ITIL Service Design : 2 Terminology Term analytical modeling Definition ITIL Continual Service Improvement….

ITILITIL Service Design : 2 Terminology Term analytical modeling Definition ITIL Continual Service Improvement….

Demand management was previously an activity found within capacity management, and now, within Version 3.4 of ITIL®, it has been made a separate process found within the Service Strategy stage.

The reason behind this is that, before we decide how to design for capacity, decisions must be made regarding why demand should be managed in a particular way.

Such questions asked here include: •• •• Why does the business need this capacity? Does the benefit of providing the required capacity outweigh the costs? Demand management is responsible for understanding and strategically responding to business demands for services by: 1. Analyzing patterns of activity and user profiles 2. Provisioning capacity in line with strategic objectives Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 163 8.2 Terminology Term analytical modeling Definition (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Strategy) A technique that uses mathematical models to predict the behavior of IT services or other configuration items.

Analytical models are commonly used in capacity management and availability management. (ITIL Service Strategy) A segment of the business that has its own plans, metrics, income, and costs.

Each business unit owns assets and uses these to create value for customers in the form of goods and services. (ITIL Service Design) The maximum throughput that a configuration item or IT service can deliver.

For some types of CI, capacity may be the size or volume, for example, a disk drive. (ITIL Service Strategy) A workload profile of one or more business activities.

Patterns of business activity are used to help the IT service provider understand and plan for different levels of business activity.

See also user profile. (ITIL Service Strategy) A pattern of user demand for IT services.

Each user profile includes one or more patterns of business activity. business unit capacity pattern of business activity (PBA) user profile (UP) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 164 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION — 307 308 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION Term availability availability management information system (AMIS) backup balanced scorecard Definition (ITIL® Service Design) Ability of an IT service or other configuration item to perform its agreed function when required.

Availability is determined by reliability, maintainability, serviceability, performance, and security.

Availability is usually calculated as a percentage.

This calculation is often based on agreed service time and downtime.

It is best practice to calculate availability of an IT service using measurements of the business output. (ITIL® Service Design) A set of tools, data, and information that is used to support availability management See also service knowledge management system. (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Operation) Copying data to protect against loss of integrity or availability of the original (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A management tool developed by Drs.

Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton.

A balanced scorecard enables a strategy to be broken down into key performance indicators.

Performance against the KPIs is used to demonstrate how well the strategy is being achieved.

A balanced scorecard has four major areas, each of which has a small number of KPIs.

The same four areas are considered at different levels of detail throughout the organization. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 309 Term baseline Definition (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Transition) A snapshot that is used as a reference point.

Many snapshots may be taken and recorded over time but only some will be used as baselines.

For example: An ITSM baseline can be used as a starting point to measure the effect of a service improvement plan.

A performance baseline can be used to measure changes in performance over the lifetime of an IT service.

A configuration baseline can be used as part of a back-out plan to enable the IT infrastructure to be restored to a known configuration if a change or release fails.

See also benchmark. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Transition) A baseline that is used to compare related data sets as part of a benchmarking exercise.

For example, a recent snapshot of a process can be compared to a previous baseline of that process, or a current baseline can be compared to industry data or best practice.

See also benchmarking; baseline. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) The process responsible for comparing a benchmark with related data sets, such as a more recent snapshot, industry data, or best practice.

The term is also used to mean creating a series of benchmarks over time and comparing the results to measure progress or improvement.

This process is not described in detail within the core ITIL® publications.

The Best Management Practice portfolio is owned by the Cabinet Office, part of HM Government.

Formerly owned by CCTA and then Cabinet Office, the BMP functions moved to the Cabinet Office in June 2010.

The BMP portfolio includes guidance on IT service management and project, program, risk, portfolio, and value management.

There is also a management maturity model as well as related glossaries of terms. benchmark benchmarking Best Management Practice (BMP) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 310 — Term definitive media library (DML) demand management Deming Cycle deployment design coordination detection Definition (ITIL® Service Transition) One or more locations in which the definitive and authorized versions of all software configuration items are securely stored.

The definitive media library may also contain associated configuration items, such as licenses and documentation.

It is a single logical storage area, even if there are multiple locations.

The definitive media library is controlled by service asset and configuration management and is recorded in the configuration management system. (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Strategy) The process responsible for understanding, anticipating, and influencing customer demand for services.

Demand management works with capacity management to ensure that the service provider has sufficient capacity to meet the required demand.

At a strategic level, demand management can involve analysis of patterns of business activity and user profiles, while at a tactical level, it can involve the use of differential charging to encourage customers to use IT services at less busy times or require short-term activities to respond to unexpected demand or the failure of a configuration item.

See Plan-Do-Check-Act. (ITIL® Service Transition) The activity responsible for movement of new or changed hardware, software, documentation, process, etc.

To the live environment.

Deployment is part of the release and deployment management process. (ITIL® Service Design) The process responsible for coordinating all service design activities, processes, and resources.

Design coordination ensures the consistent and effective design of new or changed IT services, service management information systems, architectures, technology, processes, information, and metrics. (ITIL Service Operation) A stage in the expanded incident lifecycle.

Detection results in the incident becoming known to the service provider.

Detection can be automatic or the result of a user logging an incident. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 321 Term development Definition (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for creating or modifying an IT service or application ready for subsequent release and deployment.

Development is also used to mean the role or function that carries out development work.

This process is not described in detail within the core ITIL publications. (ITIL Service Operation) A stage in the incident and problem lifecycles.

The purpose of diagnosis is to identify a workaround for an incident or the root cause of a problem.

Information in readable form.

A document may be paper or electronic—for example, a policy statement, service level agreement, incident record, or diagram of a computer room layout.

See also record. (ITIL® Service Design) (ITIL® Service Operation) The time when an IT service or other configuration item is not available during its agreed service time.

The availability of an IT service is often calculated from agreed service time and downtime. (ITIL Service Transition) A stage in the service lifecycle that occurs at the end of deployment and before the service is fully accepted into operation.

During early life support, the service provider reviews key performance indicators, service levels, and monitoring thresholds and may implement improvements to ensure that service targets can be met.

The service provider may also provide additional resources for incident and problem management during this time.

ITIL® Service Transition) A change that must be introduced as soon as possible, for example, to resolve a major incident or implement a security patch.

The change management process will normally have a specific procedure for handling emergency changes.

See also emergency change advisory board. diagnosis document downtime early life support (ELS) emergency change Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 322 — event management exception report Definition (ITIL® Service Transition) A subgroup of the change advisory board that makes decisions about emergency changes.

Membership may be decided at the time a meeting is called and depends on the nature of the emergency change. (ITIL Service Operation) A design flaw or malfunction that causes a failure of one or more IT services or other configuration items.

A mistake made by a person or a faulty process that impacts a configuration item is also an error. (ITIL® Service Operation) An activity that obtains additional resources when these are needed to meet service level targets or customer expectations.

Escalation may be needed within any IT service management process but is most commonly associated with incident management, problem management, and the management of customer complaints.

There are two types of escalation: functional escalation and hierarchic escalation. (ITIL® Service Operation) A change of state that has significance for the management of an IT service or other configuration item.

The term is also used to mean an alert or notification created by any IT service, configuration item, or monitoring tool.

Events typically require IT operations personnel to take actions and often lead to incidents being logged. (ITIL Service Operation) The process responsible for managing events throughout their lifecycle.

Event management is one of the main activities of IT operations.

A document containing details of one or more key performance indicators or other important targets that have exceeded defined thresholds.

Examples include service level agreement targets being missed or about to be missed, and a performance metric indicating a potential capacity problem. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 323 Term external customer Definition A customer who works for a different business from the IT service provider.

See also external service provider; internal customer.

A metric that is used to measure the delivery of IT service to a customer.

External metrics are usually defined in service level agreements and reported to customers. (ITIL® Service Strategy) An IT service provider that is part of a different organization from its customer.

An IT service provider may have both internal and external customers.

See also Type III service provider. (ITIL® Service Operation) The function responsible for managing the physical environment where the IT infrastructure is located.

Facilities management includes all aspects of managing the physical environment—for example, power and cooling, building access management, and environmental monitoring. (ITIL® Service Operation) Loss of ability to operate to specification or to deliver the required output.

The term may be used when referring to IT services, processes, activities, configuration items, etc.

A failure often causes an incident. (ITIL® Service Design) A recovery option that is also known as hot standby.

Fast recovery normally uses a dedicated fixed facility with computer systems and software configured ready to run the IT services.

Fast recovery typically takes up to 24 hours but may be quicker if there is no need to restore data from backups.

See error. (ITIL Service Design) The ability of an IT service or other configuration item to continue to operate correctly after failure of a component part. external metric external service provider facilities management failure fast recovery fault fault tolerance Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 — Term fault tree analysis (FTA) fit for purpose fit for use follow the sun fulfillment function Definition (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) A technique that can be used to determine a chain of events that has caused an incident or may cause an incident in the future.

Fault tree analysis represents a chain of events using Boolean notation in a diagram. (ITIL® Service Strategy) The ability to meet an agreed level of utility.

Fit for purpose is also used informally to describe a process, configuration item, IT service, etc.

That is capable of meeting its objectives or service levels.

Being fit for purpose requires suitable design, implementation, control, and maintenance. (ITIL® Service Strategy) The ability to meet an agreed level of warranty.

Being fit for use requires suitable design, implementation, control, and maintenance. (ITIL® Service Operation) A methodology for using service desks and support groups around the world to provide seamless 24/7 service.

Calls, incidents, problems, and service requests are passed between groups in different timezones.

Performing activities to meet a need or requirement, for example, by providing a new IT service or meeting a service request.

A team or group of people and the tools or other resources they use to carry out one or more processes or activities—for example, the service desk.

The term also has two other meanings: •• An intended purpose of a configuration item, person, team, process, or IT service.

For example, one function of an email service may be to store and forward outgoing mails, while the function of a business process may be to dispatch goods to customers. •• To perform the intended purpose correctly, as in ‘The computer is functioning.’ Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 325 Term Definition functional escalation (ITIL® Service Operation) Transferring an incident, problem, or change to a technical team with a higher level of expertise to assist in an escalation.

Governance Ensures that policies and strategy are actually implemented and that required processes are correctly followed.

Governance includes defining roles and responsibilities, measuring and reporting, and taking actions to resolve any issues identified.

Gradual recovery (ITIL® Service Design) A recovery option that is also known as cold standby.

Gradual recovery typically uses a portable or fixed facility that has environmental support and network cabling but no computer systems.

The hardware and software are installed as part of the IT service continuity plan.

Gradual recovery typically takes more than three days and may take significantly longer.

Hierarchic escalation (ITIL® Service Operation) Informing or involving more senior levels of management to assist in an escalation.

Hot standby See fast recovery; immediate recovery.

Identity (ITIL Service Operation) A unique name that is used to identify a user, person, or role.

The identity is used to grant rights to that user, person, or role.

Example identities might be the username SmithJ or the role ‘change manager’.

Immediate recovery (ITIL® Service Design) A recovery option that is also known as hot standby.

Provision is made to recover the IT service with no significant loss of service to the customer.

Immediate recovery typically uses mirroring, load balancing, and split-site technologies.

Impact (ITIL® Service Operation) (ITIL® Service Transition) A measure of the effect of an incident, problem, or change on business processes.

Impact is often based on how service levels will be affected.

Impact and urgency are used to assign priority.

Incident (ITIL® Service Operation) An unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the quality of an IT service.

Failure of a configuration item that has not yet affected service is also an incident—for example, failure of one disk from a mirror set. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 326 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION Term incident management incident record information security management (ISM) Definition (ITIL Service Operation) The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all incidents.

Incident management ensures that normal service operation is restored as quickly as possible and the business impact is minimized. (ITIL® Service Operation) A record containing the details of an incident.

Each incident record documents the lifecycle of a single incident. (ITIL® Service Design) The process responsible for ensuring that the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of an organization’s assets, information, data, and IT services match the agreed needs of the business.

Information security management supports business security, has a wider scope than that of the IT service provider, and includes handling of paper, building access, phone calls, etc.

For the entire organization.

See also security management information system. (ITIL Service Design) The framework of policy, processes, functions, standards, guidelines, and tools that ensures an organization can achieve its information security management objectives.

See also security management information system. (ITIL® Service Design) The policy that governs the organization’s approach to information security management.

The use of technology for the storage, communication, or processing of information.

The technology typically includes computers, telecommunications, applications, and other software.

The information may include business data, voice, images, video, etc.

Information technology is often used to support business processes through IT services. (ITIL Service Operation) A form of automatic call distribution that accepts user input, such as key presses and spoken commands, to identify the correct destination for incoming calls. information security management system (ISMS) information security policy information technology (IT ) interactive voice response (IVR) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 327 Term intermediate recovery Definition (ITIL® Service Design) A recovery option that is also known as warm standby.

Intermediate recovery usually uses a shared portable or fixed facility that has computer systems and network components.

The hardware and software will need to be configured and data will need to be restored as part of the IT service continuity plan.

Typical recovery times for intermediate recovery are one to three days.

A customer who works for the same business as the IT service provider See also external customer; internal service provider. (ITIL® Service Strategy) An IT service provider that is part of the same organization as its customer.

An IT service provider may have both internal and external customers.

See also Type I service provider; Type II service provider.

An external service provider that provides access to the internet.

Most ISPs also provide other IT services, such as web hosting. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Operation) A technique that helps a team to identify all the possible causes of a problem.

Originally devised by Kaoru Ishikawa, the output of this technique is a diagram that looks like a fishbone.

All of the hardware, software, networks, facilities, etc.

That are required to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control, or support applications and IT services.

The term includes all of the information technology but not the associated people, processes, and documentation. (ITIL® Service Operation) Activities carried out by IT operations control, including console management/operations bridge, job scheduling, backup and restore, and print and output management.

IT operations are also used as a synonym for service operation. internal customer internal service provider internet service provider (ISP) Ishikawa diagram — major incident manageability Management of Risk (M_o_R®) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 332 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION Term Definition manual workaround (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) A workaround that requires manual intervention.

Manual workaround is also used as the name of a recovery option in which the business process operates without the use of IT services.

This is a temporary measure and is usually combined with another recovery option.

Maturity level A named level in a maturity model, such as the Carnegie Mellon Capability Maturity Model Integration mean time between failures (MTBF) (ITIL Service Design) A metric for measuring and reporting reliability.

MTBF is the average time that an IT service or other configuration item can perform its agreed function without interruption.

This is measured from when the configuration item starts working until it next fails.

Mean time between (ITIL Service Design) A metric used for measuring and reporting service incidents reliability.

It is the mean time from when a system or IT service fails (MTBSI) until it next fails.

MTBSI is equal to MTBF plus MTRS.

Mean time to repair The average time taken to repair an IT service or other configuration (MTTR) item after a failure.

MTTR is measured from when the configuration item fails until it is repaired.

MTTR does not include the time required to recover or restore.

It is sometimes incorrectly used instead of mean time to restore service.

Mean time to restore The average time taken to restore an IT service or other configuration service (MTRS) item after a failure.

MTRS is measured from when the configuration item fails until it is fully restored and is delivering its normal functionality.

See also maintainability; mean time to repair.

Metric (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) Something that is measured and reported to help manage a process, IT service, or activity.

See also key performance indicator.

Model A representation of a system, process, IT service, configuration item, etc.

That is used to help understand or predict future behavior. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 333 Term Definition monitor control loop (ITIL Service Operation) Monitoring the output of a task, process, IT service, or other configuration item; comparing this output to a predefined norm; and taking appropriate action based on this comparison.

Monitoring (ITIL Service Operation) Repeated observation of a configuration item, IT service, or process to detect events and to ensure that the current status is known.

Normal change (ITIL® Service Transition) A change that is not an emergency change or a standard change.

Normal changes follow the defined steps of the change management process.

Normal service (ITIL Service Operation) An operational state where services and operation configuration items are performing within their agreed service and operational levels objective The outcomes required from a process, activity, or organization in order to ensure that its purpose will be fulfilled.

Objectives are usually expressed as measurable targets.

The term is also informally used to mean a requirement.

Office of Cabinet Office (former owner of Best Management Practice) and Government its functions have moved into the Cabinet Office as part of HM Commerce (Cabinet Government.

Office) See www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk operate To perform as expected.

A process or configuration item is said to operate if it is delivering the required outputs.

Operate also means to perform one or more operations.

For example, to operate a computer is to do the day-to-day operations needed for it to perform as expected.

Operation (ITIL Service Operation) Day-to-day management of an IT service, system, or other configuration item.

Operation is also used to mean any predefined activity or transaction, for example, loading a magnetic tape, accepting money at a point of sale, or reading data from a disk drive. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 334 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION Term operational operational level agreement (OLA) Definition The lowest of three levels of planning and delivery (strategic, tactical, operational).

Operational activities include the day-to-day or short-term planning or delivery of a business process or IT service management process.

The term is also a synonym for live. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Design) An agreement between an IT service provider and another part of the same organization.

It supports the IT service provider’s delivery of IT services to customers and defines the goods or services to be provided and the responsibilities of both parties.

For example, there could be an operational level agreement: •• •• Between the IT service provider and a procurement department to obtain hardware in agreed times Between the service desk and a support group to provide incident resolution in agreed times See also service level agreement. (ITIL® Service Operation) A physical location where IT services and IT infrastructure are monitored and managed.

See IT operations control.

See IT operations management.

The result of carrying out an activity, following a process, or delivering an IT service, etc.

The term is used to refer to intended results as well as to actual results. (ITIL Service Strategy) Using an external service provider to manage IT services. (ITIL Service Operation) A technique used to help identify the business impact of one or more problems.

A formula is used to calculate pain value based on the number of users affected, the duration of the downtime, the impact on each user, and the cost to the business (if known). operations bridge operations control operations management outcome outsourcing pain value analysis Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 335 Term Pareto principle Definition (ITIL Service Operation) A technique used to prioritize activities.

The Pareto principle says that 80% of the value of any activity is created with 20% of the effort.

Pareto analysis is also used in problem management to prioritize possible problem causes for investigation. (ITIL Service Operation) Monitoring of a configuration item, an IT service, or a process that relies on an alert or notification to discover the current status.

See also active monitoring. (ITIL® Service Strategy) A workload profile of one or more business activities.

Patterns of business activity are used to help the IT service provider understand and plan for different levels of business activity.

A measure of what is achieved or delivered by a system, person, team, process, or IT service; Activities to ensure that something achieves its expected outcomes in an efficient and consistent manner (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) A four-stage cycle for process management, attributed to Edward Deming.

Plan-Do-Check-Act is also called the Deming Cycle.

Plan – design or revise processes that support the IT services; Do – implement the plan and manage the processes; Check – measure the processes and IT services, compare with objectives and produce reports; Act – plan and implement changes to improve the processes. (ITIL Service Design) Agreed time when an IT service will not be available.

Planned downtime is often used for maintenance, upgrades, and testing.

A review that takes place after a change or a project has been implemented.

It determines if the change or project was successful and identifies opportunities for improvement.

See PRojects IN Controlled Environments. passive monitoring pattern of business activity (PBA) performance performance management Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) planned downtime postimplementation review (PIR) PRINCE2® Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 336 — Term Definition Project Management A project management standard maintained and published by the Body of Knowledge Project Management Institute. (PMBOK) See www.pmi.org for more information.

See also PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2).

Project Management A membership association that advances the project management Institute (PMI) profession through globally recognized standards and certifications, collaborative communities, an extensive research program, and professional development opportunities.

PMI is a not-for-profit membership organization with representation in many countries around the world.

PMI maintains and publishes the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).

See www.pmi.org for more information.

See also PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2).

The ability of a product, service, or process to provide the intended value.

For example, a hardware component can be considered to be of high quality if it performs as expected and delivers the required reliability.

Process quality also requires an ability to monitor effectiveness and efficiency and to improve them if necessary.

See also quality management system. (ITIL® Service Transition) The process responsible for ensuring that the quality of a service, process, or other service asset will provide its intended value.

Quality assurance is also used to refer to a function or team that performs quality assurance.

This process is not described in detail within the core ITIL® publications. quality quality assurance (QA) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 339 Term Definition quality management (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) The framework of policy, system (QMS) processes, functions, standards, guidelines, and tools that ensures an organization is of a suitable quality to reliably meet business objectives or service levels.

See also ISO 9000. (ITIL® Service Design) A model used to help define roles and responsibilities.

RACI stands for responsible, accountable, consulted and informed. (ITIL Service Operation) Monitoring that takes place in response to an event.

For example, submitting a batch job when the previous job completes or logging an incident when an error occurs.

See also proactive monitoring. (ITIL® Service Design) (ITIL® Service Operation) Returning a configuration item or an IT service to a working state.

Recovery of an IT service often includes recovering data to a known consistent state.

After recovery, further steps may be needed before the IT service can be made available to the users (restoration). (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Operation) The maximum amount of data that may be lost when service is restored after an interruption.

The recovery point objective is expressed as a length of time before the failure.

For example, a recovery point objective of one day may be supported by daily backups, and up to 24 hours of data may be lost.

Recovery point objectives for each IT service should be negotiated, agreed, and documented and used as requirements for Service Design and IT service continuity plans. (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Operation) The maximum time allowed for the recovery of an IT service following an interruption.

The service level to be provided may be less than normal service level targets.

Recovery time objectives for each IT service should be negotiated, agreed, and documented.

See also business impact analysis. RACI reactive monitoring recovery recovery point objective (RPO) recovery time objective (RTO) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 340 — second-line support security security management security management information system (SMIS) security policy server Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 345 Term service Definition A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks.

The term ‘service’ is sometimes used as a synonym for core service, IT service, or service package.

See also utility; warranty.

Any resource or capability of a service provider.

See also asset. (ITIL Service Transition) The process responsible for ensuring that the assets required to deliver services are properly controlled and that accurate and reliable information about those assets is available when and where it is needed.

This information includes details of how the assets have been configured and the relationships between assets.

See also configuration management system. (ITIL® Service Design) (ITIL® Service Strategy) A database or structured document with information about all live IT services, including those available for deployment.

The service catalog is part of the service portfolio and contains information about two types of IT service: customer-facing services that are visible to the business and supporting services required by the service provider to deliver customer-facing services. (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for providing and maintaining the service catalog and for ensuring that it is available to those who are authorized to access it. (ITIL® Service Strategy) A contract to deliver one or more IT services.

The term is also used to mean any agreement to deliver IT services, whether this is a legal contract or a service level agreement. service asset service asset and configuration management (SACM) service catalog service catalog management service contract Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 346 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION — service design package (SDP) service desk service failure analysis (SFA) service hours service improvement plan (SIP) Definition (ITIL Service Design) A stage in the lifecycle of a service.

Service Design includes the design of the services, governing practices, processes, and policies required to realize the service provider’s strategy and to facilitate the introduction of services into supported environments.

Service Design includes the following processes: design coordination, service catalog management, service level management, availability management, capacity management, IT service continuity management, information security management, and supplier management.

Although these processes are associated with service design, most processes have activities that take place across multiple stages of the service lifecycle. (ITIL® Service Design) Document(s) defining all aspects of an IT service and its requirements through each stage of its lifecycle.

A service design package is produced for each new IT service, major change, or IT service retirement. (ITIL® Service Operation) The single point of contact between the service provider and the users.

A typical service desk manages incidents and service requests and also handles communication with the users. (ITIL Service Design) A technique that identifies underlying causes of one or more IT service interruptions.

Service failure analysis identifies opportunities to improve the IT service provider’s processes and tools and not just the IT infrastructure.

It is a timeconstrained, project-like activity, rather than an ongoing process of analysis. (ITIL Service Design) An agreed time period when a particular IT service should be available.

For example, ‘Monday–Friday 08:00 to 17:00 except public holidays’.

Service hours should be defined in a service level agreement. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) A formal plan to implement improvements to a process or IT service Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 347 Term service knowledge management system (SKMS) Definition (ITIL® Service Transition) A set of tools and databases that is used to manage knowledge, information, and data.

The service knowledge management system includes the configuration management system, as well as other databases and information systems.

The service knowledge management system includes tools for collecting, storing, managing, updating, analyzing, and presenting all the knowledge, information, and data that an IT service provider will need to manage the full lifecycle of IT services.

Measured and reported achievement against one or more service level targets.

The term is sometimes used informally to mean service level target. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Design) An agreement between an IT service provider and a customer.

A service level agreement describes the IT service, documents service level targets, and specifies the responsibilities of the IT service provider and the customer.

A single agreement may cover multiple IT services or multiple customers.

See also operational level agreement. (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for negotiating achievable service level agreements and ensuring that these are met.

It is responsible for ensuring that all IT service management processes, operational level agreements, and underpinning contracts are appropriate for the agreed service level targets.

Service level management monitors and reports on service levels, holds regular service reviews with customers, and identifies required improvements.

See service option. service level service level agreement (SLA) service level management (SLM) service level package (SLP) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 348 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION Term service level requirement (SLR) Definition (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Design) A customer requirement for an aspect of an IT service.

Service level requirements are based on business objectives and used to negotiate agreed service level targets.

Service level target (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) A commitment that is documented in a service level agreement.

Service level targets are based on service level requirements and are needed to ensure that the IT service is able to meet business objectives.

They should be SMART and are usually based on key performance indicators.

Service lifecycle An approach to IT service management that emphasizes the importance of coordination and control across the various functions, processes, and systems necessary to manage the full lifecycle of IT services.

The service lifecycle approach considers the strategy, design, transition, operation, and continual improvement of IT services.

Also known as service management lifecycle.

Service maintenance (ITIL Service Operation) The expected time that a configuration objective (SMO) item will be unavailable due to planned maintenance activity service management (ITIL® Service Operation) The expected time that a configuration item will be unavailable due to planned maintenance activity service manager A generic term for any manager within the service provider.

Most commonly used to refer to a business relationship manager, a process manager, or a senior manager with responsibility for IT services overall.

Service model (ITIL® Service Strategy) A model that shows how service assets interact with customer assets to create value.

Service models describe the structure of a service (how the configuration items fit together) and the dynamics of the service (activities, flow of resources, and interactions).

A service model can be used as a template or blueprint for multiple services. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 349 Term service operation Definition (ITIL Service Operation) A stage in the lifecycle of a service.

Service Operation coordinates and carries out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers.

Service operation also manages the technology that is used to deliver and support services.

Service operation includes the following processes: event management, incident management, request fulfillment, problem management, and access management.

Service operation also includes the following functions: service desk, technical management, IT operations management, and application management.

Although these processes and functions are associated with service operation, most processes and functions have activities that take place across multiple stages of the service lifecycle. (ITIL® Service Design) (ITIL® Service Strategy) A choice of utility and warranty offered to customers by a core service or service package.

Service options are sometimes referred to as service level packages. (ITIL® Service Strategy) A role responsible for managing one or more services throughout their entire lifecycle.

Service owners are instrumental in the development of service strategy and are responsible for the content of the service portfolio. (ITIL® Service Strategy) The complete set of services that is managed by a service provider.

The service portfolio is used to manage the entire lifecycle of all services and includes three categories: service pipeline (proposed or in development), service catalog (live or available for deployment), and retired services. (ITIL Service Strategy) The process responsible for managing the service portfolio.

Service portfolio management ensures that the service provider has the right mix of services to meet required business outcomes at an appropriate level of investment.

Service portfolio management considers services in terms of the business value that they provide. service option service owner service portfolio service portfolio management (SPM) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 — Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 352 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION Term single point of failure (SPOF) stakeholder Definition (ITIL Service Design) Any configuration item that can cause an incident when it fails and for which a countermeasure has not been implemented.

A single point of failure may be a person or a step in a process or activity, as well as a component of the IT infrastructure.

A person who has an interest in an organization, project, IT service, etc.

Stakeholders may be interested in the activities, targets, resources, or deliverables.

Stakeholders may include customers, partners, employees, shareholders, owners, etc.

See also RACI.

A mandatory requirement.

Examples include ISO/IEC 20000 (an international standard), an internal security standard for Unix configuration, or a government standard for how financial records should be maintained.

The term is also used to refer to a code of practice or specification published by a standards organization such as ISO or BSI.

See also guideline. (ITIL® Service Transition) A pre-authorized change that is low risk, relatively common, and follows a procedure or work instruction— for example, a password reset or provision of standard equipment to a new employee.

Requests for change are not required to implement a standard change, and they are logged and tracked using a different mechanism, such as a service request.

See also change model. (ITIL Service Operation) Procedures used by IT operations management.

The name of a required field in many types of record.

It shows the current stage in the lifecycle of the associated configuration item, incident, problem, etc. (ITIL Service Operation) The process responsible for managing the storage and maintenance of data throughout its lifecycle standard standard change standard operating procedures (SOP) status storage management Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 353 Term super user Definition (ITIL® Service Operation) A user who helps other users and assists in communication with the service desk or other parts of the IT service provider.

Super users are often experts in the business processes supported by an IT service and will provide support for minor incidents and training. (ITIL® Service Design) (ITIL® Service Strategy) A third party responsible for supplying goods or services that are required to deliver IT services.

Examples of suppliers include commodity hardware and software vendors, network and telecom providers, and outsourcing organizations.

See also underpinning contract. (ITIL® Service Design) A set of tools, data, and information that is used to support supplier management See also service knowledge management system. (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for obtaining value for money from suppliers, ensuring that all contracts and agreements with suppliers support the needs of the business and that all suppliers meet their contractual commitments. (ITIL Service Operation) A group of people with technical skills.

Support groups provide the technical support needed by all of the IT service management processes.

See also technical management. (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Operation) The times or hours when support is available to the users.

Typically these are the hours when the service desk is available.

Support hours should be defined in a service level agreement and may be different from service hours.

For example, service hours may be 24 hours a day, but the support hours may be 07:00 to 19:00. supplier supplier and contract management information system (SCMIS) supplier management support group support hours Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 354 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION Term supporting service system Definition (ITIL Service Design) An IT service that is not directly used by the business but is required by the IT service provider to deliver customer-facing services (for example, a directory service or a backup service).

Supporting services may also include IT services only used by the IT service provider.

All live supporting services, including those available for deployment, are recorded in the service catalog along with information about their relationships to customer-facing services and other CIs.

A number of related things that work together to achieve an overall objective.

For example: •• •• A computer system including hardware, software, and applications A management system, including the framework of policy, processes, functions, standards, guidelines, and tools that are planned and managed together, for example, a quality management system •• A database management system or operating system that includes many software modules that are designed to perform technical management technical observation (TO) technical support a set of related functions. (ITIL® Service Operation) The function responsible for providing technical skills in support of IT services and management of the IT infrastructure.

Technical management defines the roles of support groups, as well as the tools, processes, and procedures required. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Operation) A technique used in service improvement, problem investigation, and availability management.

Technical support staff meet to monitor the behavior and performance of an IT service and make recommendations for improvement.

See technical management. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 355 Term third-line support Definition (ITIL® Service Operation) The third level in a hierarchy of support groups involved in the resolution of incidents and investigation of problems.

Each level contains more specialist skills, or has more time or other resources.

A threat is anything that might exploit a vulnerability.

Any potential cause of an incident can be considered a threat.

For example, a fire is a threat that could exploit the vulnerability of flammable floor coverings.

This term is commonly used in information security management and IT service continuity management but also applies to other areas, such as problem and availability management.

The value of a metric that should cause an alert to be generated or management action to be taken.

For example, ‘Priority 1 incident not solved within four hours’, ‘More than five soft disk errors in an hour’, or ‘More than 10 failed changes in a month’. (ITIL® Service Transition) A change in state, corresponding to a movement of an IT service or other configuration item from one lifecycle status to the next. (ITIL Service Transition) The process responsible for planning all service transition processes and coordinating the resources that they require (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) Analysis of data to identify time-related patterns.

Trend analysis is used in problem management to identify common failures or fragile configuration items and in capacity management as a modeling tool to predict future behavior.

It is also used as a management tool for identifying deficiencies in IT service management processes. (ITIL® Service Strategy) An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit.

There may be several Type I service providers within an organization. threat — 373 human resources (HR) 20, 60, 104, 129, 133, 151, 153-4, 158-9, 192, 208, 247, 264 I IEC 304, 318, 340, 342, 344, 352, 362 implementation 15, 51, 83, 102, 106, 120, 124, 128, 170, 173-4, 194, 220, 230-1, 234, 275, 324 Implementing Service Operation 12, 277, 300 incident categories 106, 246, 259 incident categorization 83, 87-8, 92 incident handling 77-8, 99, 103 incident lifecycle, expanded 9, 178-80, 320, 331 incident management 7, 12, 39, 41, 44, 46-7, 55-6, 74-80, 82-3, 103-4, 106, 109, 111-12, 273-4, 326, 342 incident management activities 7, 82, 102, 105 incident management policies 7, 77-8 incident management process 68-9, 75, 77-8, 83, 102-3, 179, 265 incident management system 68, 78, 81, 265 incident manager 94, 101, 262, 265 Incident Models 79, 112, 280, 294 incident records 69, 76, 78, 81, 84, 96, 98-100, 103, 106, 109, 128, 218, 321, 326, 336, 357 incident resolution 56, 95, 101, 104, 246, 334, 344, 355 Incident Tickets 76, 85, 89 incidents 73-81, 83-4, 86-9, 94-5, 97-112, 121-4, 126-9, 139-40, 178-80, 280, 285-6, 319-21, 3236, 336, 342, 355-7 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 374 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION information security management 103-4, 149-50, 156, 159, 183, 298, 306, 326, 344, 346, 355 information technology 15, 307, 326-8, 359 infrastructure 14, 16, 27-8, 47, 60-1, 76, 99, 109, 164, 197, 204-8, 244-5, 249, 280-2, 327-8, 351-2 Infrastructure Library 13, 21-2 inputs 39, 59, 69-70, 102, 128, 145, 158, 173, 194, 214-16, 240, 293-6 instructions 2, 4, 66, 112, 357 interaction 203, 221, 340, 348 interfaces 6-8, 39, 46, 50, 52, 70, 72, 103, 120, 126, 135, 145, 147, 158-9, 197, 293-6 Internet 156, 227, 234, 298, 327 interruption 176, 332, 339, 341 investigation 44, 83, 98-9, 101, 104, 121-4, 127, 157, 335-6 investment 22, 30, 51, 171, 278, 349, 360-1 involvement 58, 194, 245, 265 ISO 21, 304, 316, 318, 339-40, 342, 344, 352, 362 ISPs (Internet Service Providers) 34, 36, 227, 327 IT Service Management (ITSM) 1, 6, 14-18, 20-1, 26, 28, 38, 89, 104, 217-18, 252, 303-4, 309-10, 328-9, 347-8, 359 ITIL, core 177, 183, 309, 338, 343 ITIL Continual Service Improvement 163, 308, 311, 313, 316, 318, 324, 327, 332, 348, 354 ITIL Service Design 163, 308, 320-1, 323-4, 326, 332, 335, 339, 345-8, 352-4 ITIL Service Operation 46, 70-1, 75, 102-4, 107-9, 128-9, 142, 145, 306-8, 315, 320-2, 325-30, 3336, 339, 344, 351-4 ITIL Service Strategy 163, 310-12, 320, 334, 349-50 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 375 ITIL Service Transition 307, 314, 316-17, 321, 330-1, 336, 340, 345, 351, 355 J job, batch 164-5, 221, 223, 339 job scheduling 10, 221, 249, 327, 329 K KEDB (Known Error Database) 100, 108, 110, 123-4, 126, 129, 246, 259, 267, 330, 359 key performance indicators 7-8, 73, 104, 129, 148, 159, 214, 308, 319, 322, 330, 332, 348 knowledge 14, 16, 99, 113, 125, 195, 211-12, 228, 233, 245, 247, 258, 261, 273, 337-8, 347 knowledge management 10, 48, 108, 110, 210, 240, 269, 273, 330, 351 known error records 120, 123-5, 128, 271, 330-1, 357 KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) 7-8, 57, 73-4, 104-6, 129-30, 148-9, 159-60, 214, 297, 308, 319, 321-2, 330, 348 L languages 77, 106, 231, 233 library, definitive media 196, 198, 320, 359 lifecycle 6, 37-8, 46-7, 51, 75, 81, 84, 107, 126, 202-4, 314-15, 317-19, 326, 330-1, 336-7, 346-52 lifecycle stages 24, 44, 52, 55, 329 Linked Record 84-8, 91-2 links 3, 69, 101, 203, 243, 340 location 87, 106, 113, 130, 141, 173, 196, 201, 210, 213, 222, 231-2, 242, 320 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 376 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK — THIRD EDITION

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