A Broader Look at the Definition of Change Management We know that Change Management, by its very name, involves management of changes.
They occur within an organizational setting, meaning changes do not occur in a vacuum.
There are certain elements that come into play when a Change Management process is introduced into a firm.
These are called Functions, Goals, Resources, Environment, and Principles.
Functions refers to the purpose of the project, or what products or services are expected to be produced by the company, should the project be successful.
Any project has to serve a specific purpose (function) or else it’s meaningless.
Goals refers to the specific change(s) that the project aims to put into play, or set in place.
It differs from function in that a function would be the reason the project exists, while a goal would be the objective that the project aims to accomplish.
Resources are defined as the scalability and capacity of the project.
Will it succeed as it is currently designed? Or are there other elements that have to be tweaked first before the project can accomplish its goals and fulfill its function? Environment refers to the elements in the surroundings of the firm, or perhaps the components of the organization itself, which may be influenced by the project outcome.
Since the change management project does not exist in a vacuum, the environment may in turn also affect the project. 37 Principles is concerned with function in a way, since it tries to foresee whether the functions will be affected in any way.
You can say a basic principle of a change management project is that it should not hamper the function(s) in any manner, or else we can say the principle of the project has been violated somehow. 38 The Change Management of ITIL The main objective of the Change Management of ITIL is to make sure that the standard methods and processes are used for the efficiency and on-time handling of the changes implemented to reduce the impact of the problems related to the change done to the quality of the service of the organization.
The plan for the set up and the ongoing strategy for Change Management in a particular organization helps support the entire IT service management infrastructure.
The Change Management also support or limit the success of the other processes of ITIL.
To make sure that the supply of the IT services are efficient, it is important that the change is managed, monitored, and controlled in a systematic way.
This will help reduce undue disturbances to the IT services that are delivered to the customer.
The Request For Changes or RFC can be developed to correct any fault in the IT infrastructure that was identified in the process of managing problems.
Change Management has the full responsibility for managing, monitoring and controlling the way that the change is planned, initiated, assessed, scheduled and implemented.
The scope of Change Management includes but is not limited to the components of the information technology infrastructure like the software, hardware, and the documentation.
Another scope of Change Management is the IT services or the Service Level Agreements (SLA), and lastly, the organizations of the IT service including the organizational structures and its procedures.
The Change Management within the organization must be ITIL compliant and must also help to support different and complex options of the organization’s workflow.
This is to achieve its goal to improve the everyday operations of the organization. 39 The Model for Change Management Change management aims at bringing better results that those currently experienced.
In change management, one realizes that there are better ways of performing effectively, and at the same time cope with client’s expectations.
To implement change, come up with a model.
There are various change management models, the most commonly used is ADKAR.
It’s for individual change management, and was developed by Prosci with input from 1000 organizations from 59 countries.
It describes the building blocks necessary for individual change to be successful, and it includes: Awareness – the business organization identifies exactly why there is a need to change.
Management should have a clear and valid reason for coming up with a change program, and be able to identity how, when and where the change is to occur. • Desire – the enthusiasm of supporting and participating in the change.
This is also called harnessing support.
Identifying the stakeholders for the change and knowing if senior management supports the change. • Knowledge – the information necessary to know how to implement change.
To find out whether the change plan is sufficiently scoped and resources are adequate. • Ability – the skills needed to implement the new skills and behaviors.
Ensuring that focus is given on both soft and technical skills. • Reinforcement – the capacity to sustain change.
The performance and success results should be reported.
There is a need for a communication plan to be de- 40 veloped so that everybody is informed and aware of what is going on.
Change management model is a tool to carry out change within an organization.
Guided by the model, there is no reason for change management to be ineffective. 41 The Roots of Change Management Theory Change Management Theory has its roots in different fields; namely, engineering, business and psychology.
That is why change management is applied in different ways in different disciplines.
If we talk about Individual Change Management, that refers to changing the behavior of an individual (such as to stop smoking or drinking.) Change Management in business pertains to changing technology and/or a business process.
When applied on a societal level, Change Management refers to creating new laws or government policies to initiate societal changes.
Regardless of how Change Management is to be applied or where, Change Management Theory operates on five key principles: • • The first is that people display different reactions to change, since each person is a unique individual.
Second, all people have basic needs that they aim to satisfy, regardless of who they are or what their occupation is.
Third, for every change initiated, the person or entity will have to lose something for the change to be successful.
Fourth, people have different expectations about change management efforts, so all such programs have to be realistic. — For any type of business to survive these days, it must have the ability to adapt to change.
It doesn’t matter if change is being made at the corporate structure level, or if changes are made to the existing business procedures.
At the end of the day, what matters most is the way a company responds to change.
They do that by implementing change management options to flawlessly make the transition from one state to another.
There are several models, illustrated by business experts, to help companies transition from one level to the next.
One is called the Cummings and Huse eight-phase model of planned change.
It shares the same principle as the other models, which is that ‘planned change indicates that a business organization can exist in different states, at varying times – and planned movement can therefore occur from one state to another’.
Basically, this change management model just goes to show that change can be handled efficiently by having a deeper understanding of the organization’s current state, and planning on exactly what to do to transition from one phase to another.
Changes can occur in the organizational level, or they can also involve business processes.
At the end of the day, you need to keep in mind that it’s crucial to have a set of steps or phases to follow before any changes within the organization can take place.
This is so there will be less downtime, the operations can smoothly transcend from one phase to another, and the service delivered is not affected at all. 123 The Importance of Change Management in Organizations It is indeed true that change management plays a very important role in any organization.
With a great demand for new technologies and innovations, the public is getting smarter as to what brands to purchase.
They now go for quality goods and services.
Truly, competition is getting stiffer, so small companies need to think of ways to keep up with the changing trends to survive in the market jungle.
So, how can one company gain leverage in such a fast changing environment? The answer is to change as well.
Change can be implemented in an organization as a result of both internal and external factors.
Internal factors refer to the current structure and processes of the organization.
Is the current structure still feasible? Are the existing processes lean toward business growth? If not, then change has to happen.
This may also refer to the current initiatives that internal employees thought of to introduce new products to the market.
External factors, on the other hand, are brought about by the demands of the customers or changes made in different organizations that were proven successful.
A competitive product from some other manufacturer is an example of external triggers.
It is a good thing to note that changes made in the organization should yield positive results as a consequence of joint efforts and great teamwork.
The involvement of all the people concerned is very crucial in change management, that everyone should be committed to meet certain goals.
The roles and responsibilities of each individual should be realized to help the organization and its processes become stable. 124 What is the ITIL Change Management Scheme? ITIL stands for Information Technology Infrastructure Library, and it is a well-established set of techniques, principles and concepts for better IT management.
Originating in the United Kingdom, ITIL is becoming more and more popular because the process framework is extremely advantageous for IT companies around the world.
When it comes to change management, ITIL has also developed a procedure to efficiently handle any type of changes within an IT organization.
Basically, the goal of ITIL change management is to ensure that any change implemented within an organization is handled efficiently and systematically.
As a result, there is minimal or no interruption to the business workflow, and less downtime of the service delivered to the customer.
Just like other change management systems, ITIL implements a request for change as the initial step, once the need for change in a particular business procedure has been determined.
To make the transition, there are several workflow options implemented.
First, there is the recursive method wherein part of the procedure is reassigned.
There is also the concurrent and multi-branching option where a series of tasks are performed all at the same time.
There is also an option to automatically close unused paths or workflows, and finally, tasks and approvals can be co-dependent so that they can be completed prior to the implementation of change.
By following these ITIL options for change management, you can rest assured that there will be minimal or no impact to your daily operations as the necessary changes are implemented in your business procedures. 125 The Journal for Organizational Change Management The rate of change in the world today is faster than ever.
Financial limitations, latest developments in technology, expanding of the market, mergers and restructuring, new philosophies, and legislation in the government are all putting pressure on organizations and businesses to stay dynamic and change.
And yet, the change process is not so easy, and the success of its implementation relies considerably on all the managers involved.
A journal for Change Management is unique since it sets the agenda for the management and development in the organizational change by evaluating new approaches and theories of research.
The objective of the journal is to give optional philosophies for organizational change and development to accomplish the goal of the journal.
It encourages the search for philosophies that include critical theories, post structuralism and postmodernism, as they are applied to change and development.
It also encourages the qualitative evaluation of change, change practices, and discourse.
The publication of the papers for the journal must offer a very detailed analysis and discussion regarding the philosophies and practices that contribute to the success of the organizational change, thus making a promising future for the organization and particular societies of tomorrow.
The coverage of the journal for Change Management includes the adoption of strategic planning to the need for a change.
It also covers research about leadership, and the responsibilities for the implementation of the change to follow through; and lastly, the psychology of the proposed change and all its effects in the workforce.
The benefit of the journal is that it offers many valuable 126 materials for the specific organization that is committed to the choice for a change. 127 Large or Small Firms Experienced Change Management Change management occurs in large and small firms.
A slow down in the business organization performance is a hint that something is not right.
Whether in a large or small firm, one way or the other the effect of the problem will surely be felt.
It may be minimal to large firms, but a big deal with small ones.
When change management is implemented, the impact may also differ to a certain degree, but nevertheless change still needs to be dealt with and managed well.
For firms that require delivery of products and services, continuity management should always be made available.
Businesses, whether large or small, need to have ready solutions to interruptions; otherwise the needs of clients won’t be met.
The continuity in the production performance leads to the attainment of large and small firms’ objective of satisfying customers and at the same time achieving profits to the firm.
Large firms may be capable of handling interruptions due to advanced technologies; unlike small firms where they manage to get by with simple machines due to limited resources.
At this level, small firms need to be creative.
Regardless of the size of the firm, whether large or small, they need to address the effects of the change management immediately.
Here are some tips that firms should keep in mind during change management implementation: Identify the function, process or procedure.
Identify the risk that may be relevant.
Rate risks as to the probability of occurrence and impacts.
Document or record activities should they recur.
Train staff to respond to the risk.
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