by origin, symptoms and cause.

The classification data string is an essential part of the incident record for automated matching of new incidents against the problems / known errors database.

Incident Control The process of identifying, recording, classification and [Problem progressing incidents until affected services return to Management] normal operation.

Collection of data to identify causes of incidents is a secondary objective, although this may be necessary to effect incident resolution.

The process of identifying, recording, classification and [Security progressing incidents until affected services return to Management] normal operation.

A single point of contact with the service enterprise for [Security end-users of services.

This functional group is often Management] referred to as a service desk.

Its core process is normally incident management.

A simple code assigned to incidents, showing the extent [Help Desk] of deterioration in normal user service levels.

It is the major means of assigning priority for dealing with incidents.

A record containing details of an unexpected incident [Configuration affecting or deviating from the normal operation of an IT Management] infrastructure.

Incident Incident Control Incident Control / Help Desk Incident Impact Code Incident Record GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 10 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Indirect cost An indirect cost is a cost incurred in the course of [Cost making a product, providing a service or running a cost Management] center or department, but which cannot be traced directly and in full to the product, service or department, because it has been incurred for a number of cost centers or cost units.

These costs are apportioned to cost centers / cost units.

Indirect costs are also referred to as overheads.

Interface Physical or functional interaction at the boundary [Service between Configuration Items.

Support] Internal target One of the measures against which supporting [Service Level processes for the IT service are compared.

Usually Management] expressed in technical terms relating directly to the underpinning service being measured.

Inventory Impact Code A subset of Configuration Management that focuses on [Help Desk] the management (control and financial accounting) of hardware Configuration Items throughout the IT infrastructure.

IR Incident Report ISO 9001 The internationally accepted set of standards [Service Level concerning quality management systems.

Management] IT Information Technology IT directorate That part of an organization charged with developing [Service Level and delivering the IT services.

Management] IT Infrastructure The sum of an organization’s IT related hardware, [Security software, data telecommunication facilities, procedures Management] and documentation.

IT Infrastructure domain A logical means of dividing the overall IT infrastructure [Problem into components of related functionality.

There are three Management]; physical domains – mainframe, network and (end) user.

[Help Desk] In this context the “mainframe” domain may include mini-computers.

The (end) user domain covers terminals and local processors to which end user have everyday physical access and over which they have some degree of direct control.

IT service A set of related functions provided by IT systems in [Availability support of one or more business areas, which in turn Management] may be made up of software, hardware and communications facilities, perceived by the customer as a coherent and self-contained entity.

An IT service may range from access to a single application, such as a general ledger system, to a complex set of facilities including many applications, as well as office automation, that might be spread across a number of hardware and software platforms.

IT service A described set of facilities, IT and non-IT, supported by [Security the IT service provider that fulfils one or more needs of Management] the customer and that is perceived by the customer as a coherent whole.

IT Service Provider The role of IT service provider is performed by any [Security organizational units, whether internal or external, that Management] deliver and support IT services to a customer.

GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 11 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) ITEC ITPS Key Performance Indicator Known Error Known error Known Error Record Known error report Latency Life-Cycle Live build environment — Logical I/O Maintainability IT Executive Committee IT Planning Secretariat The measurable quantities against which specific [Security performance criteria can be set when drawing up the Management] SLA.

An Incident or Problem for which the root cause is [Service known and for which a temporary Work-around or a Support] permanent alternative has been identified.

If a business case exists, an RFC will be raised, but, in any event, it remains a known error unless it is permanently fixed by a Change.

A condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root [Problem cause of a problem when it is confirmed that a CI is at Management]; fault.

[Help Desk]; [Security Management] A record of a condition identified by successful [Configuration diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, indicating that Management] an IT infrastructure component (a CI) is at fault.

A form or screen which formally records a deviation [Problem from specification, as a consequence of identifying a Management] known error during Problem Management.

Latency describes the elapsed time from the moment [Capacity when a seek was completed on a disk device to the Management] point when the required data is positioned under the read / write heads.

Latency is normally defined by manufacturers as being half the disk rotation time.

A series of states connected by allowable transitions.

[Service The life cycle represents an approval process for Support] Configuration Items, Problem Reports and Change documents.

A computer system or discrete part of a computer [Software system (made up of hardware and system software), Control and which is used to build software releases for live use.

Distribution] A computer system or discrete part of a computer [Software system (made up of hardware and system software), Control and which is used to run software that is in live use, and Distribution] sometimes to build software releases for live use.

Logical I/O is a read or write request by a program.

That [Capacity request may, or may not, necessitate a physical I/O.

For Management] example, on a read request, the required record may already be in a memory buffer and therefore a physical I/O will not be necessary.

The ability of a component or IT Service, under stated [Availability conditions of use, to be retained in, or restored to, a Management] state in which it can perform its required functions, when maintenance is performed under stated conditions and using prescribed procedures and resources.

GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 12 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Marginal cost Mirrored Disks / Disk shadowing MTBF The variable cost of producing one extra unit of product [Cost or service.

That is, the cost which would have been Management] avoided if the unit / service was not produced / provided.

Duplicated disks for concurrent updating – see also [Availability duplex.

Management] Mean Time Between Failures [Availability The average elapsed time from the time an IT service or Management] component is fully restored until the next occurrence of a failure in the same service or component.

A shorter definition could be “expected lifetime”.

Mean Time Between Incidents The average elapsed time between the occurrence of one failure, and the next failure of a system.

Mean Time To Repair The average elapsed time from the occurrence of an incident to resolution of the incident.

Multiplexers divide data channels into two or more independent fixed data channels of lower speed.

An internal agreement covering the delivery of services which support the IT directorate in their delivery of services.

Internal agreements covering the delivery of services which support the services enterprise in their delivery of services.

This combination in one physical location of Computer Operations, Network Control and the Help Desk.

[Availability Management] [Availability Management] [Capacity Management] [Service Level Management] [Security Management] MTBSI MTTR Multiplexer Operational level agreement Operational Level Agreements Operations bridge Opportunity cost — Package Release Package release Page fault [Problem Management]; [Help Desk] (or true cost) The value of a benefit sacrificed in favor of [Cost an alternative course of action.

That is the cost of using Management] resources in a particular operation expressed in terms of foregoing the benefit that could be derived from the best alternative use of those resources.

The total of indirect materials, wages and expenses.

[Cost Management] A package assembly / disassembly device permits [Capacity terminals which do not have an interface suitable for Management] direct connection to a packet switched network to access such a network.

A PAD converts data to / from packets and handles call set-up and addressing.

A package of new or changed software CIs which are [Configuration released together into the test and subsequently live Management] environment.

A release that includes a package of software CIs that [Software are introduced into the test, and subsequently the live, Control and environment together.

Distribution] A set of software CIs which are tested and introduced [Problem into the live environment together.

Management] A program interruption which occurs when a page that [Capacity is marked “not in real memory” is referred to by an Management] active page.

GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 13 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Paging PD0005 Percentage utilization Paging is the I/O necessary to read and write to and from the paging disks: real (not virtual) memory is needed to process data .

With insufficient real memory, the operating system writes old pages to disk, and reads new pages from disk, so that the required data and instructions are in real memory.

Alternative title for the BSI publication A Code of Practice for IT Service Management.

Percentage utilization describes the amount of time that a hardware device is busy over a given period of time.

For example, if the CPU is busy for 1800 seconds in a hour period, its utilization is said to be 50%.

[Capacity Management] [Service Support] [Capacity Management] Performance Criteria Phantom line error — PRINCE PRINCE2 Priority Problem Problem The expected levels of achievement which are set [Security within the SLA against specific Key Performance Management] Indicators.

A phantom line error is a communications error reported [Capacity by a computer system which is not detected by network Management] monitoring equipment.

It is often caused by changes to the circuits and network equipment (e.g.

re-routing circuits at the physical level on a backbone network) while data communications is in progress.

Physical I/O means that a read or write request from a [Capacity program has necessitated a physical read or write Management] operation on an I/O device.

Problem Report The total cost of direct materials, direct labor and direct [Cost expenses.

The term prime cost is commonly restricted Management] to direct production costs only and so does not customarily include direct costs of marketing or research and development.

The standard government method for project [Change management.

Management] The standard UK government method for project [Service management.

Support] Sequence in which an Incident or Problem needs to be [Service resolved, based on impact and urgency.

Support] The underlying cause of multiple occurrences of [Change incidents; also, a serious incident.

Management] [Service Support]; [Security Management] A condition identified from multiple incidents exhibiting [Problem common symptoms, or from a single significant incident, Management]; indicative of a single error, for which the cause is [Help Desk] unknown.

Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents.

Problem GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 14 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Problem Control Problem Management Problem Manager The process of identifying, recording, classification and [Problem progressing problems through investigation and Management]; diagnosis until either “known errors” status is achieved [Help Desk] or an alternative procedural reason for the “problem” is revealed.

A generic term to identify the combined processes of [Problem incident, problem and error control, complemented by Management]; the utilization of associated management information.

[Help Desk] The primary objective is to make sure services are stable, timely and accurate.

The problem Manager is charged with assisting [Problem Computer Operations, Network Control and the Help Management] Desk, when required, with incident control, to help ensure optimum service levels.

The Problem Manager is also responsible for problem / error control, assisted as necessary by specialist support groups.

The Problem Management staff are responsible for the Problem Management support system and are the primary users of its problem / known error subsystems.

A record of a condition identified from a single significant incident or from multiple incidents exhibiting common symptoms indicative of a single error, for which the cause is unknown.

A form, or screen, containing detail of problems with any component of an IT Infrastructure or any aspect of the IT service.

[Configuration Management] Problem Record Problem Report [Change Management] — Release Release A connected series of actions, activities, Changes etc.

[Service performed by agents with the intent of satisfying a Support] purpose or achieving goal.

A series of actions or operations designed to achieve an [Security end.

Management] The process of planning and regulating, with the [Service objective of performing a process in an effective and Support] efficient way.

Queuing time is incurred when the device, which a [Capacity program wishes to use, is already busy.

The program Management] will therefore have to wait in a queue to obtain service from that device.

A new and/or changed CI which is advanced for use at [Configuration a later stage in the lifecycle (e.g.

development to test, Management] test to live).

A software CI which is introduced into the test, and [Software subsequently the live, environment.

In most cases the Control and release will also include documentation and possibly Distribution] hardware as well.

A collection of new and/or changed configuration items [Change Management] which are tested and introduced into the live environment together.

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Oktober 2000 Seite 15 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Release Release Record Release record A collection of new and/or changed CIs which are tested and introduced into the live environment together.

A record containing details of which CIs are affected by a release (planned or implemented) and how.

A record containing details of which CIs are affected by a release (planned or implemented) and how.

[Service Support] Release unit [Configuration Management] [Software Control and Distribution] The ´level´ or ´complexity´ at which software of a given [Software type, or a particular software item, is normally released Control and into the test and live environments – for example, a full Distribution] TP system; a suite; a program; a single module.

The ability of a component or IT Service to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time.

(See also, the mean time between failures – q.v.) A form or screen, used to record details of a request for a change to any CI within an IT infrastructure or to procedures and items associated with the IT infrastructure.

[Availability Management] Reliability — Resolution Resource cost Resource profile A form or screen, used to record details of a request for [Problem change to any component of an IT Infrastructure or any Management] aspect of IT services.

The capability of a set of configuration items (CIs) to [Availability continue to provide a required function when some CIs Management] in the set have suffered a failure.

Action that will resolve an Incident.

This may be a Work- [Service around.

Support] This term is used to describe the amount of machine [Capacity resource that a given task will consume.

This resource Management] is usually expressed in seconds for the CPU or the number of I/Os for a disk or tape device.

Resource profile describes the total resource costs [Capacity which are consumed by an individual online transaction, Management] batch job or program.

It is usually expressed in terms of CPU seconds, number of I/Os and memory usage.

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Oktober 2000 Seite 16 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Resource unit costs Resource unit may be calculated on a standard cost [Cost basis to identify the expected (standard) cost for using a Management] particular resource.

Because computer resources come in many shapes and forms, units have to be established by logical groupings.

Examples are: CPU time or instructions disk I/Os print lines communication transactions.

The term resources refers to the means the IT Services [Cost section needs to provide the customers with the Management] required services.

The resources are typically computer and related equipment, software, facilities or organizational (people).

Request For Change; see there [Configuration Management] A set of responsibilities, activities and authorizations.

[Service Support] RIRO is a term which is used on some systems to [Capacity describe swapping.

Management] RPS is a facility which is employed on most mainframes [Capacity and some minicomputers.

When a seek has been Management] initiated the system can free the path from a device to a controller for use by another disc drive, while it is waiting for the required data to come under the read / write heads (latency).

This facility usually improves the overall performance of the I/O subsystem.

Software Control and Distribution The process of managing a defined level of security on information and services.

The Security Manager is the role that is responsible for the Security Management process in the service provider organization.

The person is responsible for fulfilling the security demands as specified in the SLA, either directly or through delegation by the Service Level Manager.

The Security Officer and the Security Manager work closely together.

The Security Officer is responsible for assessing the business risks and setting the security policy.

As such, this role is the counterpart of the Security Manager and resides in the customer’s business organization.

The Security Officer and the Security Manager work closely together.

Seek time occurs when the disc read / write heads are not positioned on the required track.

It describes the elapsed time taken to move heads to the right track.

[Security Management] [Security Management] Resources RFC Role Roll in roll out (RIRO) Rotational Position Sensing SC&D Security Management Security Manager Security Officer [Security Management] — [Capacity Management] Segregation of duties Separation of the management or execution of certain [Security duties or of areas of responsibility is required in order to Management] prevent and reduce opportunities for unauthorized modification or misuse of data or service.

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Oktober 2000 Seite 17 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Service achievement The actual service levels delivered by the IT directorate [Service Level to a customer within a defined time-span.

Management] Service catalogue Written statement of IT services, default levels and [Service Level options.

Management] Service improvement A formal project undertaken within an organization to [Service Level program identify and introduce measurable improvements within Management] a specified work area or, work process.

Service Level The expression of an aspect of a service in definitive [Security and quantifiable terms.

Management] Service Level A written agreement between a service provider and [Service Agreement Customer(s) that documents agreed service levels for a Support] service.

Service level agreement Written agreement between an IT service provider and [Service Level the customer that documents agreed service levels for Management] an IT service.

Service Level A written agreement or “contract” between the [Availability Agreement customers and the IT provider which documents the Management] agreed service levels for an IT service.

Typically it will cover: service hours, service availability, customer support levels, throughputs and terminal response time, restrictions, functionality and the service levels to be provided in a contingency.

It may also include security and accounting policy.

Service Level A formal agreement between the customer(s) and the IT [Security Agreement service provider specifying service levels and the terms Management] under which a service or a package of services is provided to the customers(s).

Service level The process of defining, agreeing, documenting and [Service Level management managing the levels of customer IT service, that are Management] required and cost justified.

Service Level A statement of service levels required by a customer [Availability Requirement (see also Service Level Agreement).

Management] Service quality plan The written plan and specification of internal targets [Service Level designed to guarantee the agreed service levels.

Management] Service Request Every Incident not being a failure in the IT [Service Infrastructure.

Support] Serviceability The contractual conditions with suppliers covering the [Availability availability of, and the conditions under which the Management] contractual conditions are valid for, a CI or system.

Services Services are the deliverables of the IT Services section [Cost as perceived by the customers; the services do not Management] consist customers to use.

Severity Code A simple code assigned to problems and known error, [Problem indicating the seriousness of their effect on the quality Management] of IT service.

It is the major means of assigning priority for resolution.

GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 18 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Simulation modeling Simulation modeling, as the name implies, employs a [Capacity program which simulates computer processing by Management] describing in detail the path of a job or transaction.

It can give extremely accurate results.

Unfortunately, it demands a great deal of time and effort from the modeler.

It is most beneficial in extremely large or time critical systems where the margin for error is very small.

[Capacity Management] Soft fault A soft fault describes the situation in a virtual memory system when the operating system has detected that a page of code or data was due to be reused, i.e.

it is on a list of “free” pages, but it is still actually in memory.

It is now rescued and put back into service.

Software Configuration As “Configuration Item”, excluding hardware and Item services.

Software Environment Software used to support the application, such as operating system.

Database management system, development tools, compilers, and application software.

Software Library A controlled collection of Software Configuration Items designated to keep those with like status and type together and segregated from unlike, to aid in development, operation and maintenance.

Software work is a generic term devised to represent a common base on which all calculations for workload usage and IT resource capacity are then based.

A unit of software work for I/O type equipment equals the number of bytes transferred; and for central processors it is based on the product of power and CPU-time.

[Service Support] [Service Support] [Service Support] Software work unit [Cost Management] — Standard cost Standard costing [Cost Management] GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 19 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Storage occupancy Storage occupancy is a defined measurement unit that [Cost is used for storage type equipment to measure usage: Management] the unit value equals the number of bytes stored.

A single occurrence of deviation from the specification of an IT infrastructure component or an aspect of IT service.

A form, or a screen, containing details of incidents involving any component of an IT infrastructure or any aspect of the IT service.

[Change Management] [Change Management] Incident Incident Report Super User In some organizations it is common to use “expert” [Service Users (commonly known as Super, or Expert, Users) to Support] deal with first-line support problems and queries.

This is typically in specific application areas, or geographical locations, where there is not the requirement for fulltime support staff.

This valuable resource needs, however, to be carefully coordinated and utilized.

Surcharging is charging business users a premium rate [Cost for using resources at peak times.

Management] The reaction of the operating system to insufficient real [Capacity memory: swapping occurs when too many tasks are Management] perceived to be competing for limited resources.

It is the physical movement of an address space may be moved at one time from main storage to auxiliary storage).

Surcharging Swapping An integrated composite that consists of one or more of [Service the processes, hardware, software, facilities and Support] people, that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective.

Terminal emulation Terminal emulation is achieved by software running on [Capacity an intelligent device , typically a PC or workstation, Management] which allows that device to function as an interactive terminal connected to a host system.

Examples of such emulation software includes IBM 3270 BSC or SNA, ISL C03, or Digital VT100.

Terminal I/O Terminal I/O is a read from, or a write to, an online [Capacity device such as a VDU or remote printer.

Management] Test build environment A computer system or discrete part of a computer [Software system (made up of hardware and system software), Control and which is used to build software releases for operational Distribution] acceptance testing.

Test environment A computer system or discrete part of a computer [Software system (made up of hardware and system software), Control and which is used to run, and sometimes to build, software Distribution] releases for operational acceptance testing.

Trashing A condition in a virtual storage system where an [Capacity excessive proportion of CPU time is spent moving data Management] between main and auxiliary storage.

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Oktober 2000 Seite 20 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Tree structures Threshold Underpinning contract Unit costs In data structures, a series of connected nodes without cycles.

One node is termed the root and is the starting point of all paths, other nodes termed leaves terminate the paths.

It can be used to present hierarchical structures.

A pre-determined limit to the number of incidents attributable to a single problem or known error, or to the time for which an incident, problem or known error is outstanding, at which escalation procedures are invoked.

A contract with an external supplier covering delivery of services that support the IT directorate in their delivery of services.

Unit costs are costs distributed over individual component usage to establish the unit cost.

For example, it can be assumed, that if a box of paper with 1,000 sheets costs 10 pounds, the obviously one sheet costs 1 pence.

Similarly if a CPU costs 1 million pounds a year and it is used to process 1,000 jobs that year, each job costs on average 1,000 pounds.

Measure of the business criticality of an Incident or Problem based on the impact and on the business needs of the Customer.

The person who uses the services on a day-to-day basis.

A cost center for the provision of support services to other cost centers.

A variance is the difference between planned, budgeted, or standard cost and actual cost (or revenues).

Variance analysis is an analysis of the factors which have caused the difference between the pre-determined standards and the actual results.

Variances can be developed specifically related to the operations carried out in addition to those mentioned above.

A CI that has the same basic functionality as another CI, but is different in some small way.

[Capacity Management] [Problem Management] — Variant Version [Configuration Management] An identified instance of a Configuration item within a [Service product breakdown structure or configuration structure Support] for the purpose of tracking and auditing change history.

Also used for software Configuration Items to define a specific identification released in development for drafting, review or modification, test or production.

Version Identifier A version number; version date; or version date and [Service date stamp.

Support] Virtual memory system Virtual memory systems were developed to increase the [Capacity size of memory by adding an auxiliary storage layer Management] which resides on disk.

VSI VSI (virtual storage interrupt) is an ICL VME term for a [Capacity page fault.

Management] GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 21 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Waterline Work-around Workloads WORM [Service Level Management] Method of avoiding an Incident or Problem, either from [Service a temporary fix or from a technique that means the Support] Customer is not reliant on a particular aspect of a service that is known to have a problem.

Workloads in the context of Capacity Management [Capacity Modeling, are a set of forecasts which detail the Management] estimated resource usage over agreed planning horizons.

Workloads generally represent discrete business applications and can be further sub-divided into types of work (interactive, timesharing, batch).

WORM or CD-WORM is the term which is frequently [Capacity used to describe optical read only disks, standing for Management] write once read many.

The lowest level of detail relevant to the customer.

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Oktober 2000 Seite 22 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Quellen [Availability Management] Availability Management ISBN 0 11 330551 6 Norwich 1999, 9.

Auflage [Capacity Management] Capacity Management ISBN 0 11 330544 3 Norwich 1999, 7.

Auflage [Change Management] Change Management ISBN 0 11 330525 7 Norwich 1999, 11.

Auflage [Configuration Management] Configuration Management ISBN 0 11 330530 3 10.

Auflage, Norwich 1999 [Contingency Management] Contingency Management ISBN 0 11 330524 9 Norwich 1999, 11.

Auflage [Cost Management] Cost Management ISBN 0 11 330547 8 Norwich 1999, 9.

Auflage [Help Desk] Help Desk ISBN 0 11 330522 2 Norwich 1997 [Problem Management] Problem Management ISBN 0 11 330527 0 Norwich 1999, 11.

Auflage [Security Management] Security Management ISBN 0 11 330014 X Norwich 1999, 1.

Auflage [Service Level Management] Service Level Management ISBN 0 11 330691 1 Norwich 1999, 3.

Auflage GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 23 von 24 Glossar der IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) [Service Support] Service Support ISBN 0 11 330015 8 Norwich 2000, 1.

Auflage [Software Control and Distribution] Software Control and Distribution ISBN 0 11 330537 0 Norwich 1999, 9.

Auflage GI e.V., Arbeitskreis 5.1.1 Service Management Stand: 22.

Oktober 2000 Seite 24 von 24

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