License 261 Release management 1 Release management The release management process is a relatively new but rapidly growing discipline within software engineering of managing software releases.
As software systems, software development processes, and resources become more distributed, they invariably become more specialized and complex.
Furthermore, software products (especially web applications) are typically in an ongoing cycle of development, testing, and release.
Add to this an evolution and growing complexity of the platforms on which these systems run, and it becomes clear there are a lot of moving pieces that must fit together seamlessly to guarantee the success and long-term value of a product or project.
The need therefore exists for dedicated resources to oversee the integration and flow of development, testing, deployment, and support of these systems.
Although project managers have done this in the past, they generally are more concerned with high-level, “grand design” aspects of a project or application, and so often do not have time to oversee some of the more technical or day-to-day aspects.
Release managers (aka “RMs”) address this need.
They must have a general knowledge of every aspect of the software development process, various applicable operating systems and software application or platforms, as well as various business functions and perspectives.
A release manager is: • Facilitator: serves as a liaison between varying business units to guarantee smooth and timely delivery of software products or updates. • Gatekeeper: “holds the keys” to production systems/applications and takes responsibility for their implementations. • Architect: helps to identify, create and/or implement processes or products to efficiently manage the release of code. • Server application support engineer: help troubleshoot problems with an application (although not typically at a code level). • Coordinator: utilized to coordinate disparate source trees, projects, teams and components.
Some of the challenges facing a software release manager include the management of: • • • • • • • Software defects Issues Risks Software change requests New development requests (additional features and functions) Deployment and packaging New development tasks Impact of agile software development on release management Agile software development methodologies have driven radically higher numbers of release events in organizations where it has been adopted.
More release events have corresponded to increased pressure on release management teams and their colleagues in IT Operations to track and execute complex application release processes.
Operations teams have used methodologies—such as Information Technology Infrastructure Library ITIL v3 Book: Service Transition (which contains a section on release management) to improve their release management capabilities as they relate to both business applications and internal IT services.
Agile has also driven development and operations teams to collaborate more closely during production release events—this trend is referred to as DevOps. Release management 2 References • Beck, B., Fowler, M. (2000).
Planning Extreme programming, Addison Wesley. • Erenkrantz, J.
R.(2003) Release Management Within Open Source Projects.
In: Proceedings of the 3rd Open Source Software DevelopmentWorkshop.
Portland, Oregon, USA, May 2003, S. 51–55. • Hoek, A.
Van der, Hall, R.
S., Heimbigner D., Wolf, A.
L. (1997) Software release management, Proceedings of the 6th European conference held jointly with the 5th ACM SIGSOFT international symposium on Foundations of software engineering, p.159–175, September 22–25, Zurich, Switzerland. • Hoek, A.
Van der, Wolf, A.
L. (2003) Software release management for component-based software.
Software—Practice & Experience.
Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp. 77–98.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
New York, NY, USA. • Humble, J., Farley, D. (2010).
Continuous Delivery, Addison Wesley. • Krishnan M.
Software release management: a business perspective, Proceedings of the 1994 conference of the Centre for Advanced Studies on Collaborative research, p.36, October 31–November 3, 1994, Toronto, Ontario, Canada External links • Project Management: Best Practices for IT Professionals  • Release Management – Where to Start?  • Managing Software Projects By Frank F.
Tsui  • Software Release Decisions . References  http:/ / books.
Google.com/ books?id=BR9ppkdnIrQC& pg=PA193& lpg=PA193& dq=release+ manager& source=web& ots=M-ejUHsZW6& sig=zwuyg_J60Xwcr77VXjReliQ5WEI& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=9& ct=result  http:/ / www.itsmwatch.com/ itil/ article.
Php/ 3680776  http:/ / books.
Google.com/ books?id=zUTiHzyyDLwC& pg=PT273& lpg=PT273& dq=release+ manager& source=web& ots=dJwEC7lz_Z& sig=PXBGdOj_4BURbb98N9RpNk1xf18& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result  http:/ / www.se-cure.
Html Accidental complexity 3 Accidental complexity Accidental complexity is complexity that arises in computer programs or their development process (computer programming) which is non-essential to the problem to be solved.
While essential complexity is inherent and unavoidable, accidental complexity is caused by the approach chosen to solve the problem.  While sometimes accidental complexity can be due to mistakes such as ineffective planning, or low priority placed on a project, some accidental complexity always occurs as the side effect of solving any problem.
For example, the complexity caused by out of memory errors is an accidental complexity to most programs that occurs because one decided to use a computer to solve the problem.
While accidental complexity is to be minimized in any good architecture, design, and implementation, excessive accidental complexity is an example of an anti-pattern. References  Holt, John (2004).
UML for systems engineering: watching the wheels.
ISBN 978-0-86341-354-4. Agile Modeling Agile Modelling is a practice-based methodology for Modelling and documentation of software-based systems.
It is intended to be a collection of values, principles, and practices for Modelling software that can be applied on a software development project in a more flexible manner than traditional Modelling methods.
Agile Modelling is a supplement to other Agile methodologies such as: • Extreme Programming • Agile Unified Process • Scrum In which it is used to replace the more standard UML, or other standard design tools. Answers to criticisms — Open Source Alternatives Name Endeavour Agile ALM  Sponsor Community Driven  References  deJong, Jennifer (2008-04-15). “Mea culpa, ALM toolmakers say” (http:/ / www.sdtimes.com/ SearchResult/ 31952).
Retrieved 2008-11-22.  http:/ / www.gather.com/ viewArticle.
Action?articleId=281474978848396  InformationWeek: “HP Intros Application Lifecycle Management 11.” Babcock.
Dec. 2010 (http:/ / www.informationweek.com/ news/ global-cio/ trends/ showArticle.
Jhtml?articleID=228500116& queryText=HP Intros Application Lifecycle Management 11)  http:/ / www.atego.com/ products/ atego-workbench/  http:/ / www.atego.com/  http:/ / www.open.
Collab.net/ products/ ctf/  Parasoft Composes Concerto for ALM (http:/ / www.sdtimes.com/ PARASOFT_COMPOSES_CONCERTO_FOR_ALM/ By_Jeff_Feinman/ About_ALM_and_PARASOFT/ 33679) by Jeff Feinman, SDTimes, August 13, 2009  http:/ / www.ikanalm.com/  http:/ / www.ikan.
Be/  http:/ / www.polarion.com/ products/ alm/ index.
Php  http:/ / www.polarion.com/  http:/ / inedo.com/  http:/ / endeavour-mgmt.
Sourceforge.net/  http:/ / sourceforge.net/ projects/ endeavour-mgmt/ Further Literature • Application Management: Challenges – Service Creation – Strategies; Frank Keuper, Christian Oecking, Andreas Degenhardt; Gabler Verlag 2011; ISBN 978-3-8349-1667-9 • Walter Linnartz, Barbara Kohlhoff, Gertrud Heck, Benedikt Schmidt: Application Management Services und Support, Publicis Corporate Publishing 2004, ISBN 3-89578-224-6 Electronic sources • ASL-Library (http://www.aslbislfoundation.org) • IT Infrastructure Library (http://www.itil.org/en/vomkennen/itil/index.php) • Expert group “Application Management Experts” on Linkedin (http://www.linkedin.com/ groups?mostPopular=&gid=2865118&trk=myg_ugrp_ovr) Baseline (configuration management) 16 Baseline (configuration management) Configuration management is the process of managing change in hardware, software, firmware, documentation, measurements, etc.
As change requires an initial state and next state, the marking of significant states within a series of several changes becomes important.
The identification of significant states within the revision history of a configuration item is the central purpose of baseline identification. Typically, significant states are those that receive a formal approval status, either explicitly or implicitly (approval statuses may be marked individually, when such a marking has been defined, or signified merely by association to a certain baseline).
Nevertheless, this approval status is usually recognized publicly.
Thus, a baseline may also mark an approved configuration item, EG a project plan that has been signed off for execution.
In a similar manner, associating multiple configuration items with such a baseline indicates those items as being approved.
Generally, a baseline may be a single work product, or set of work products that can be used as a logical basis for comparison.
A baseline may also be established (whose work products meet certain criteria) as the basis for subsequent select activities.
Such activities may be attributed with formal approval.
Conversely, the configuration of a project often includes one or more baselines, the status of the configuration, and any metrics collected.
The current configuration refers to the current status, current audit, current metrics, and latest revision of all configuration items.
Similarly, but less frequently, a baseline may refer to all items associated with a specific project.
This may include all revisions of all items, or only the latest revision of all items in the project, depending upon context, EG “the baseline of the project is proceeding as planned.” A baseline may be specialized as a specific type of baseline. Some examples include: • • • • • Functional Baseline: initial specifications established; contract, etc.
Allocated Baseline: state of work products once requirements are approved Developmental Baseline: state of work products amid development Product Baseline: contains the releasable contents of the project others, based upon proprietary business practices Capabilities of Baselines While marking approval status covers the majority of uses for a baseline, baselines may also be established merely to signify the progress of work through the passage of time.
In this case, a baseline is a visible stake through an endured collective effort, EG a developmental baseline.
Baselines may also mark milestones; albeit some milestones also signify approval.
Baselines themselves are valued not only for their ability to identify the notable state of work product(s) but also provide particular importance in their ability to be retrieved.
Once retrieved, the state of the work product(s) in that subset share the same significance in their history of changes that this significance was observed.
The baseline is then regarded with poignant qualities (either favorably or disfavorably).
For this reason, baseline identification, monitoring, and retrieval are critical to the success of configuration management.
However, the ease of retrieving any given baseline varies according to the system employed for performing configuration management which may use a manual, automated, or hybrid approach.
Once retrieved, the baseline may be compared to a particular configuration or another baseline.
Most baselines are established at a fixed point in time and serve to continue to reference that point (identification of state).
However, some baselines are established to carry forward as a reference to the item itself regardless of any changes to the item.
These latter baselines evolve with the progression of the work effort but continue to identify notable work products in the project. Baseline (configuration management) 17 — • Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch, and James Rumbaugh (1999).
The Unified Software Development Process • Per Kroll, Philippe Kruchten (2003).
Rational Unified Process Made Easy, The: A Practitioner’s Guide to the RUP • Per Kroll, Bruce Mac Isaac (2006).
Agility and Discipline Made Easy: Practices from OpenUP and RUP • Philippe Kruchten (1998).
The Rational Unified Process: An Introduction • Ahmad Shuja, Jochen Krebs (2007).
RUP Reference and Certification Guide • Walker Royce, Software Project Management, A Unified Framework External links • IBM Rational Unified Process Web Site (http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/rup/) • Rational Software at IBM (http://www.rational.com/) • Global Rational User Group Community (http://www.rational-ug.org/) IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) 50 IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) is a knowledge base of widely accepted industry best practices and the accumulated experience from IBM’s client engagements.
The knowledge base comprises detailed, industry-wide IT service management processes, and is an integral part of the IBM Service Management solution family. The knowledge base is structured on the IBM Process Reference Model for IT (PRM-IT).
PRM-IT describes the processes for exploiting IT in support of a business or enterprise.
ITUP is a free offering from IBM. Its purpose is to make the benefits of service management best practice frameworks, like Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), more attainable for organizations through integrated process modeling.
Thus ITUP is closely aligned with ITIL (a series of books outlining a set of concepts for managing IT) and provides the guidance on how to implement IT service management using proven, predefined solutions.
Detailed process diagrams and descriptions provide further explanations of IT processes, the relationships between processes, and the roles and tools involved in an efficient process implementation.
ITUP is also mapped to other leading process models. Context IT service management represents an evolution from managing IT as a technology to managing IT as a business. As businesses move toward on-demand environments, IT organizations are faced with the challenge of increasing the quality of services provided to business, while simultaneously addressing faster rates of change, rising technical complexity, cost pressures, and compliance issues.
With traditional resource and system management approaches, providing effective support for business and efficient use of IT resources is proving impossible.
IT service management provides for the effective and efficient delivery of IT services in support of changing business needs.
Implementing IT service management requires the optimal intersection of people, process, information and technology.
When all of these components come together, they can make IT more efficient and effective. Tivoli Unified Process tooling IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) Composer is the tool used to create tailored method libraries* using the ITUP knowledge base content. Customization includes creating or modifying process definitions to extend and publish content to document an organization’s operational processes.
The Composer tool provides the option to select and deploy a comprehensive project, or only the process components needed for each stage of a project, so that those processes are consistently applied by all IT staff. (See ITUP Composer for development, this article.) • A method library is a container for method plug-ins and method configuration definitions.
A method library has one or more method configurations that filter the library and provide smaller working sets of library content.
All method elements are stored in a method library. Structure of the ITUP content knowledge database The knowledge base includes descriptions of and relationships between five significant elements: 1.
Process descriptions – detailed process diagrams and explicates to better understand processes and their relationships, making ITIL best-practice recommendations easier to implement.
This category also maps processes to other leading process models, such as Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) and the enhanced Telecom Operations Map (eTOM). 2.
Work products – artifacts produced as outputs or required as inputs by processes.
Includes information such as definitions for key terms and concepts. IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) 3.
Roles – as associated with the execution of specific tasks by IT staff typically responsible for one or more roles.
Roles and job responsibilities are described in detail and cross-referenced to guidance on how staff can use tools to perform their roles more efficiently and effectively. 4.
Tools – in the form of tool mentors.
This category identifies products and solutions from IBM that can be used to automate or complete specific process activities. 5.
Scenarios, or real-life examples – are provided as catalysts to make process content more comprehendible.
A scenario can relate to specific issues, such as deploying a new server or responding to an outage.
Scenarios describe, in a step-by-step format, the process workflow, roles, work products and tools involved in solving a specific problem. 51 The ITUP framework of process categories Governance and Management System The Governance and Management System process category ensures that a framework is in place to integrate processes, technologies, people, and data in a manner consistent with the IT goals.
This category also monitors the framework against the broader enterprise goals and quality metrics.
When specific goals and quality metrics are consistently unmet, decisions are made regarding the overall framework: whether it will be modified or restructured to ensure future success.
Governance considers and sets the fundamental direction for the management framework.
Governance is a decision rights and accountability framework for directing, controlling, and executing IT endeavors in order to determine and achieve desired behaviors and results.
Governance involves defining the management model and creating the governing or guiding principles.
Processes: • • • • IT Governance and Management System Framework IT Governance and Management System Capabilities IT Governance and Management Operation IT Governance and Management Evaluation Customer Relationships The Customer Relationships process category gives IT service providers a mechanism to understand, monitor, perform and compete effectively in the marketplace they serve.
Through active communication and interaction with customers, this process category provides the IT enterprise with valuable, current information concerning customer wants, needs, and requirements.
Once these requirements are captured and understood, the process category ensures that an effective market plan is created to bring the various IT services and capabilities to the marketplace.
Further, customer satisfaction data is gathered and reported in order to find areas of the IT services that require improvement.
Overall, this process provides a means for the IT enterprise to understand customer requirements, market IT services to customers, ensure and monitor the quality of the delivered IT services, and contribute to the maximization of business value from technology usage.
Processes: • • • • • • • Stakeholder Requirements Management Service Marketing and Sales Service Catalog Management Service Level Management Demand Management IT Customer Transformation Management Customer Satisfaction Management Direction The Direction process category provides guidance on the external technology marketplace, aligns the IT outcomes to support the business strategy, minimizes risk exposures, and manages the IT Architecture and IT IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) Portfolio.
Using the business strategy, related business requirements, and overall technology trends as key inputs, this process category creates an IT Strategy within the manageable constraints of the existing architecture and portfolio.
In addition to the IT strategy, the IT Portfolio and IT Architecture are planned, created, implemented, monitored, and continuously improved within this process category.
Items put forward for inclusion in the IT Portfolio are managed throughout their life cycle using product management approaches well established in many industries.
Processes: • • • • • • • IT Strategy IT Research and Innovation Architecture Management Risk Management Product Management Portfolio Management Program and Project Management 52 —  Hiatt, Jeff. “The definition and history of change management” (http:/ / www.change-management.com/ tutorial-definition-history.
Retrieved 16 August 2010.  Filicetti, John (August 20, 2007). “Project Management Dictionary” (http:/ / www.pmhut.com/ pmo-and-project-management-dictionary).
PM Hut. .
Retrieved 16 November 2009. Configuration management 172 Configuration management Configuration management (CM) is a field of management that focuses on establishing and maintaining consistency of a system or product’s performance and its functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life. For information assurance, CM can be defined as the management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test Top level Configuration Management Activity model documentation throughout the life cycle of an information system. CM for information assurance, sometimes referred to as Secure Configuration Management, relies upon performance, functional, and physical attributes of IT platforms and products and their environments to determine the appropriate security features and assurances that are used to measure a system configuration state.
For example, configuration requirements may be different for a network firewall that functions as part of an organization’s Internet boundary versus one that functions as an internal local network firewall. History Configuration management was first developed by the United States Air Force for the Department of Defense in the 1950s as a technical management discipline of hardware.
The concepts of this discipline have been widely adopted by numerous technical management functions, including systems engineering (SE), integrated logistics support (ILS), Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), ISO 9000, Prince2 project management methodology, COBIT, Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), product lifecycle management, and application lifecycle management.
Many of these functions and models have redefined configuration management from its traditional holistic approach to technical management.
Some treat configuration management as being similar to a librarian activity, and break out change control or change management as a separate or stand alone discipline.
However the bottomline is and always shall be Traceability. Configuration management 173 Software configuration management The traditional software configuration management (SCM) process is looked upon by practitioners as the best solution to handling changes in software projects.
It identifies the functional and physical attributes of software at various points in time, and performs systematic control of changes to the identified attributes for the purpose of maintaining software integrity and traceability throughout the software development life cycle.
The SCM process further defines the need to trace changes, and the ability to verify that the final delivered software has all of the planned enhancements that are supposed to be included in the release.
It identifies four procedures that must be defined for each software project to ensure that a sound SCM process is implemented.
They are: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Configuration identification Configuration control Configuration status accounting Configuration audits These terms and definitions change from standard to standard, but are essentially the same. • Configuration identification is the process of identifying the attributes that define every aspect of a configuration item.
A configuration item is a product (hardware and/or software) that has an end-user purpose.
These attributes are recorded in configuration documentation and baselined.
Baselining an attribute forces formal configuration change control processes to be effected in the event that these attributes are changed. • Configuration change control is a set of processes and approval stages required to change a configuration item’s attributes and to re-baseline them. • Configuration status accounting is the ability to record and report on the configuration baselines associated with each configuration item at any moment of time. • Configuration audits are broken into functional and physical configuration audits.
They occur either at delivery or at the moment of effecting the change.
A functional configuration audit ensures that functional and performance attributes of a configuration item are achieved, while a physical configuration audit ensures that a configuration item is installed in accordance with the requirements of its detailed design documentation.
Configuration management is widely used by many military organizations to manage the technical aspects of any complex systems, such as weapon systems, vehicles, and information systems.
The discipline combines the capability aspects that these systems provide an organization with the issues of management of change to these systems over time.
Outside of the military, CM is appropriate to a wide range of fields and industry and commercial sectors. Computer hardware configuration management Computer hardware configuration management is the process of creating and maintaining an up-to-date record of all the components of the infrastructure, including related documentation.
Its purpose is to show what makes up the infrastructure and illustrate the physical locations and links between each item, which are known as configuration items.computer hardware configuration goes beyond the recording of computer hardware for the purpose of asset management, although it can be used to maintain asset information.
The extra value provided is the rich source of support information that it provides to all interested parties.
This information is typically stored together in a configuration management database (CMDB).
This concept was introduced by ITIL.
The scope of configuration management is assumed to include, at a minimum, all configuration items used in the provision of live, operational services.computer hardware configuration management provides direct control over information technology (IT) assets and improves the ability of the service provider to deliver quality IT services in an economical and effective manner. Configuration management Configuration management should work closely with change management.
All components of the IT infrastructure should be registered in the CMDB.
The responsibilities of configuration management with regard to the CMDB are: • • • • identification control status accounting verification 174 The scope of configuration management is assumed to include: • • • • • • • • • physical client and server hardware products and versions operating system software products and versions application development software products and versions technical architecture product sets and versions as they are defined and introduced live documentation networking products and versions live application products and versions definitions of packages of software releases definitions of hardware base configurations • configuration item standards and definitions The benefits of computer hardware configuration management are: • • • • • helps to minimize the impact of changes provides accurate information on CIs improves security by controlling the versions of CIs in use facilitates adherence to legal obligations helps in financial and expenditure planning Maintenance systems Configuration management is used to maintain an understanding of the status of complex assets with a view to maintaining the highest level of serviceability for the lowest cost.
Specifically, it aims to ensure that operations are not disrupted due to the asset (or parts of the asset) overrunning limits of planned lifespan or below quality levels.
In the military, this type of activity is often classed as “mission readiness”, and seeks to define which assets are available and for which type of mission; a classic example is whether aircraft on-board an aircraft carrier are equipped with bombs for ground support or missiles for defense.
A theory of configuration maintenance was worked out by Mark Burgess  , with a practical implementation on present day computer systems in the software Cfengine able to perform real time repair as well as preventive maintenance. Preventive maintenance Understanding the “as is” state of an asset and its major components is an essential element in preventive maintenance as used in maintenance, repair, and overhaul and enterprise asset management systems.complex assets such as aircraft, ships, industrial machinery etc.
Depend on many different components being serviceable.
This serviceability is often defined in terms of the amount of usage the component has had since it was new, since fitted, since repaired, the amount of use it has had over its life and several other limiting factors.
Understanding how near the end of their life each of these components is has been a major undertaking involving labor intensive record keeping until recent developments in software. — • • • • iNTCCM , iNTernational Certification for Configuration Management professionals ICM , Institute of Configuration Management GfKM – CMII Europe  CM & Related Standards , CM Resource Guide’s list of Standards References  MIL-HDBK-61A CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT GUIDANCE 7 February 2001 (http:/ / assist.
Mil/ quicksearch/ basic_profile.
Cfm?ident_number=202239)  National Information Systems Security Glossary  ANSI/EIA-649-1998 National Consensus Standard for Configuration Management  M.
Burgess, Cfengine: a site configuration engine, USENIX Computing systems, Vol8, No. 3 1995 pdf (http:/ / www.iu.
No/ ~mark/ papers/ paper1.
Pdf)  M.
Burgess, On the theory of system administration, Science of Computer Programming 49, 2003.
P1-46 pdf (http:/ / research.
No/ papers/ sysadmtheory3.
Pdf)  M.
Burgess, Configurable immunity for evolving human-computer systems, Science of Computer Programming 51 2004, p197-213 pdf (http:/ / research.
No/ papers/ immunity.
Pdf)  http:/ / assist.
Mil/ quicksearch/ basic_profile.
Cfm?ident_number=106772  http:/ / raminsoftworx.com/ elec443/ lectures/ scm-ieee-guide.
Pdf  https:/ / acc.
Aspx?id=142238  (http:/ / ops.
Gov/ freewaymgmt/ publications/ cm/ handbook/ index.
Htm) Configuration Management for Transportation Management Systems Handbook  (http:/ / www.pacotechnologies.com/ Pages/ Case-Study.
Aspx) Configuration Management Case Study PACO Technologies, Inc.  (http:/ / www.fta.
Gov/ printer_friendly/ planning_environment_1338.
Html) Federal Transportation Administration (FTA) National Lessons Learned Program  (http:/ / www.pacotechnologies.com/ Pages/ FTA-National-Lessons-Learned-Program.
Aspx) Configuration Management and the Federal Transportation Administration (FTA) National Lessons Learned Program  http:/ / www.intccm.org  http:/ / www.icmhq.com  http:/ / www.gfkm.
De  http:/ / cmpic.com/ configuration-management-standards.
Htm Information Technology Infrastructure Library 177 Information Technology Infrastructure Library The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of concepts and practices for Information Technology Services Management (ITSM), Information Technology (IT) development and IT operations.
ITIL gives detailed descriptions of a number of important IT practices and provides comprehensive checklists, tasks and procedures that any IT organisation can tailor to its needs.
ITIL is published in a series of books, each of which covers an IT management topic.
The names ITIL and IT Infrastructure Library are registered trademarks of the United Kingdom’s Office of Government Commerce (OGC). History Responding to growing dependence on IT, the UK Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency in the 1980s developed a set of recommendations.
It recognised that without standard practices, government agencies and private sector contracts were independently creating their own IT management practices.
The IT Infrastructure Library originated as a collection of books, each covering a specific practice within IT Service Management.
ITIL was built around a process-model based view of controlling and managing operations often credited to W.
Edwards Deming and his plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle. After the initial publication in 1989–1996, the number of books quickly grew within ITIL v1 to over 30 volumes.
In 2000/2001, to make ITIL more accessible (and affordable), ITIL v2 consolidated the publications into 8 logical “sets” that grouped related process-guidelines to match different aspects of IT management, applications, and services.
However, the main focus was known as the Service Management sets (Service Support and Service Delivery) which were by far the most widely used, circulated, and understood of ITIL v2 publications. • In April 2001 the CCTA was merged into the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), an office of the UK Treasury. • In 2006, the ITIL v2 glossary was published. • In May 2007, this organisation issued the version 3 of ITIL (also known as the ITIL Refresh Project) consisting of 26 processes and functions, now grouped under only 5 volumes, arranged around the concept of Service lifecycle structure. • In 2009, the OGC officially announced that ITIL v2 certification would be withdrawn and launched a major consultation as per how to proceed. Overview of the ITIL v2 library The eight ITIL version 2 books and their disciplines are: The IT Service Management sets 1.
Service Support 2.
Service Delivery Other operational guidance 3.
ICT Infrastructure Management 4.
Security Management 5.
The Business Perspective 6.
Application Management 7.
Software Asset Management To assist with the implementation of ITIL practices a further book was published (Apr 9, 2002) providing guidance on implementation (mainly of Service Management): Information Technology Infrastructure Library 8.
Planning to Implement Service Management And this has more recently (Jan 26, 2006) been supplemented with guidelines for smaller IT units, not included in the original eight publications: 9.
ITIL Small-Scale Implementation 178 Service Support The Service Support ITIL discipline focuses on the User of the ICT services and is primarily concerned with ensuring that they have access to the appropriate services to support the business functions.
To a business, customers and users are the entry point to the process model.
They get involved in service support by: • • • • Asking for changes Needing communication, updates Having difficulties, queries Real process delivery The service desk functions as the single contact-point for end-users’ incidents.
Its first function is always to “create” an incident.
If there is a direct solution, it attempts to resolve the incident at the first level.
If the service desk cannot solve the incident then it is passed to a 2nd/3rd level group within the incident management system.
Incidents can initiate a chain of processes: Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Release Management and Configuration Management.
This chain of processes is tracked using the Configuration Management Database (CMDB), which records each process, and creates output documents for traceability (Quality Management).
Service Desk / Service Request Management Tasks include handling incidents and requests, and providing an interface for other ITSM processes.
Features include: • • • • • • single point of contact (SPOC) and not necessarily the first point of contact (FPOC) single point of entry single point of exit easier for customers data integrity streamlined communication channel Primary functions of the Service Desk include: • incident control: life-cycle management of all service requests • communication: keeping the customer informed of progress and advising on workarounds The Service Desk function can have various names, such as: • Call Center: main emphasis on professionally handling large call volumes of telephone-based transactions • Help Desk: manage, co-ordinate and resolve incidents as quickly as possible at primary support level • Service Desk: not only handles incidents, problems and questions but also provides an interface for other activities such as change requests, maintenance contracts, software licenses, service-level management, configuration management, availability management, financial management and IT services continuity management The three types of structure for consideration: • Local Service Desk: to meet local business needs – practical only until multiple locations requiring support services are involved • Central Service Desk: for organisations having multiple locations – reduces operational costs and improves usage of available resources Information Technology Infrastructure Library • Virtual Service Desk: for organisations having multi-country locations – can be situated and accessed from anywhere in the world due to advances in network performance and telecommunications, reducing operational costs and improving usage of available resources Incident Management Incident Management aims to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimise the adverse effect on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service-quality and -availability are maintained. ‘Normal service operation’ is defined here as service operation within Service Level Agreement (SLA) limits.
Incident Management can be defined as : An ‘Incident’ is any event which is not part of the standard operation of the service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption or a reduction of the quality of the service.
The objective of Incident Management is to restore normal operations as quickly as possible with the least possible impact on either the business or the user, at a cost-effective price.
Problem Management Problem Management aims to resolve the root causes of incidents and thus to minimise the adverse impact of incidents and problems on business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors.
A ‘problem’ is an unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents, and a ‘known error’ is a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which either a work-around or a permanent resolution has been identified.
The CCTA(Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) defines problems and known errors as follows A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple incidents that exhibit common symptoms.
Problems can also be identified from a single significant incident, indicative of a single error, for which the cause is unknown, but for which the impact is significant.
A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, and the subsequent development of a work-around.
Problem management differs from incident management.
The principal purpose of problem management is to find and resolve the root cause of a problem and thus prevent further incidents; the purpose of incident management is to return the service to normal level as soon as possible, with smallest possible business impact.
The problem-management process is intended to reduce the number and severity of incidents and problems on the business, and report it in documentation to be available for the first-line and second line of the help desk.
The proactive process identifies and resolves problems before incidents occur.
Such processes include: • Trend analysis; • Targeting support action; • Providing information to the organisation The Error Control Process iteratively diagnoses known errors until they are eliminated by the successful implementation of a change under the control of the Change Management process.
The Problem Control Process aims to handle problems in an efficient way.
Problem control identifies the root cause of incidents and reports it to the service desk.
Other activities are: • Problem identification and recording • Problem classification • Problem investigation and diagnosis A technique for identifying the root cause of a problem is to use an Ishikawa diagram, also referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram, tree diagram, or fishbone diagram.
Alternatively, a formal Root Cause Analysis method 179 Information Technology Infrastructure Library such as Apollo Root Cause Analysis can be implemented and used to identify causes and solutions.
An effective root cause analysis method and/or tool will provide the most effective/efficient solutions to address problems in the Problem Management process.
Change Management Change Management aims to ensure that standardised methods and procedures are used for efficient handling of all changes, A change is “an event that results in a new status of one or more configuration items (CIs)” approved by management, cost effective, enhances business process changes (fixes) – with a minimum risk to IT infrastructure.
The main aims of Change Management include: • Minimal disruption of services • Reduction in back-out activities • Economic utilisation of resources involved in the change Change Management Terminology • Change: the addition, modification or removal of CIs • Request for Change (RFC) or in older terminology Change Request (CR): form used to record details of a request for a change and is sent as an input to Change Management by the Change Requestor • Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC): schedule that contains details of all forthcoming Changes.
Release Management Release Management is used by the software migration team for platform-independent and automated distribution of software and hardware, including license controls across the entire IT infrastructure.
Proper software and hardware control ensures the availability of licensed, tested, and version-certified software and hardware, which functions as intended when introduced into existing infrastructure.
Quality control during the development and implementation of new hardware and software is also the responsibility of Release Management.
This guarantees that all software meets the demands of the business processes.
The goals of release management include: • Planning the rollout of software • Designing and implementing procedures for the distribution and installation of changes to IT systems • Effectively communicating and managing expectations of the customer during the planning and rollout of new releases • Controlling the distribution and installation of changes to IT systems Release management focuses on the protection of the live environment and its services through the use of formal procedures and checks.
A Release consists of the new or changed software and/or hardware required to implement approved changes.
Release categories include: • Major software releases and major hardware upgrades, normally containing large amounts of new functionality, some of which may make intervening fixes to problems redundant.
A major upgrade or release usually supersedes all preceding minor upgrades, releases and emergency fixes. • Minor software releases and hardware upgrades, normally containing small enhancements and fixes, some of which may have already been issued as emergency fixes.
A minor upgrade or release usually supersedes all preceding emergency fixes. • Emergency software and hardware fixes, normally containing the corrections to a small number of known problems. 180 Information Technology Infrastructure Library Releases can be divided based on the release unit into: • Delta Release: a release of only that part of the software which has been changed.
For example, security patches. • Full Release: the entire software program is deployed—for example, a new version of an existing application. • Packaged Release: a combination of many changes—for example, an operating system image which also contains specific applications.
Configuration Management Configuration Management is the management and traceability of every aspect of a configuration from beginning to end and it includes the following key process areas under its umbrella : Identification, Planning, Change Control, Change Management, Release Management, Maintenance, process that tracks all individual Configuration Items (CI) generated by applying all of the key process areas in a system. — 182 IT service continuity management IT service continuity management covers the processes by which plans are put in place and managed to ensure that IT Services can recover and continue even after a serious incident occurs.
It is not just about reactive measures, but also about proactive measures – reducing the risk of a disaster in the first instance.
Continuity management is regarded by the application owners as the recovery of the IT infrastructure used to deliver IT Services, but as of 2009 many businesses practice the much further-reaching process of Business Continuity Planning (BCP), to ensure that the whole end-to-end business process can continue should a serious incident occur (at primary support level).
Continuity management involves the following basic steps: • Prioritising the activities to be recovered by conducting a Business Impact Analysis (BIA) • Performing a Risk Assessment (aka risk analysis) for each of the IT Services to identify the assets, threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures for each service. • Evaluating the options for recovery • Producing the Contingency Plan • Testing, reviewing, and revising the plan on a regular basis Availability Management Availability Management targets allowing organisations to sustain the IT service-availability to support the business at a justifiable cost.
The high-level activities are Realise Availability Requirements, Compile Availability Plan, Monitor Availability, and Monitor Maintenance Obligations.
Availability Management addresses the ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level over a period of time. • Reliability: Ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level at described conditions. • Maintainability: The ability of an IT component to remain in, or be restored to an operational state. • Serviceability: The ability for an external supplier to maintain the availability of component or function under a third-party contract. • Resilience: A measure of freedom from operational failure and a method of keeping services reliable.
One popular method of resilience is redundancy. • Security: A service may have associated data.
Security refers to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of that data.
Availability gives a clear overview of the end-to-end availability of the system. Information Technology Infrastructure Library Financial Management for IT Services IT Financial Management comprises the discipline of ensuring that the IT infrastructure is obtained at the most effective price (which does not necessarily mean cheapest) and calculating the cost of providing IT services so that an organisation can understand the costs of its IT services.
These costs may then be recovered from the customer of the service.
This is the 2nd component of service delivery process. 183 ICT Infrastructure Management ICT Infrastructure Management (“ICT” is an acronym for “Information and Communication Technology”) processes recommend best practice for requirements analysis, planning, design, deployment and ongoing operations management and technical support of an ICT Infrastructure.
The Infrastructure Management processes describe those processes within ITIL that directly relate to the ICT equipment and software that is involved in providing ICT services to customers. • • • • ICT Design and Planning ICT Deployment ICT Operations ICT Technical Support These disciplines are less well understood than those of Service Management and therefore often some of their content is believed to be covered ‘by implication’ in Service Management disciplines.
ICT Design and Planning ICT Design and Planning provides a framework and approach for the Strategic and Technical Design and Planning of ICT infrastructures.
It includes the necessary combination of business (and overall IS) strategy, with technical design and architecture.
ICT Design and Planning drives both the Procurement of new ICT solutions through the production of Statements of Requirement (“SOR”) and Invitations to Tender (“ITT”) and is responsible for the initiation and management of ICT Programmes for strategic business change.
Key Outputs from Design and Planning are: • • • • ICT Strategies, Policies and Plans The ICT Overall Architecture & Management Architecture Feasibility Studies, ITTs and SORs Business Cases ICT Deployment Management ICT Deployment provides a framework for the successful management of design, build, test and roll-out (deploy) projects within an overall ICT programme.
It includes many project management disciplines in common with PRINCE2, but has a broader focus to include the necessary integration of Release Management and both functional and non functional testing.
ICT Operations Management ICT Operations Management provides the day-to-day technical supervision of the ICT infrastructure.
Often confused with the role of Incident Management from Service Support, Operations has a more technical bias and is concerned not solely with Incidents reported by users, but with Events generated by or recorded by the Infrastructure.
ICT Operations may often work closely alongside Incident Management and the Service Desk, which are not-necessarily technical, to provide an ‘Operations Bridge’.
Operations, however should primarily work from documented processes and procedures and should be concerned with a number of specific sub-processes, such as: Output Management, Job Scheduling, Backup and Restore, Network Monitoring/Management, System Monitoring/Management, Database Monitoring/Management Storage Monitoring/Management.
Operations are responsible for the following: Information Technology Infrastructure Library • • • • • • A stable, secure ICT infrastructure A current, up to date Operational Documentation Library (“ODL”) A log of all operational Events Maintenance of operational monitoring and management tools.
Operational Scripts Operational Procedures 184 ICT Technical Support ICT Technical Support is the specialist technical function for infrastructure within ICT.
Primarily as a support to other processes, both in Infrastructure Management and Service Management, Technical Support provides a number of specialist functions: Research and Evaluation, Market Intelligence (particularly for Design and Planning and Capacity Management), Proof of Concept and Pilot engineering, specialist technical expertise (particularly to Operations and Problem Management), creation of documentation (perhaps for the Operational Documentation Library or Known Error Database).
There are different levels of support under the ITIL structure, these being primary support level, secondary support level and tertiary support level, higher-level administrators being responsible for support at primary level. Security Management The ITIL-process Security Management describes the structured fitting of information security in the management organisation.
ITIL Security Management is based on the code of practice for information security management now known as ISO/IEC 27002.
A basic goal of Security Management is to ensure adequate information security.
The primary goal of information security, in turn, is to protect information assets against risks, and thus to maintain their value to the organisation.
This is commonly expressed in terms of ensuring their confidentiality, integrity and availability, along with related properties or goals such as authenticity, accountability, non-repudiation and reliability.
Mounting pressure for many organisations to structure their Information Security Management Systems in accordance with ISO/IEC 27001 requires revision of the ITIL v2 Security Management volume, and indeed a v3 release is in the works. Application Management ITIL Application Management set encompasses a set of best practices proposed to improve the overall quality of IT software development and support through the life-cycle of software development projects, with particular attention to gathering and defining requirements that meet business objectives.
This volume is related to the topics of Software Engineering and IT Portfolio Management. Software Asset Management Software Asset Management (SAM) is the practice of integrating people, processes and technology to allow software licenses and usage to be systematically tracked, evaluated and managed.
The goal of SAM is to reduce IT expenditures, human resource overhead and risks inherent in owning and managing software assets.
SAM practices include: • Maintaining software license compliance • Tracking inventory and software asset use • Maintaining standard policies and procedures surrounding definition, deployment, configuration, use, and retirement of software assets and the Definitive Software Library. Information Technology Infrastructure Library SAM represents the software component of IT asset management.
This includes hardware asset management because effective hardware inventory controls are critical to efforts to control software.
This means overseeing software and hardware that comprise an organisation’s computers and network. 185 Planning to Implement Service Management The ITIL discipline – Planning to Implement Service Management attempts to provide practitioners with a framework for the alignment of business needs and IT provision requirements.
The processes and approaches incorporated within the guidelines suggest the development of a Continuous Service Improvement Program (CSIP) as the basis for implementing other ITIL disciplines as projects within a controlled program of work.
Planning to Implement Service Management focuses mainly on the Service Management processes, but also applies generically to other ITIL disciplines.components include: • • • • creating vision analyzing organisation setting goals implementing IT service management Small-Scale Implementation ITIL Small-Scale Implementation provides an approach to ITIL framework implementation for smaller IT units or departments.
It is primarily an auxiliary work that covers many of the same best practice guidelines as Planning to Implement Service Management, Service Support, and Service Delivery but provides additional guidance on the combination of roles and responsibilities, and avoiding conflict between ITIL priorities. Overview of the ITIL v3 library ITIL v3 is an extension of ITIL v2 and will fully replace it following the completion of the withdrawal period on 30 June 2011 .
ITIL v3 provides a more holistic perspective on the full life cycle of services, covering the entire IT organisation and all supporting components needed to deliver services to the customer, whereas v2 focused on specific activities directly related to service delivery and support.
Most of the v2 activities remained untouched in v3, but some significant changes in terminology were introduced in order to facilitate the expansion.
Five volumes comprise the ITIL v3, published in May 2007: 1.
ITIL Service Strategy 2.
ITIL Service Design 3.
ITIL Service Transition 4.
ITIL Service Operation 5.
ITIL Continual Service Improvement Service Strategy As the center and origin point of the ITIL Service Lifecycle, the ITIL Service Strategy volume provides guidance on clarification and prioritisation of service-provider investments in services.
More generally, Service Strategy focuses on helping IT organisations improve and develop over the long term.
In both cases, Service Strategy relies largely upon a market-driven approach.
Key topics covered include service value definition, business-case development, service assets, market analysis, and service provider types.
List of covered processes: • Service Portfolio Management  • Demand Management • IT Financial Management  Information Technology Infrastructure Library 186 Service Design The ITIL Service Design volume provides good-practice guidance on the design of IT services, processes, and other aspects of the service management effort.
Significantly, design within ITIL is understood to encompass all elements relevant to technology service delivery, rather than focusing solely on design of the technology itself.
As such, Service Design addresses how a planned service solution interacts with the larger business and technical environments, service management systems required to support the service, processes which interact with the service, technology, and architecture required to support the service, and the supply chain required to support the planned service.
Within ITIL v2, design work for an IT service is aggregated into a single Service Design Package (SDP).
Service Design Packages, along with other information about services, are managed within the service catalogues.
List of covered processes: • • • • • • • Service Catalogue Management Service Level Management Risk Management Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management Information Security Management • Compliance Management • IT Architecture Management • Supplier Management Service Transition Service transition, as described by the ITIL Service Transition volume, relates to the delivery of services required by a business into live/operational use, and often encompasses the “project” side of IT rather than “BAU” (Business as usual).
This area also covers topics such as managing changes to the “BAU” environment.
List of processes: • • • • • • Service Asset and Configuration Management Service Validation and Testing Evaluation Release Management Change Management Knowledge Management Service Operation Best practice for achieving the delivery of agreed levels of services both to end-users and the customers (where “customers” refer to those individuals who pay for the service and negotiate the SLAs).
Service operation, as described in the ITIL Service Operation volume, is the part of the lifecycle where the services and value is actually directly delivered.
Also the monitoring of problems and balance between service reliability and cost etc.
The functions include technical management, application management, operations management and Service Desk as well as, responsibilities for staff engaging in Service Operation.
List of processes: • Event Management • Incident Management • Problem Management • Request Fulfilment Information Technology Infrastructure Library • Access Management 187 Continual Service Improvement (CSI) Aligning and realigning IT services to changing business needs (because standstill implies decline).
Continual Service Improvement, defined in the ITIL Continual Service Improvement volume, aims to align and realign IT Services to changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to the IT services that support the Business Processes.
The perspective of CSI on improvement is the business perspective of service quality, even though CSI aims to improve process effectiveness, efficiency and cost effectiveness of the IT processes through the whole lifecycle.
To manage improvement, CSI should clearly define what should be controlled and measured.
CSI needs to be treated just like any other service practice.
There needs to be upfront planning, training and awareness, ongoing scheduling, roles created, ownership assigned,and activities identified to be successful.
CSI must be planned and scheduled as process with defined activities, inputs, outputs, roles and reporting.
List of processes: • Service Level Management • Service Measurement and Reporting • Continual Service Improvement Criticisms of ITIL ITIL has been criticised on several fronts, including: • The books are not affordable for non-commercial users • Accusations that many ITIL advocates think ITIL is “a holistic, all-encompassing framework for IT governance” • Accusations that proponents of ITIL indoctrinate the methodology with ‘religious zeal’ at the expense of pragmatism • Implementation and credentialing requires specific training • Debate over ITIL falling under BSM or ITSM frameworks Rob England (also known as “IT Skeptic”) has criticised the protected and proprietary nature of ITIL .
He urges the publisher, OGC, to release ITIL under the the Open Government Licence (OGL) CIO Magazine columnist Dean Meyer has also presented some cautionary views of ITIL, including five pitfalls such as “becoming a slave to outdated definitions” and “Letting ITIL become religion.” As he notes, “…it doesn’t describe the complete range of processes needed to be world class.
It’s focused on …
Managing ongoing services.” In a 2004 survey designed by Noel Bruton (author of “How to Manage the IT Helpdesk” and “Managing the IT Services Process”), organisations adopting ITIL were asked to relate their actual experiences in having implemented ITIL.
Seventy-seven percent of survey respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that “ITIL does not have all the answers”.
ITIL exponents accept this, citing ITIL’s stated intention to be non-prescriptive, expecting organisations to engage ITIL processes with existing process models.
Bruton notes that the claim to non-prescriptiveness must be, at best, one of scale rather than absolute intention, for the very description of a certain set of processes is in itself a form of prescription. While ITIL addresses in depth the various aspects of Service Management, it does not address enterprise architecture in such depth.
Many of the shortcomings in the implementation of ITIL do not necessarily come about because of flaws in the design or implementation of the Service Management aspects of the business, but rather the wider architectural framework in which the business is situated.
Because of its primary focus on Service Management, ITIL has limited utility in managing poorly designed enterprise architectures, or how to feed back into the design of the enterprise architecture. Information Technology Infrastructure Library Closely related to the Architectural criticism, ITIL does not directly address the business applications which run on the IT infrastructure; nor does it facilitate a more collaborative working relationship between development and operations teams.
The trend toward a closer working relationship between development and operations is termed: DevOps.
This trend is related to increased application release rates and the adoption of Agile software development methodologies.
Traditional service management processes have struggled to support increased application release rates – due to lack of automation – and/or highly complex enterprise architecture.
Some researchers group ITIL with Lean, Six Sigma and Agile IT operations management.
Applying Six Sigma techniques to ITIL brings the engineering approach to ITIL’s framework.
Applying Lean techniques promotes continuous improvement of the ITIL’s best practices.
However, ITIL itself is not a transformation method, nor does it offer one.
Readers are required to find and associate such a method.
Some vendors have also included the term Lean when discussing ITIL implementations, for example “Lean-ITIL”.
The initial consequences of an ITIL initiative tend to add cost with benefits promised as a future deliverable.
ITIL does not provide usable methods “out of the box” to identify and target waste, or document the customer value stream as required by Lean, and measure customer satisfaction. 188 Frameworks Related to ITIL A number of frameworks exist in the field of IT Service Management alongside ITIL. ITIL Descendants The Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) is based on ITILv2.
While ITIL deliberatly aims to be platform agnostic, MOF is designed by Microsoft to provide a common management framework for its products.
Microsoft has mapped MOF to ITIL as part of their documentation of the framework. The British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA) used ITIL as the basis for their development of Framework for ICT Technical Support  (FITS).
Their aim was to develop a framework appropriate for British schools which often have very small IT departments.
FITS became independent from BECTA in 2009. Other Frameworks ITIL is generally equivalent to the scope of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard (previously BS 15000). .
While it is not possible for an organization to be certified as being ITIL compliant, certification of an organisation is available for ISO20000 .
COBIT is an IT governance framework and supporting toolset developed by ISACA.
ISACA view ITIL as being complimentory to COBIT.
They see COBIT as providing a governance and assurance role while ITIL providing guidance for service management. The enhanced Telecom Operations Map eTOM published by the TeleManagement Forum offers a framework aimed at telecommunications service providers.
In a joined effort, TM Forum and itSMF developed an Application Note to eTOM (GB921) that shows how the two frameworks can be mapped to each other.
It addresses how eTom process elements and flows can be used to support the processes identified in ITIL.  IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) is aligned with ITIL, but is presented as a complete, integrated process model compatible with IBM’s products. Information Technology Infrastructure Library 189 Certification Individuals The certification scheme differs between ITIL v2 and ITIL v3 and bridge examinations let v2 certification owners transfer to the new program.
ITIL v2 offers 3 certification levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.
These should be progressively discontinued in favour of the new ITIL v3 scheme.
ITIL v3 certification levels are: Foundation, Intermediate, Expert and Master.
The ITIL v3 certification scheme offers a modular approach.
Each qualification is assigned a credit value; so that upon successful completion of the module, the candidate is rewarded with both a certification and a number of credits.
At the lowest level – Foundation candidates are awarded a certification and 2 credits.
At the Intermediate level, a total of 15 credits must be earned.
These credits may be accumulated in either a “Lifecycle” stream or a “Capability” stream; or combination thereof.
Each Lifecycle module and exam is 3 An ITIL Foundation certificate pin.
Each Capability module and corresponding exam is 4 credits.
A candidate wanting to achieve the Expert level will have, among other requirements, to gain the required number of credits (22).
That is accomplished with two from Foundations, then 15 from Intermediate, and finally 5 credits from the “Managing Across the Lifecycle” exam.
Together, the total of 22 earned credits designates one as ITIL v. 3 Expert.
The ITIL Certification Management Board (ICMB) manages ITIL certification.
The Board includes representatives from interested parties within the community around the world.
Members of the Board include (though are not limited to) representatives from the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC), APM Group (APMG), The Stationery Office (TSO), V3 Examination Panel, Examination Institutes (EIs) and the IT Service Management Forum International (itSMF) as the recognised user group. Since the early 1990s, EXIN and ISEB have been setting up the ITIL based certification program, developing and providing ITIL exams at three different levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.
EXIN and BCS/ISEB (the British Computer Society) have from that time onwards been the only two examination providers in the world to develop formally acknowledged ITIL certifications, provide ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers worldwide.
These rights were obtained from OGC, the British government institution and owner of the ITIL trademark.
OGC signed over the management of the ITIL trademark and the accreditation of examination providers to APMG in 2006.
Now, after signing a contract with EXIN , BCS/ISEB and other certification bodies, including PEOPLECERT Group , APMG is accrediting them as official examination bodies, providing APMG’s ITIL exams and accrediting ITIL training providers.
On July 20, 2006, the OGC signed a contract with the APM Group  to become its commercial partner for ITIL accreditation from January 1, 2007. APMG manage the ITIL Version 3 exams.
APMG maintains a voluntary register of ITIL Version 3-certified practitioners at their Successful Candidate Register. A voluntary registry of ITIL Version 2-certified practitioners is operated by the ITIL Certification Register. Information Technology Infrastructure Library 190 ITIL® pins It has been a well-known tradition for years that passing an EXIN exam in IT Service Management (based on ITIL®) does not only result in a certificate, but is also accompanied by the presentation of a metal pin which can be attached to a shirt or jacket.
This distinguishing badge with basic gold colour is set in the form of the internationally well-known ITIL®-logo.
The ITIL® pins consist of small diamond like structure that is accepted worldwide.
The meaning and the shape of the diamond depicts coherence in the IT industry (infrastructure as well).
The four corners of the pin symbolises service support, service delivery, Infrastructure Management and IT Management.
There are three colours of ITIL® V2 pins: 1.
Green, for the Foundation Certificate 2.
Blue, for the Practitioner’s Certificate 3.
Red, for the Manager’s Certificate Exam candidates who have successfully passed the examinations for ITIL® version 2 will receive their appropriate pin from EXIN, PEOPLECERT Group or their certification provider, their EXIN, PEOPLECERT Group or their certification provider regional office, or an EXIN,PEOPLECERT Group or certification agent.
With the arrival of ITIL® V3, there are several new pins to display your achievements.
As of July 2008, EXIN and all certification providers such as PEOPLECERT Group will also provide ITIL® pins to exam candidates who have obtained ITIL® version 3 certificates.
The new pins are very similar to ITIL® V2 pins, but every level has a different color corresponding to the ITIL® V3 core books. Organisations Organisations and management systems cannot claim certification as “ITIL-compliant”.
An organisation that has implemented ITIL guidance in IT Service Management (ITSM), may however, be able to achieve compliance with and seek certification under ISO/IEC 20000.
Note that there are some significant differences between ISO/IEC20000 and ITIL Version 3 • ISO20000 only recognises the management of financial assets, not assets which include “management, organisation, process, knowledge, people, information, applications, infrastructure and financial capital”, nor the concept of a “service asset”.
So ISO20000 certification does not address the management of ‘assets’ in an ITIL sense. • ISO20000 does not recognise Configuration Management System (CMS) or Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS), and so does not certify anything beyond Configuration Management Database (CMDB). • An organisation can obtain ISO20000 certification without recognising or implementing the ITIL concept of Known Error, which is usually considered essential to ITIL. References  David Clifford, Jan van Bon (2008).
Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap.
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Html?ID=4186), CIO Magazine, March 31, 2005  Survey: “The ITIL Experience – Has It Been Worth It”, author Bruton Consultancy 2004, published by Helpdesk Institute Europe, The Helpdesk and IT Support Show, and Hornbill Software.  Microsoft Operations Framework; Cross Reference ITIL V3 and MOF 4.0 (http:/ / go.
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Retrieved 24 February 2009. 191 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www.itil-officialsite.com/home/home.asp) • The OGC website (http://www.ogc.gov.uk/) Granular Configuration Automation 192 Granular Configuration Automation Granular Configuration Automation (GCA) is a specialized area in the field of Configuration Management which focuses on visibility and control of an IT Environment’s configuration and bill-of-material at the most granular level.
This framework focuses on improving the stability of IT environments by analyzing granular information.
It responds to the requirement to determine a threat level of an environment risk, and to allow IT organizations to focus on those risks with the highest impact on performance. Granular Configuration Automation combines two major trends in configuration management: the move to collect detailed and comprehensive environment information and the growing utilization of automation tools. Driving factors For IT Personnel, IT systems have grown in complexity  , supporting a wider and growing range of technologies and platforms.
Application release schedules are accelerating, requiring greater attention to more information. The average Global 2000 firm has more than a thousand applications that their IT organization deploys and supports. New technology platforms like cloud and virtualization offer benefits to IT with less server space, and energy savings, but complicate configuration management from issues like sprawl. The need to ensure high availability and consistent delivery of business services have led many companies to develop automated configuration, change and release management processes. Downtime and system outages undermine the environments that IT professionals manage.
Despite advances in infrastructure robustness, occasional hardware, software and database downtime occurs.
Dunn & Bradstreet reports that 49% of Fortune 500 companies experience at least 1.6 hours of downtime per week, translating into more than 80 hours annually. The growing costs of downtime has provided IT organizations with ample evidence for the need to improve processes.
A conservative estimate from Gartner pegs the hourly cost of downtime for computer networks at $42,000, so a company that suffers from worse than average downtime of 175 hours a year can lose more than $7 million per year. The demands and complexity of Incident Investigation have put further strain on IT professionals, where their current experience cannot address incidents to the scale of environments in their organizations.
The incident may be captured, monitored and the results reported using standardized forms, most of the time even using a help-desk or trouble tickets software system to automate it and sometimes even a formal process methodology like ITIL.
But the core activity is still handled by a technical specialist “nosing around” the system trying to “figure out” what is wrong based on previous experience and personal expertise. Potential applications • Release validation — validating releases and mitigating the risk of production outages • Incident prevention — identifying and alerting of undesired changes; hence avoiding costly environment incidents • Incident investigation — pinpointing the root-cause of the incident and significantly cutting the time and effort spent on investigation • Disaster Recovery Verification — the accurate validation of disaster recovery plans and eliminating surprises at the most vulnerable times • Security — identifying deviations from security policy and best-practices • Compliance — discovering non-compliant situations and providing a detailed audit-trail Granular Configuration Automation 193 References  Risk Management Broken in Many Organizations, says Gartner, Government Technology, ” (http:/ / www.govtech.com/ gt/ 324452)”  Ken Jackson, The Dawning of the IT Automation Era (http:/ / www.itbusinessedge.com/ cm/ community/ features/ guestopinions/ blog/ the-dawning-of-the-it-automation-era/ ?cs=37375), IT Business Edge.  Bob Violino, Reducing IT Complexity (http:/ / www.smartenterprisemag.com/ articles/ 2007winter/ coverstory.
Jhtml), Smart Enterprise.  Change, Configuration, and Release: What’s Really Driving Top Performance? (http:/ / www.itpi.org/ files/ ITPI_Executive_Snapshot_CCR Study.
Pdf), IT Process Institute.  Improving Application Quality by Controlling Application Infrastructure (http:/ / www.cmcrossroads.com/ cm-journal-articles/ 6957-improving-application-quality-by-controlling-application-infrastructure), Configuration Management Crossroads.  Cameron Sturdevant, How to Tame Virtualization Sprawl (http:/ / www.eweek.com/ c/ a/ IT-Infrastructure/ How-to-Tame-Virtualization-Sprawl/ ), eweek.  Challenges and Priorities for Fortune 1000 Companies (http:/ / pridham.
WordPress.com/ 2007/ 06/ mvalent_survey_results_2007.
Pdf).  How Much Does Downtime Really Cost? (http:/ / www.information-management.com/ infodirect/ 2009_133/ downtime_cost-10015855-1.
Html), Information Management.  How to quantify downtime (http:/ / www.networkworld.com/ careers/ 2004/ 0105man.
Html), NetworkWorld.  Root Cause Analysis for IT Incidents Investigation (http:/ / hosteddocs.
Pdf), IT Toolbox. Go (release management) Go is a proprietary continuous integration and release management product by ThoughtWorks Studios.
It is a part of the Adaptive ALM solution  by ThoughtWorks Studios Go — Endevor Endevor is a mainframe source code management and release management tool.
It is part of a family of administration tools by Computer Associates, which is used to maintain software applications and track their versions. The word ENDEVOR is an acronym.
It stands for Environment for Developers and Operations. Source Control Endevor provides control of source and related code objects as individual elements.
The reference “element” is used to define the smallest object for which Endevor controls. Source Control vs Output Library Control Endevor separates the control of source from the objects used as input and the objects created as output when an action is performed.
In most cases, an element is stored internally by Endevor as the code base and as a delta.
As such, control of source happens internally to Endevor and is separated from libraries controlled by Endevor.
Endevor controlled libraries, which contain element source, element base (normally as an encrypted file name), element delta (normally as an encrypted file name) and outputs of element generation including load modules, DBRM modules, listings and other objects have system security applied with only Endevor internal and batch userids allowed to alter these libraries.
A security control system such as RACF would normally be applied to control access to output libraries.
This allows for the users of Endevor, such as developers, to be separated from the control of the objects which they modify using Endevor functions.
As Endevor provides an interface for creating, modifying, moving, deleting and transferring elements there is no need for any end user to have alter or update access to libraries controlled by Endevor.
This provides an environment suitable for audit purposes as all actions must be executed via an Endevor control. Release Management Endevor supports release management, as defined by ITIL in the form of package control.
Two options are available for package security – native Endevor security or Endevor External Security Interface (ESI). Endevor Native Security Endevor native security is a built in security option which allows Endevor Administrators to defined approver groups per Endevor Environment, approver group relationships per Endevor Environment and security tables per Endevor Environment and for specific Endevor functions.
Each approve group can have up to 16 userids Endevor Endevor System Access Table Access to Endevor Environments is defined by a single security table.
This security table defines the groups for which users are assigned to and lists the stages for which users can interact with.
Access can then be granted to one or more users based on the user’s mainframe userid; where $ resolves to ‘any character’.
Here is an example of an Endevor Environment Access Table.
The Endevor Map for this table is: DVLP/DEV –> DEVP/INT –> TEST/TST –> TEST/STG –> PROD/PRD (bypassing PROD/RES) CONSDEF TYPE=START,TABLE=USER CONSDEF TYPE=USER,GROUP=ADMIN, SYSDEF=((DEV,$,R),(TST,$,R),(RES,$,R),(ADM,$,R)) CONSDEF TYPE=USER,GROUP=DEVUSERS, SYSDEF=((DEV,$,R),(TST,$,R),(RES,$,R)) CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=SYSADM1,GROUP=ADMIN IAN CHARLIE CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=SYSADM2,GROUP=ADMIN YULE CHRISTIAN CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=SYSADM3,GROUP=ADMIN CHRIS BROWN CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=NDVR,GROUP=ADMIN ENDEVOR ALT ID CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=NDVRID,GROUP=ADMIN ENDEVOR BATCH ID CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=$$$$$$$,GROUP=DEVUSERS ALL DEVELOPERS CONSDEF TYPE=END,TABLE=USER 196 X X In this example the Endevor Administrators are granted access to an additional Administration environment for which all other users can not interact with.
Endevor Environment Access Table This is an example of an access control table for Endevor granting Administrators, Applications team leaders and all other users access to Endevor functions for the Development environment.
CONSDEF TYPE=START,TABLE=USER CONSDEF TYPE=USER,GROUP=ADMIN, SYSDEF=(($,$,AURMDPSZ,BV)) CONSDEF TYPE=USER,GROUP=DEVTEAML, SYSDEF=(($,$,AURMDPS,B),(COM,$,RS,B)) CONSDEF TYPE=USER,GROUP=DEVUSERS, SYSDEF=(($,$,AURMDP,B)) CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=SYSADM1,GROUP=ADMIN CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=SYSADM2,GROUP=ADMIN CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=SYSADM3,GROUP=ADMIN CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=NDVR,GROUP=ADMIN CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=NDVRID,GROUP=ADMIN CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=DEVTL1,GROUP=DEVTEAML CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=DEVTL2,GROUP=DEVTEAML CONSDEF TYPE=USER,USERID=$$$$$$$,GROUP=DEVUSERS CONSDEF TYPE=END,TABLE=USER X X X IAN CHARLIE YULE CHRISTIAN CHRIS BROWN ENDEVOR ALT ID ENDEVOR BATCH ID HARRY HANOCK BARRY HANOCK Developers In this way, Endevor will allow for Endevor Administrators to execute any Endevor function in this environment; for developers to be able to add, update, retrieve, move, delete or browse elements; and for development team leaders to be able to have the same access as developers – with the added ability to override signout. —  EETimes, “CAD links to disty databases gain momentum” (http:/ / www.eetimes.com/ electronics-news/ 4197950/ CAD-links-to-disty-databases-gain-momentum), accessed 2010-09-08  EETimes, “Altium releases 3D PCB visualization” (http:/ / www.eetimes.com/ electronics-products/ ip-eda-products/ 4100440/ Altium-releases-3D-PCB-visualization), accessed 2010-09-06  EETimes, “Aldec FPGA simulation added to Altium Designer” (http:/ / www.eetimes.com/ electronics-news/ 4199682/ Aldec-FPGA-simulation-added-to-Altium-Designer), accessed 2010-09-06  FPGA World, “Altium announces support for Xilinx MicroBlaze processor” (http:/ / www.fpgaworld.com/ modules.
Php?name=News& file=article& sid=265), accessed 2010-09-06  EETimes, “Altium announces new publishing and version control capabilities” (http:/ / www.eetimes.com/ electronics-products/ fpga-pld-products/ 4105358/ Altium-announces-new-publishing-and-version-control-capabilities), accessed 2010-12-21  FPGA Journal, “Head in the clouds” (http:/ / www.techfocusmedia.net/ fpgajournal/ feature_articles/ 20101214-altium/ ), accessed 2010-12-21 External Links • New Features in Altium Designer 10 (http://wiki.altium.com/display/ADOH/New+Features+in+Altium+ Designer+10) • Release notes for Altium Designer 10 (Platform Build 10.391.22084) (http://wiki.altium.com/display/ADOH/ Release+notes+for+Altium+Designer+10+(Platform+Build+10.391.22084)) • Altium Authorized Distributor in Indonesia (http://www.solidbasetech.com/) Infra Corporation 217 Infra Corporation Infra Corporation is a division of EMC Corporation that produces infraEnterprise, which is a multi-tier web-based IT Service Management software tool.
The software is based on the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) and it implements a number of ITIL processes, including Service Desk management (including Incident Management and Problem Management), Change Management, Release Management, Configuration Management (including Federated CMDB), Availability Management and Service Level Management.
The tool also includes a knowledge base module (known as the “knowledge bank”), which complies with principles of KCS (Knowledge Centered Support).
Infra Corporation was first established in 1991 in Australia, and now has regional head offices in North America, Australia, the UK and Europe and a worldwide network of partners and distributors. Infra was acquired by Hopkinton, Massachusetts-based EMC Corporation on March 10, 2008, in a move viewed by analysts as part of EMC’s ongoing strategy to establish itself as an IT management solution provider. In 2002 infraEnterprise was awarded PinkVerify ITIL certification from Pink Elephant, an independent consulting firm specialising in ITIL and PRINCE2.  Infra has won a number of awards.
In 2007, they were awarded the Network Computing magazine “Helpdesk Product of the Year” for infraEnterprise, and were awarded HDI’s Best Business Use of Business Support Technology in 2006 at the 11th Annual Help Desk and IT Support Excellence Awards. References  History of Infra Corporation (http:/ / www.infra.
Uk/ company/ ), Infra Corporation.
Access 24th August, 2007.  “Press Release: EMC Acquires Leading IT Service Management (ITSM) Software Provider, Infra” (http:/ / www.emc.com/ about/ news/ press/ 2008/ 20080310-03.
Retrieved 2008-09-15.  Jander, Mary (2008-03-11). “EMC Buys IT Service Desk Player Infra” (http:/ / www.byteandswitch.com/ document.
Byte and Switch. .
Retrieved 2008-09-15. “Today’s news centers attention on EMC’s ongoing effort to reshape itself not only as a maker of storage products, but as a provider of ‘information infrastructure solutions.’ In pursuit of this goal, EMC’s waging a multi-pronged campaign to buy its way into product areas where it lacks presence.”  PinkVerify Toolset list (https:/ / www.pinkelephant.com/ en-US/ ResourceCenter/ PinkVerify/ PinkVerifyToolset.
Htm), Pink Elephant.
Accessed 24th August, 2007.  Network Computing Magazine, “Network Computing Award”.
Vol 16 No 02.
Page 18.  HDI (11 May 2006). “Infra Corporation wins HDI’s Best Business Use of Business Support Technology” (http:/ / www.hdi-europe.com/ research/ pressrel.
Press release. .
Retrieved 2007-08-24. External links • Infra Corporation (http://www.infra.com.au/) • Infra Benelux (http://www.infra.be/) • Infra France (http://www.infra-france.fr.be/) Pulse (ALM) 218 Pulse (ALM) Pulse is a proprietary application lifecycle management (ALM) technology developed and maintained by Genuitec, a founding and strategic member of the Eclipse Foundation.
Pulse is built on top of the Eclipse Equinox (OSGi)/p2 platform  , and integrates both proprietary and open source software for software delivery, release management and collaboration environment.
The current version of Pulse is 3.2 Pulse has three primary versions: Pulse Private Label, a software delivery, collaboration and management product  .
Pulse Private Label is a white-label product for building custom installation (computer programs) of software using the Internet as the channel.
Pulse Managed Team Edition is an offering built on top of the Community Edition that focuses on providing full tool customization and development team synchronization for small to medium sized development teams.
Genuitec’s MyEclipse has been made available via Pulse along with Fortune 500 software and hardware vendors, enterprise CRM vendors, and electronic travel vendors that use Pulse to distribute proprietary software.
Other notable ALM vendors include IBM Rational Team Concert and HP Quality Center. External links — In summary, as companies seek to streamline the cumbersome transition between development and operations, they typically confront 3 different types of problems: Release Management Problems Companies with release management problems are looking for better release planning than spreadsheets.
They want an easy way to understand release risks, dependencies, stage gates adherence and an ensure compliance.
Release/Deployment Coordination Problems Teams with release/deployment coordination problems are focused on better execution of release/deployment events.
They want better tracking of discrete activities, faster escalation of issues, documented process control and granular reporting.
Release/Deployment Automation Problems Companies with release/deployment automation problems usually have existing automation but want to more flexibly manage and drive this automation – without needing to enter everything manually at the command-line.
Ideally, this automation can be invoked by non-operations resources in specific non-production environments.
One way to start streamlining release process is to identify which of the above problems is the overall team’s highest priority. DevOps 223 Release coordinator A relatively new role in enterprise IT which is primarily tasked with coordinating deployments of enterprise software to pre-production environments.
The need for the release coordinator has been driven by: 1. 2. 3. 4.
The need to fill the DevOps “gap” Increased infrastructure complexity – multiple layers and platforms which form web applications Growth in rate of releases – due to agile and iterative development Distributed teams – globally deployed, outsourced and hybrid development, testing and infrastructure teams The release co-ordinator role (also referred to as a deployment or integration co-ordinator) has emerged from the release management or release engineering teams.
This role is similar to an air traffic controller—performing real time co-ordination activities across diverse teams to achieve a group goal (safe landing and take-off) using shared resources (airspace, flight paths, airport runways, and terminal gates).
Release co-ordination contrasts with release management, which is often focused on planning and reporting on software changes, in order to control the release of specific application changes into production.
Release engineering is concerned with the systematic and technical work related to building and deploying code into environments.
Change management is the infrastructure discipline for tracking all types of changes in the enterprise IT environment—including both application and infrastructure changes.
Change management is a core part of ITIL v3. Criticisms of DevOps Some in the IT blogging field have cited criticisms of the “DevOps” label as just a primarily elitist sysadmin club to rebrand an existing problem or a marketing scheme to sell already well-understood methodologies.  References  Pant, Rajiv (2009-03-17). “DevOps” (http:/ / www.rajiv.com/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ 17/ technology-department/ ).organizing a Technology Department. .  Samovskiy, Dmitriy (2010-03-02). “The Rise of DevOps” (http:/ / somic.org/ 2010/ 03/ 02/ the-rise-of-devops/ ).
Fubaredness Is Contagious. .  Edwards, Damon. “What is DevOps?” (http:/ / dev2ops.org/ blog/ 2010/ 2/ 22/ what-is-devops.
Html). .  Vambenepe, William. “Steve Ballmer gets Cloud” (http:/ / stage.
Vambenepe.com/ archives/ 1393). .  Lyman, Jay. “DevOps mixing dev, ops, agile, cloud, open source and business” (http:/ / blogs.
The451group.com/ opensource/ 2010/ 03/ 03/ devops-mixing-dev-ops-agile-cloud-open-source-and-business/ ). 451 CAOS Theory. .  Nasrat, Paul. “Agile Infrastructure” (http:/ / www.infoq.com/ presentations/ agile-infrastructure).
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  http:/ / agileoperations.net/  Debois, Patrick. “DevOps Cafe Episode 12” (http:/ / devopscafe.org/ show/ 2010/ 9/ 15/ episode-12.
DevOps Cafe. .
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  Debois, Patrick. “DevOpsDays Ghent 2009” (http:/ / www.devopsdays.org/ events/ 2009-ghent/ ).
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  Debois, Patrick. “DevOpsDays” (http:/ / www.devopsdays.org/ ).
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  Turnbull, James. “What DevOps means to me…” (http:/ / www.kartar.net/ 2010/ 02/ what-devops-means-to-me/ ). .  “10+ Deploys Per Day: Dev and Ops Cooperation at Flickr” (http:/ / www.slideshare.net/ jallspaw/ 10-deploys-per-day-dev-and-ops-cooperation-at-flickr). .  “SAM SIG: Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing” (http:/ / www.sdforum.org/ index.
SDForum. .  “Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing” (http:/ / www.slideshare.net/ pascallouis/ applied-lean-startup-ideas-continuous-deployment-at-kaching). .  “DevOps Group” (http:/ / www.linkedin.com/ groups?mostPopular=& gid=2825397).
LinkedIn. .  “DevOps Days 2009 Conference” (http:/ / www.devopsdays.org/ ghent09/ programme/ ). .  Edwards, Damon. “DevOps Meetup Recap” (http:/ / dev2ops.org/ blog/ 2010/ 4/ 26/ devops-meetup-recap.
Html). .  Lyman, Jay. “DevOps mixing dev, ops, agile, cloud, open source and business” (http:/ / blogs.
The451group.com/ opensource/ 2010/ 03/ 03/ devops-mixing-dev-ops-agile-cloud-open-source-and-business/ ). 451 CAOS Theory. .  “Virtual Infrastructure products: features comparison” (http:/ / www.it20.
Info/ misc/ virtualizationscomparison.
Welcome to IT 2.0: Next Generation IT infrastructures. . DevOps  Ellard, Jennifer. “Bringing Order to Chaos through Data Center Automation” (http:/ / www.information-management.com/ infodirect/ 20071026/ 10000120-1.
SourceMedia, Inc.. .  Debois, Patrick. “The leaning of life – History of the Silos” (http:/ / www.jedi.
Be/ blog/ 2010/ 06/ 07/ the-leaning-of-life/ ). .  Booth, David. “How to Measure the Effects of Development + Operations improvements, an OpenSpace conversation” (http:/ / www.zeroturnaround.com/ blog/ how-to-measure-the-effectiveness-of-implementing-devops). .  Nelson-Smith, Stephen. “What Is This Devops Thing, Anyway?” (http:/ / www.jedi.
Be/ blog/ 2010/ 02/ 12/ what-is-this-devops-thing-anyway/ ). .  Dziuba, Ted. “Devops Is a Poorly Executed Scam” (http:/ / teddziuba.com/ 2011/ 03/ devops-scam.
Html). . 224 Software release life cycle 225 — Article Sources and Contributors WalterGR, Warren, Wavelength, Wayiran, Wdd123, Whoisjohngalt, Wiki Jazz man, Wikibofh, Wikibrent, Wwwwolf, XJamRastafire, Yoshiisgod, Zacatecnik, Zanwifi, Zarel, Zeimusu, Zero10one, ZeroOne, Zerofire0, 542 anonymous edits Continuous integration Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=424170792 Contributors: Abdull, Adam messinger, Adamleggett, Aidinnz, AlexMorozov, AliveFreeHappy, AllenDowney, Andrea105, Andy Dingley, AndyGavin, Aponar Kestrel, Aron.gombas, Athought, Beland, Bertport, Bryan.dollery, Bryankennedy, BuSchu, Cander0000, CanisRufus, Chandresa, Chris Howard, Chymb, CiaranG, Collinjc, Cybercobra, Cyberdiablo, Daltenty, Damiens.rf, Danarmak, Daniel.Cardenas, DarkseidX, Deccico, Denis.dallaire, Drm mills, Duplicity, Dwi Secundus, Elizaveta Revyakina, Erncrts, Ettrig, Fabrictramp, FrankTobia, Ganesan Janarthanam, Gary King, Gaudol, Ghettoblaster, Gioto, Haakon, Henk Langeveld, Hilgerdenaar, Hu12, Huygensvector, Icairns, Imeshev, Irishguy, JBsupreme, JHunterJ, Jacek Kendysz, Jack Merridew, Jacob Robertson, Jbellwiki, Jchyip, Jeffhudsonbush, Jerryobject, Jgrahamc, Jjdawson7, Jm34harvey, Joeblakesley, JohnMcDonnell, Jonik, Josh Parris, Jpo, Julesd, Jwarnier, Jyankus, Khalid hassani, Kku, Kslotte, Leandrod, Lewis, Liahocho, M4gnum0n, MandyOwens, Maszanchi, Matsumuraseito, Mcsee, Michig, Mmenal, Modbear, Morlach01, Mrhericus, Nallen20, Nimowy, Nlfiedler, Open-collar, PTSE, Pbb, Pmcollins, Rbalacha, Renato Primavera, Rich Farmbrough, RickBeton, Rickyp, RobCheng, Robinshine, RossPatterson, Rursus, Régis Décamps, SRyll, Scottmackay, Seajay, SensuiShinobu1234, Smountcastle, Staceyeschneider, Stemcd, Stephanakib, Stevage, Steveluo, TJRC, Technobadger, Tedickey, The Wild Falcon, Themshow, TotoBaggins, Tracyragan, Tracyragan10, WRK, Wafulz, Waveclaw, Whywhenwhohow, Wickity, William Avery, Winterst, Xfeldman, Yaegor, Ymalik, Zazpot, Zorgon7, 237 anonymous edits Debian Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426351684 Contributors: (, (14$H, *drew, -mushroom, 16@r, 62.2.17.”, A.M., A7Bo, ABCD, ALK, AThing, Acerperi, AdrianTM, Ahunt, Ajdlinux, Akanemoto, Alexr, Alinutza b, Alisha.4m, AlistairMcMillan, Altonbr, Amxitsa, Andareed, Andorin Kato, Andreas T.
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