ITIL : The concepts of this discipline have been widely adopted by….

ITILITIL : The concepts of this discipline have been widely adopted by….

License 642 Configuration management 1 Configuration management Configuration management (CM) is a field of management that focuses on establishing and maintaining consistency of a system or product’s performance and its functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life.[1] For information assurance, CM can be defined as the management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test Top level Configuration Management Activity model documentation throughout the life cycle of an information system.[2] CM for information assurance, sometimes referred to as Secure Configuration Management, relies upon performance, functional, and physical attributes of IT platforms and products and their environments to determine the appropriate security features and assurances that are used to measure a system configuration state.

For example, configuration requirements may be different for a network firewall that functions as part of an organization’s Internet boundary versus one that functions as an internal local network firewall. History Configuration management was first developed by the United States Air Force for the Department of Defense in the 1950s as a technical management discipline of hardware.

The concepts of this discipline have been widely adopted by numerous technical management functions, including systems engineering (SE), integrated logistics support (ILS), Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), ISO 9000, Prince2 project management methodology, COBIT, Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), product lifecycle management, and application lifecycle management.

Many of these functions and models have redefined configuration management from its traditional holistic approach to technical management.

Some treat configuration management as being similar to a librarian activity, and break out change control or change management as a separate or stand alone discipline.

However the bottomline is and always shall be Traceability. Configuration management 2 Software configuration management The traditional software configuration management (SCM) process is looked upon by practitioners as the best solution to handling changes in software projects.

It identifies the functional and physical attributes of software at various points in time, and performs systematic control of changes to the identified attributes for the purpose of maintaining software integrity and traceability throughout the software development life cycle.

The SCM process further defines the need to trace changes, and the ability to verify that the final delivered software has all of the planned enhancements that are supposed to be included in the release.

It identifies four procedures that must be defined for each software project to ensure that a sound SCM process is implemented.

They are: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Configuration identification Configuration control Configuration status accounting Configuration audits These terms and definitions change from standard to standard, but are essentially the same. • Configuration identification is the process of identifying the attributes that define every aspect of a configuration item.

A configuration item is a product (hardware and/or software) that has an end-user purpose.

These attributes are recorded in configuration documentation and baselined.

Baselining an attribute forces formal configuration change control processes to be effected in the event that these attributes are changed. • Configuration change control is a set of processes and approval stages required to change a configuration item’s attributes and to re-baseline them. • Configuration status accounting is the ability to record and report on the configuration baselines associated with each configuration item at any moment of time. • Configuration audits are broken into functional and physical configuration audits.

They occur either at delivery or at the moment of effecting the change.

A functional configuration audit ensures that functional and performance attributes of a configuration item are achieved, while a physical configuration audit ensures that a configuration item is installed in accordance with the requirements of its detailed design documentation.

Configuration management is widely used by many military organizations to manage the technical aspects of any complex systems, such as weapon systems, vehicles, and information systems.

The discipline combines the capability aspects that these systems provide an organization with the issues of management of change to these systems over time.

Outside of the military, CM is appropriate to a wide range of fields and industry and commercial sectors.[3] Computer hardware configuration management Computer hardware configuration management is the process of creating and maintaining an up-to-date record of all the components of the infrastructure, including related documentation.

Its purpose is to show what makes up the infrastructure and illustrate the physical locations and links between each item, which are known as configuration hardware configuration goes beyond the recording of computer hardware for the purpose of asset management, although it can be used to maintain asset information.

The extra value provided is the rich source of support information that it provides to all interested parties.

This information is typically stored together in a configuration management database (CMDB).

This concept was introduced by ITIL.

The scope of configuration management is assumed to include, at a minimum, all configuration items used in the provision of live, operational hardware configuration management provides direct control over information technology (IT) assets and improves the ability of the service provider to deliver quality IT services in an economical and effective manner. Configuration management Configuration management should work closely with change management.

All components of the IT infrastructure should be registered in the CMDB.

The responsibilities of configuration management with regard to the CMDB are: • • • • identification control status accounting verification 3 The scope of configuration management is assumed to include: • • • • • • • • • physical client and server hardware products and versions operating system software products and versions application development software products and versions technical architecture product sets and versions as they are defined and introduced live documentation networking products and versions live application products and versions definitions of packages of software releases definitions of hardware base configurations • configuration item standards and definitions The benefits of computer hardware configuration management are: • • • • • helps to minimize the impact of changes provides accurate information on CIs improves security by controlling the versions of CIs in use facilitates adherence to legal obligations helps in financial and expenditure planning Maintenance systems Configuration management is used to maintain an understanding of the status of complex assets with a view to maintaining the highest level of serviceability for the lowest cost.

Specifically, it aims to ensure that operations are not disrupted due to the asset (or parts of the asset) overrunning limits of planned lifespan or below quality levels.

In the military, this type of activity is often classed as “mission readiness”, and seeks to define which assets are available and for which type of mission; a classic example is whether aircraft on-board an aircraft carrier are equipped with bombs for ground support or missiles for defense.

A theory of configuration maintenance was worked out by Mark Burgess[4] [5] ,[6] with a practical implementation on present day computer systems in the software Cfengine able to perform real time repair as well as preventive maintenance. Preventive maintenance Understanding the “as is” state of an asset and its major components is an essential element in preventive maintenance as used in maintenance, repair, and overhaul and enterprise asset management systems.complex assets such as aircraft, ships, industrial machinery etc.

Depend on many different components being serviceable.

This serviceability is often defined in terms of the amount of usage the component has had since it was new, since fitted, since repaired, the amount of use it has had over its life and several other limiting factors.

Understanding how near the end of their life each of these components is has been a major undertaking involving labor intensive record keeping until recent developments in software. — References • • • • • • • • • • Configuration Management Community [1] Software Configuration Management [2] What is configuration management? [3] Configuration management [4] Configuration item definition [5] Physical configuration audit [6] Functional configuration audit [7] Functional configuration audit [8] Software configuration management terminology [9] Configuration management training material [10] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / http:/ / cs.


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Html Information Technology Infrastructure Library The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of concepts and practices for Information Technology Services Management (ITSM), Information Technology (IT) development and IT operations.

ITIL gives detailed descriptions of a number of important IT practices and provides comprehensive checklists, tasks and procedures that any IT organisation can tailor to its needs.

ITIL is published in a series of books, each of which covers an IT management topic.

The names ITIL and IT Infrastructure Library are registered trademarks of the United Kingdom’s Office of Government Commerce (OGC). History Responding to growing dependence on IT, the UK Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency in the 1980s developed a set of recommendations.

It recognised that without standard practices, government agencies and private sector contracts were independently creating their own IT management practices.

The IT Infrastructure Library originated as a collection of books, each covering a specific practice within IT Service Management.

ITIL was built around a process-model based view of controlling and managing operations often credited to W.

Edwards Deming and his plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle.[1] After the initial publication in 1989–1996, the number of books quickly grew within ITIL v1 to over 30 volumes.

In 2000/2001, to make ITIL more accessible (and affordable), ITIL v2 consolidated the publications into 8 logical “sets” that grouped related process-guidelines to match different aspects of IT management, applications, and services.

However, the main focus was known as the Service Management sets (Service Support and Service Delivery) which were by far the most widely used, circulated, and understood of ITIL v2 publications. Information Technology Infrastructure Library • In April 2001 the CCTA was merged into the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), an office of the UK Treasury.[2] • In 2006, the ITIL v2 glossary was published. • In May 2007, this organisation issued the version 3 of ITIL (also known as the ITIL Refresh Project) consisting of 26 processes and functions, now grouped under only 5 volumes, arranged around the concept of Service lifecycle structure. • In 2009, the OGC officially announced that ITIL v2 certification would be withdrawn and launched a major consultation as per how to proceed.[3] 9 Overview of the ITIL v2 library The eight ITIL version 2 books and their disciplines are: The IT Service Management sets 1.

Service Support 2.

Service Delivery Other operational guidance 3.

ICT Infrastructure Management 4.

Security Management 5.

The Business Perspective 6.

Application Management 7.

Software Asset Management To assist with the implementation of ITIL practices a further book was published (Apr 9, 2002) providing guidance on implementation (mainly of Service Management): 8.

Planning to Implement Service Management And this has more recently (Jan 26, 2006) been supplemented with guidelines for smaller IT units, not included in the original eight publications: 9.

ITIL Small-Scale Implementation Service Support The Service Support[4] ITIL discipline focuses on the User of the ICT services and is primarily concerned with ensuring that they have access to the appropriate services to support the business functions.

To a business, customers and users are the entry point to the process model.

They get involved in service support by: • • • • Asking for changes Needing communication, updates Having difficulties, queries Real process delivery The service desk functions as the single contact-point for end-users’ incidents.

Its first function is always to “create” an incident.

If there is a direct solution, it attempts to resolve the incident at the first level.

If the service desk cannot solve the incident then it is passed to a 2nd/3rd level group within the incident management system.

Incidents can initiate a chain of processes: Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Release Management and Configuration Management.

This chain of processes is tracked using the Configuration Management Database (CMDB), which records each process, and creates output documents for traceability (Quality Management). Information Technology Infrastructure Library Service Desk / Service Request Management Tasks include handling incidents and requests, and providing an interface for other ITSM processes.

Features include: • • • • • • single point of contact (SPOC) and not necessarily the first point of contact (FPOC) single point of entry single point of exit easier for customers data integrity streamlined communication channel 10 Primary functions of the Service Desk include: • incident control: life-cycle management of all service requests • communication: keeping the customer informed of progress and advising on workarounds The Service Desk function can have various names, such as: • Call Center: main emphasis on professionally handling large call volumes of telephone-based transactions • Help Desk: manage, co-ordinate and resolve incidents as quickly as possible at primary support level • Service Desk: not only handles incidents, problems and questions but also provides an interface for other activities such as change requests, maintenance contracts, software licenses, service-level management, configuration management, availability management, financial management and IT services continuity management The three types of structure for consideration: • Local Service Desk: to meet local business needs – practical only until multiple locations requiring support services are involved • Central Service Desk: for organisations having multiple locations – reduces operational costs and improves usage of available resources • Virtual Service Desk: for organisations having multi-country locations – can be situated and accessed from anywhere in the world due to advances in network performance and telecommunications, reducing operational costs and improving usage of available resources Incident Management Incident Management aims to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimise the adverse effect on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service-quality and -availability are maintained. ‘Normal service operation’ is defined here as service operation within Service Level Agreement (SLA) limits.

Incident Management can be defined as : An ‘Incident’ is any event which is not part of the standard operation of the service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption or a reduction of the quality of the service.

The objective of Incident Management is to restore normal operations as quickly as possible with the least possible impact on either the business or the user, at a cost-effective price.

Problem Management Problem Management aims to resolve the root causes of incidents and thus to minimise the adverse impact of incidents and problems on business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors.

A ‘problem’ is an unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents, and a ‘known error’ is a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which either a work-around or a permanent resolution has been identified.

The CCTA(Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) defines problems and known errors as follows Information Technology Infrastructure Library A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple incidents that exhibit common symptoms.

Problems can also be identified from a single significant incident, indicative of a single error, for which the cause is unknown, but for which the impact is significant.

A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, and the subsequent development of a work-around.

Problem management differs from incident management.

The principal purpose of problem management is to find and resolve the root cause of a problem and thus prevent further incidents; the purpose of incident management is to return the service to normal level as soon as possible, with smallest possible business impact.

The problem-management process is intended to reduce the number and severity of incidents and problems on the business, and report it in documentation to be available for the first-line and second line of the help desk.

The proactive process identifies and resolves problems before incidents occur.

Such processes include: • Trend analysis; • Targeting support action; • Providing information to the organisation The Error Control Process iteratively diagnoses known errors until they are eliminated by the successful implementation of a change under the control of the Change Management process.

The Problem Control Process aims to handle problems in an efficient way.

Problem control identifies the root cause of incidents and reports it to the service desk.

Other activities are: • Problem identification and recording • Problem classification • Problem investigation and diagnosis A technique for identifying the root cause of a problem is to use an Ishikawa diagram, also referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram, tree diagram, or fishbone diagram.

Alternatively, a formal Root Cause Analysis method such as Apollo Root Cause Analysis can be implemented and used to identify causes and solutions.

An effective root cause analysis method and/or tool will provide the most effective/efficient solutions to address problems in the Problem Management process.

Change Management Change Management aims to ensure that standardised methods and procedures are used for efficient handling of all changes, A change is “an event that results in a new status of one or more configuration items (CIs)” approved by management, cost effective, enhances business process changes (fixes) – with a minimum risk to IT infrastructure.

The main aims of Change Management include: • Minimal disruption of services • Reduction in back-out activities • Economic utilisation of resources involved in the change 11 Information Technology Infrastructure Library Change Management Terminology • Change: the addition, modification or removal of CIs • Request for Change (RFC) or in older terminology Change Request (CR): form used to record details of a request for a change and is sent as an input to Change Management by the Change Requestor • Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC): schedule that contains details of all forthcoming Changes.

Release Management Release Management is used by the software migration team for platform-independent and automated distribution of software and hardware, including license controls across the entire IT infrastructure.

Proper software and hardware control ensures the availability of licensed, tested, and version-certified software and hardware, which functions as intended when introduced into existing infrastructure.

Quality control during the development and implementation of new hardware and software is also the responsibility of Release Management.

This guarantees that all software meets the demands of the business processes.

The goals of release management include: • Planning the rollout of software • Designing and implementing procedures for the distribution and installation of changes to IT systems • Effectively communicating and managing expectations of the customer during the planning and rollout of new releases • Controlling the distribution and installation of changes to IT systems Release management focuses on the protection of the live environment and its services through the use of formal procedures and checks.

A Release consists of the new or changed software and/or hardware required to implement approved changes.

Release categories include: • Major software releases and major hardware upgrades, normally containing large amounts of new functionality, some of which may make intervening fixes to problems redundant.

A major upgrade or release usually supersedes all preceding minor upgrades, releases and emergency fixes. • Minor software releases and hardware upgrades, normally containing small enhancements and fixes, some of which may have already been issued as emergency fixes.

A minor upgrade or release usually supersedes all preceding emergency fixes. • Emergency software and hardware fixes, normally containing the corrections to a small number of known problems.

Releases can be divided based on the release unit into: • Delta Release: a release of only that part of the software which has been changed.

For example, security patches. • Full Release: the entire software program is deployed—for example, a new version of an existing application. • Packaged Release: a combination of many changes—for example, an operating system image which also contains specific applications. — 14 IT service continuity management IT service continuity management covers the processes by which plans are put in place and managed to ensure that IT Services can recover and continue even after a serious incident occurs.

It is not just about reactive measures, but also about proactive measures – reducing the risk of a disaster in the first instance.

Continuity management is regarded by the application owners as the recovery of the IT infrastructure used to deliver IT Services, but as of 2009 many businesses practice the much further-reaching process of Business Continuity Planning (BCP), to ensure that the whole end-to-end business process can continue should a serious incident occur (at primary support level).

Continuity management involves the following basic steps: • Prioritising the activities to be recovered by conducting a Business Impact Analysis (BIA) • Performing a Risk Assessment (aka risk analysis) for each of the IT Services to identify the assets, threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures for each service. • Evaluating the options for recovery • Producing the Contingency Plan • Testing, reviewing, and revising the plan on a regular basis Availability Management Availability Management targets allowing organisations to sustain the IT service-availability to support the business at a justifiable cost.

The high-level activities are Realise Availability Requirements, Compile Availability Plan, Monitor Availability, and Monitor Maintenance Obligations.

Availability Management addresses the ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level over a period of time. • Reliability: Ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level at described conditions. • Maintainability: The ability of an IT component to remain in, or be restored to an operational state. • Serviceability: The ability for an external supplier to maintain the availability of component or function under a third-party contract. • Resilience: A measure of freedom from operational failure and a method of keeping services reliable.

One popular method of resilience is redundancy. • Security: A service may have associated data.

Security refers to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of that data.

Availability gives a clear overview of the end-to-end availability of the system. Information Technology Infrastructure Library Financial Management for IT Services IT Financial Management comprises the discipline of ensuring that the IT infrastructure is obtained at the most effective price (which does not necessarily mean cheapest) and calculating the cost of providing IT services so that an organisation can understand the costs of its IT services.

These costs may then be recovered from the customer of the service.

This is the 2nd component of service delivery process. 15 ICT Infrastructure Management ICT Infrastructure Management[6] (“ICT” is an acronym for “Information and Communication Technology”) processes recommend best practice for requirements analysis, planning, design, deployment and ongoing operations management and technical support of an ICT Infrastructure.

The Infrastructure Management processes describe those processes within ITIL that directly relate to the ICT equipment and software that is involved in providing ICT services to customers. • • • • ICT Design and Planning ICT Deployment ICT Operations ICT Technical Support These disciplines are less well understood than those of Service Management and therefore often some of their content is believed to be covered ‘by implication’ in Service Management disciplines.

ICT Design and Planning ICT Design and Planning provides a framework and approach for the Strategic and Technical Design and Planning of ICT infrastructures.

It includes the necessary combination of business (and overall IS) strategy, with technical design and architecture.

ICT Design and Planning drives both the Procurement of new ICT solutions through the production of Statements of Requirement (“SOR”) and Invitations to Tender (“ITT”) and is responsible for the initiation and management of ICT Programmes for strategic business change.

Key Outputs from Design and Planning are: • • • • ICT Strategies, Policies and Plans The ICT Overall Architecture & Management Architecture Feasibility Studies, ITTs and SORs Business Cases ICT Deployment Management ICT Deployment provides a framework for the successful management of design, build, test and roll-out (deploy) projects within an overall ICT programme.

It includes many project management disciplines in common with PRINCE2, but has a broader focus to include the necessary integration of Release Management and both functional and non functional testing.

ICT Operations Management ICT Operations Management provides the day-to-day technical supervision of the ICT infrastructure.

Often confused with the role of Incident Management from Service Support, Operations has a more technical bias and is concerned not solely with Incidents reported by users, but with Events generated by or recorded by the Infrastructure.

ICT Operations may often work closely alongside Incident Management and the Service Desk, which are not-necessarily technical, to provide an ‘Operations Bridge’.

Operations, however should primarily work from documented processes and procedures and should be concerned with a number of specific sub-processes, such as: Output Management, Job Scheduling, Backup and Restore, Network Monitoring/Management, System Monitoring/Management, Database Monitoring/Management Storage Monitoring/Management.

Operations are responsible for the following: Information Technology Infrastructure Library • • • • • • A stable, secure ICT infrastructure A current, up to date Operational Documentation Library (“ODL”) A log of all operational Events Maintenance of operational monitoring and management tools.

Operational Scripts Operational Procedures 16 ICT Technical Support ICT Technical Support is the specialist technical function for infrastructure within ICT.

Primarily as a support to other processes, both in Infrastructure Management and Service Management, Technical Support provides a number of specialist functions: Research and Evaluation, Market Intelligence (particularly for Design and Planning and Capacity Management), Proof of Concept and Pilot engineering, specialist technical expertise (particularly to Operations and Problem Management), creation of documentation (perhaps for the Operational Documentation Library or Known Error Database).

There are different levels of support under the ITIL structure, these being primary support level, secondary support level and tertiary support level, higher-level administrators being responsible for support at primary level. Security Management The ITIL-process Security Management[7] describes the structured fitting of information security in the management organisation.

ITIL Security Management is based on the code of practice for information security management now known as ISO/IEC 27002.

A basic goal of Security Management is to ensure adequate information security.

The primary goal of information security, in turn, is to protect information assets against risks, and thus to maintain their value to the organisation.

This is commonly expressed in terms of ensuring their confidentiality, integrity and availability, along with related properties or goals such as authenticity, accountability, non-repudiation and reliability.

Mounting pressure for many organisations to structure their Information Security Management Systems in accordance with ISO/IEC 27001 requires revision of the ITIL v2 Security Management volume, and indeed a v3 release is in the works. Application Management ITIL Application Management[8] set encompasses a set of best practices proposed to improve the overall quality of IT software development and support through the life-cycle of software development projects, with particular attention to gathering and defining requirements that meet business objectives.

This volume is related to the topics of Software Engineering and IT Portfolio Management. Software Asset Management Software Asset Management (SAM) is the practice of integrating people, processes and technology to allow software licenses and usage to be systematically tracked, evaluated and managed.

The goal of SAM is to reduce IT expenditures, human resource overhead and risks inherent in owning and managing software assets.

SAM practices include: • Maintaining software license compliance • Tracking inventory and software asset use • Maintaining standard policies and procedures surrounding definition, deployment, configuration, use, and retirement of software assets and the Definitive Software Library. Information Technology Infrastructure Library SAM represents the software component of IT asset management.

This includes hardware asset management because effective hardware inventory controls are critical to efforts to control software.

This means overseeing software and hardware that comprise an organisation’s computers and network. 17 Planning to Implement Service Management The ITIL discipline – Planning to Implement Service Management[9] attempts to provide practitioners with a framework for the alignment of business needs and IT provision requirements.

The processes and approaches incorporated within the guidelines suggest the development of a Continuous Service Improvement Program (CSIP) as the basis for implementing other ITIL disciplines as projects within a controlled program of work.

Planning to Implement Service Management focuses mainly on the Service Management processes, but also applies generically to other ITIL disciplines.components include: • • • • creating vision analyzing organisation setting goals implementing IT service management Small-Scale Implementation ITIL Small-Scale Implementation[10] provides an approach to ITIL framework implementation for smaller IT units or departments.

It is primarily an auxiliary work that covers many of the same best practice guidelines as Planning to Implement Service Management, Service Support, and Service Delivery but provides additional guidance on the combination of roles and responsibilities, and avoiding conflict between ITIL priorities. Overview of the ITIL v3 library ITIL v3 is an extension of ITIL v2 and will fully replace it following the completion of the withdrawal period on 30 June 2011 [11].

ITIL v3 provides a more holistic perspective on the full life cycle of services, covering the entire IT organisation and all supporting components needed to deliver services to the customer, whereas v2 focused on specific activities directly related to service delivery and support.

Most of the v2 activities remained untouched in v3, but some significant changes in terminology were introduced in order to facilitate the expansion.

Five volumes comprise the ITIL v3, published in May 2007: 1.

ITIL Service Strategy[12] 2.

ITIL Service Design[13] 3.

ITIL Service Transition[14] 4.

ITIL Service Operation[15] 5.

ITIL Continual Service Improvement[16] Service Strategy As the center and origin point of the ITIL Service Lifecycle, the ITIL Service Strategy volume[12] provides guidance on clarification and prioritisation of service-provider investments in services.

More generally, Service Strategy focuses on helping IT organisations improve and develop over the long term.

In both cases, Service Strategy relies largely upon a market-driven approach.

Key topics covered include service value definition, business-case development, service assets, market analysis, and service provider types.

List of covered processes: • Service Portfolio Management [17] • Demand Management • IT Financial Management [18] Information Technology Infrastructure Library 18 Service Design The ITIL Service Design volume[13] provides good-practice guidance on the design of IT services, processes, and other aspects of the service management effort.

Significantly, design within ITIL is understood to encompass all elements relevant to technology service delivery, rather than focusing solely on design of the technology itself.

As such, Service Design addresses how a planned service solution interacts with the larger business and technical environments, service management systems required to support the service, processes which interact with the service, technology, and architecture required to support the service, and the supply chain required to support the planned service.

Within ITIL v2, design work for an IT service is aggregated into a single Service Design Package (SDP).

Service Design Packages, along with other information about services, are managed within the service catalogues.

List of covered processes: • • • • • • • Service Catalogue Management Service Level Management Risk Management Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management Information Security Management • Compliance Management • IT Architecture Management • Supplier Management Service Transition Service transition, as described by the ITIL Service Transition volume,[14] relates to the delivery of services required by a business into live/operational use, and often encompasses the “project” side of IT rather than “BAU” (Business as usual).

This area also covers topics such as managing changes to the “BAU” environment.

List of processes: • • • • • • Service Asset and Configuration Management Service Validation and Testing Evaluation Release Management Change Management Knowledge Management Service Operation Best practice for achieving the delivery of agreed levels of services both to end-users and the customers (where “customers” refer to those individuals who pay for the service and negotiate the SLAs).

Service operation, as described in the ITIL Service Operation volume,[15] is the part of the lifecycle where the services and value is actually directly delivered.

Also the monitoring of problems and balance between service reliability and cost etc.

Are considered.

The functions include technical management, application management, operations management and Service Desk as well as, responsibilities for staff engaging in Service Operation.

List of processes: • Event Management • Incident Management • Problem Management • Request Fulfilment Information Technology Infrastructure Library • Access Management 19 Continual Service Improvement (CSI) Aligning and realigning IT services to changing business needs (because standstill implies decline).

Continual Service Improvement, defined in the ITIL Continual Service Improvement volume,[16] aims to align and realign IT Services to changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to the IT services that support the Business Processes.

The perspective of CSI on improvement is the business perspective of service quality, even though CSI aims to improve process effectiveness, efficiency and cost effectiveness of the IT processes through the whole lifecycle.

To manage improvement, CSI should clearly define what should be controlled and measured.

CSI needs to be treated just like any other service practice.

There needs to be upfront planning, training and awareness, ongoing scheduling, roles created, ownership assigned,and activities identified to be successful.

CSI must be planned and scheduled as process with defined activities, inputs, outputs, roles and reporting.

List of processes: • Service Level Management • Service Measurement and Reporting • Continual Service Improvement Criticisms of ITIL ITIL has been criticised on several fronts, including: • The books are not affordable for non-commercial users • Accusations that many ITIL advocates think ITIL is “a holistic, all-encompassing framework for IT governance” • Accusations that proponents of ITIL indoctrinate the methodology with ‘religious zeal’ at the expense of pragmatism • Implementation and credentialing requires specific training • Debate over ITIL falling under BSM or ITSM frameworks Rob England (also known as “IT Skeptic”) has criticised the protected and proprietary nature of ITIL [19].

He urges the publisher, OGC, to release ITIL under the the Open Government Licence (OGL)[20] CIO Magazine columnist Dean Meyer has also presented some cautionary views of ITIL,[21] including five pitfalls such as “becoming a slave to outdated definitions” and “Letting ITIL become religion.” As he notes, “…it doesn’t describe the complete range of processes needed to be world class.

It’s focused on …

Managing ongoing services.” In a 2004 survey designed by Noel Bruton (author of “How to Manage the IT Helpdesk” and “Managing the IT Services Process”), organisations adopting ITIL were asked to relate their actual experiences in having implemented ITIL.

Seventy-seven percent of survey respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that “ITIL does not have all the answers”.

ITIL exponents accept this, citing ITIL’s stated intention to be non-prescriptive, expecting organisations to engage ITIL processes with existing process models.

Bruton notes that the claim to non-prescriptiveness must be, at best, one of scale rather than absolute intention, for the very description of a certain set of processes is in itself a form of prescription.[22] While ITIL addresses in depth the various aspects of Service Management, it does not address enterprise architecture in such depth.

Many of the shortcomings in the implementation of ITIL do not necessarily come about because of flaws in the design or implementation of the Service Management aspects of the business, but rather the wider architectural framework in which the business is situated.

Because of its primary focus on Service Management, ITIL has limited utility in managing poorly designed enterprise architectures, or how to feed back into the design of the enterprise architecture. Information Technology Infrastructure Library Closely related to the Architectural criticism, ITIL does not directly address the business applications which run on the IT infrastructure; nor does it facilitate a more collaborative working relationship between development and operations teams.

The trend toward a closer working relationship between development and operations is termed: DevOps.

This trend is related to increased application release rates and the adoption of Agile software development methodologies.

Traditional service management processes have struggled to support increased application release rates – due to lack of automation – and/or highly complex enterprise architecture.

Some researchers group ITIL with Lean, Six Sigma and Agile IT operations management.

Applying Six Sigma techniques to ITIL brings the engineering approach to ITIL’s framework.

Applying Lean techniques promotes continuous improvement of the ITIL’s best practices.

However, ITIL itself is not a transformation method, nor does it offer one.

Readers are required to find and associate such a method.

Some vendors have also included the term Lean when discussing ITIL implementations, for example “Lean-ITIL”.

The initial consequences of an ITIL initiative tend to add cost with benefits promised as a future deliverable.

ITIL does not provide usable methods “out of the box” to identify and target waste, or document the customer value stream as required by Lean, and measure customer satisfaction. 20 Frameworks Related to ITIL A number of frameworks exist in the field of IT Service Management alongside ITIL. ITIL Descendants The Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) is based on ITILv2.

While ITIL deliberatly aims to be platform agnostic, MOF is designed by Microsoft to provide a common management framework for its products.

Microsoft has mapped MOF to ITIL as part of their documentation of the framework.[23] The British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA) used ITIL as the basis for their development of Framework for ICT Technical Support [24] (FITS).

Their aim was to develop a framework appropriate for British schools which often have very small IT departments.

FITS became independent from BECTA in 2009. Other Frameworks ITIL is generally equivalent to the scope of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard (previously BS 15000).[25] .

While it is not possible for an organization to be certified as being ITIL compliant, certification of an organisation is available for ISO20000 [26].

COBIT is an IT governance framework and supporting toolset developed by ISACA.

ISACA view ITIL as being complimentory to COBIT.

They see COBIT as providing a governance and assurance role while ITIL providing guidance for service management.[27] The enhanced Telecom Operations Map eTOM published by the TeleManagement Forum offers a framework aimed at telecommunications service providers.

In a joined effort, TM Forum and itSMF developed an Application Note to eTOM (GB921) that shows how the two frameworks can be mapped to each other.

It addresses how eTom process elements and flows can be used to support the processes identified in ITIL.[28] [29] IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) is aligned with ITIL, but is presented as a complete, integrated process model compatible with IBM’s products. Information Technology Infrastructure Library 21 Certification Individuals The certification scheme differs between ITIL v2 and ITIL v3 and bridge examinations let v2 certification owners transfer to the new program.

ITIL v2 offers 3 certification levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.

These should be progressively discontinued in favour of the new ITIL v3 scheme.

ITIL v3 certification levels are: Foundation, Intermediate, Expert and Master.

The ITIL v3 certification scheme offers a modular approach.

Each qualification is assigned a credit value; so that upon successful completion of the module, the candidate is rewarded with both a certification and a number of credits.

At the lowest level – Foundation candidates are awarded a certification and 2 credits.

At the Intermediate level, a total of 15 credits must be earned.

These credits may be accumulated in either a “Lifecycle” stream or a “Capability” stream; or combination thereof.

Each Lifecycle module and exam is 3 An ITIL Foundation certificate pin.


Each Capability module and corresponding exam is 4 credits.

A candidate wanting to achieve the Expert level will have, among other requirements, to gain the required number of credits (22).

That is accomplished with two from Foundations, then 15 from Intermediate, and finally 5 credits from the “Managing Across the Lifecycle” exam.

Together, the total of 22 earned credits designates one as ITIL v. 3 Expert.

The ITIL Certification Management Board (ICMB) manages ITIL certification.

The Board includes representatives from interested parties within the community around the world.

Members of the Board include (though are not limited to) representatives from the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC), APM Group (APMG), The Stationery Office (TSO), V3 Examination Panel, Examination Institutes (EIs) and the IT Service Management Forum International (itSMF) as the recognised user group.[30] Since the early 1990s, EXIN and ISEB have been setting up the ITIL based certification program, developing and providing ITIL exams at three different levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.

EXIN[31] and BCS/ISEB[32] (the British Computer Society) have from that time onwards been the only two examination providers in the world to develop formally acknowledged ITIL certifications, provide ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers worldwide.

These rights were obtained from OGC, the British government institution and owner of the ITIL trademark.

OGC signed over the management of the ITIL trademark and the accreditation of examination providers to APMG in 2006.

Now, after signing a contract with EXIN[31] , BCS/ISEB and other certification bodies, including PEOPLECERT Group [33], APMG is accrediting them as official examination bodies, to offer ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers.

On July 20, 2006, the OGC signed a contract with the APM Group [34] to become its commercial partner for ITIL accreditation from January 1, 2007.[35] APMG manage the ITIL Version 3 exams.

APMG maintains a voluntary register of ITIL Version 3-certified practitioners at their Successful Candidate Register.[36] A voluntary registry of ITIL Version 2-certified practitioners is operated by the ITIL Certification Register.[37] Information Technology Infrastructure Library 22 ITIL® pins It has been a well-known tradition for years that passing an EXIN exam in IT Service Management (based on ITIL®) does not only result in a certificate, but is also accompanied by the presentation of a metal pin which can be attached to a shirt or jacket.

This distinguishing badge with basic gold colour is set in the form of the internationally well-known ITIL®-logo.

The ITIL® pins consist of small diamond like structure that is accepted worldwide.

The meaning and the shape of the diamond depicts coherence in the IT industry (infrastructure as well).

The four corners of the pin symbolises service support, service delivery, Infrastructure Management and IT Management.

There are three colours of ITIL® V2 pins: 1.

Green, for the Foundation Certificate 2.

Blue, for the Practitioner’s Certificate 3.

Red, for the Manager’s Certificate Exam candidates who have successfully passed the examinations for ITIL® version 2 will receive their appropriate pin from EXIN, PEOPLECERT Group or their certification provider, their EXIN, PEOPLECERT Group or their certification provider regional office, or an EXIN,PEOPLECERT Group or certification agent.

With the arrival of ITIL® V3, there are several new pins to display your achievements.

As of July 2008, EXIN and all certification providers such as PEOPLECERT Group will also provide ITIL® pins to exam candidates who have obtained ITIL® version 3 certificates.

The new pins are very similar to ITIL® V2 pins, but every level has a different color corresponding to the ITIL® V3 core books. Organisations Organisations and management systems cannot claim certification as “ITIL-compliant”.

An organisation that has implemented ITIL guidance in IT Service Management (ITSM), may however, be able to achieve compliance with and seek certification under ISO/IEC 20000.

Note that there are some significant differences between ISO/IEC20000 and ITIL Version 3[38] • ISO20000 only recognises the management of financial assets, not assets which include “management, organisation, process, knowledge, people, information, applications, infrastructure and financial capital”, nor the concept of a “service asset”.

So ISO20000 certification does not address the management of ‘assets’ in an ITIL sense. • ISO20000 does not recognise Configuration Management System (CMS) or Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS), and so does not certify anything beyond Configuration Management Database (CMDB). • An organisation can obtain ISO20000 certification without recognising or implementing the ITIL concept of Known Error, which is usually considered essential to ITIL. References [1] David Clifford, Jan van Bon (2008).

Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap.

ITSM Library.

Van Haren Publishing.

ISBN 908753082X. [2] Office of Government Commerce (UK) CCTA and OGC (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ index.


Retrieved May 5, 2005. [3] Office of Government Commerce (UK) (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ guidance_itil.


Retrieved August 19, 2009. [4] Office of Government Commerce (2000).

Service Support.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300158. [5] Office of Government Commerce (2001).

Service Delivery.

IT Infrastructure Library.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300174. [6] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

ICT Infrastructure Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308655. [7] Cazemier, Jacques A.; Overbeek, Paul L.; Peters, Louk M. (2000).

Security Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 011330014X. [8] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Application Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308663. [9] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Planning to Implement Service Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308779. [10] Office of Government Commerce (2005).

ITIL Small Scale Implementation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113309805. [11] http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ itil_ogc_withdrawal_of_itil_version2.

Asp [12] Majid Iqbal and Michael Nieves (2007).

ITIL Service Strategy.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310456. [13] Vernon Lloyd and Colin Rudd (2007).

ITIL Service Design.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310470. Information Technology Infrastructure Library [14] Shirley Lacy and Ivor Macfarlane (2007).

ITIL Service Transition.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310487. [15] David Cannon and David Wheeldon (2007).

ITIL Service Operation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310463. [16] George Spalding and Gary Case (2007).

ITIL Continual Service Improvement.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310494. [17] http:/ / wiki.

En. index.

Php/ Service_Portfolio_Management [18] http:/ / wiki.

En. index.

Php/ Financial_Management [19] http:/ / free-itil [20] http:/ / www.nationalarchives.


Uk/ doc/ open-government-licence/ open-government-licence.

Htm [21] Meyer, Dean, 2005. “Beneath the Buzz: ITIL” (http:/ / web. web/ 20050404165524/ http:/ / leadership/ buzz/ column.

Html?ID=4186), CIO Magazine, March 31, 2005 [22] Survey: “The ITIL Experience – Has It Been Worth It”, author Bruton Consultancy 2004, published by Helpdesk Institute Europe, The Helpdesk and IT Support Show, and Hornbill Software. [23] Microsoft Operations Framework; Cross Reference ITIL V3 and MOF 4.0 (http:/ / go. fwlink/ ?LinkId=151991).

Microsoft Corporation.

May 2009. . [24] http:/ / [25] Van Bon, Jan; Verheijen, Tieneke (2006), Frameworks for IT Management (http:/ / books. books?id=RV3jQ16F1_cC), Van Haren Publishing, ISBN 9789077212905, [26] http:/ / newsletters/ DITYvol2iss3.

Htm [27] ISACA (2008), COBIT Mapping: Mapping of ITIL V3 With COBIT 4.1 (http:/ / Knowledge-Center/ Research/ ResearchDeliverables/ Pages/ COBIT-Mapping-Mapping-of-ITIL-V3-With-COBIT-4-1.

Aspx), ITGI, ISBN 9781604200355, [28] Brooks, Peter (2006), Metrics for IT Service Management (http:/ / books. books?id=UeWDivqKcm0C), Van Haren Publishing, pp. 76–77, ISBN 9789077212691, [29] Morreale, Patricia A.; Terplan, Kornel (2009), “ Matching ITIL to eTOM” (http:/ / books. books?id=VEp0aMmH3iQC), CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications, Second Edition (2 ed.), CRC Press, ISBN 9781420078008, [30] APMG (2008). “ITIL Service Management Practices: V3 Qualifications Scheme” (http:/ / nmsruntime/ saveasdialog.

Asp?lID=572& sID=86). .

Retrieved 24 February 2009. [31] “EXIN Exams” (http:/ / ).

EXIN Exams. .

Retrieved 2010-01-14. [32] “ISEB Professionals Qualifications, Training, Careers BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT” (http:/ / server.

Php?show=nav. 5732).

BCS. .

Retrieved 2010-01-14. [33] http:/ / [34] http:/ / [35] Office of Government Commerce (2006). “Best Practice portfolio: new contracts awarded for publishing and accreditation services” (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ About_OGC_news_4906.

Asp). .

Retrieved 19 September 2006. [36] http:/ / www.apmgroup.


Uk/ ITILSCRquery.

Asp [37] http:/ / [38] Office of Government Commerce (2008). “Best Management Practice: ITIL V3 and ISO/IEC 20000” (http:/ / gempdf/ ITIL_and_ISO_20000_March08.

Pdf). .

Retrieved 24 February 2009. 23 External links • Official ITIL Website ( • The OGC website ( Configuration Management (ITSM) 24 Configuration Management (ITSM) Configuration Management (CM) is an Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) IT Service Management (ITSM) process that tracks all of the individual Configuration Items (CI) in an IT system which may be as simple as a single server, or as complex as the entire IT department.

In large organizations a configuration manager may be appointed to oversee and manage the CM process. Configuration Item A Configuration item (CI) is an IT asset or a combination of IT assets that may depend and have relationships with other IT processes.

A CI will have attributes which may be hierarchical and relationships that will be assigned by the configuration manager in the CM database. CI attributes 1.

Technical – Data that describes the CI’s capabilities which include software version and model numbers, hardware and manufacturer specifications and other technical details like networking speeds and data storage size.

Keyboards, mice and cables are considered consumables. 2.

Ownership – Part of financial asset management, ownership attributes record purchase date, warranty, location and responsible person for the CI.

Identification numbers like bar codes and type, like software, hardware and documentation are also ownership attributes. 3.

Relationship – The relationships between hardware items (EG a printer), software (EG drivers), and users (IE Alice). Configuration Management Database The fundamental component of CM is the CM database (CMDB) which contains the CI information and is used to understand the CI relationships and track their configuration and more Activities The information in the CMDB is used for five basic activities: 1.

Planning: The CM plan covers the next three to six months in detail, and the following twelve months in outline.

It is reviewed at least twice a year and will include a strategy, policy, scope, objectives, roles and responsibilities, the CM processes, activities and procedures, the CMDB, relationships with other processes and third parties, as well as tools and number of CI categories to track in the CMDB determines the scope.

The detail of the CI information is the depth. 2.

Identification: The selection, identification and labeling of all CIs which creates a parts list of every CI in the system.

This covers the recording of information about CI’s, including hardware and software versions, documentation, ownership and other unique identifiers.

CIs should be recorded at a level of detail justified by the business need, typically to the level of “independent change”.

This includes defining the relationships of the CIs in the system. 3.

Control: This gives the assurance that only authorized and identifiable CIs are accepted and recorded from receipt to disposal.

It ensures that no CI is added, modified, replaced or removed without the appropriate controlling documentation EG approved Requests for Change of a CI, updated specification.

All CIs will be under Change Management (ITSM) control. 4.

Monitoring: Concerned with each CI throughout its life-cycle.

It enables changes to CIs and tracking of their records through various statuses, EG ordered, received, under test, live, under repair, withdrawn or for disposal. Configuration Management (ITSM) 5.

Verification: The reviews and audits that verify the physical existence of CIs, and checks that they are correctly recorded in the CMDB and parts list.

It includes the process of verifying Release Management (ITSM) and CM documentation before changes are made to the live environment. — Metadata [22] National Archives of Australia, AGLS Metadata Standard, accessed 7 January 2010, (http:/ / www.naa.


Au/ records-management/ create-capture-describe/ describe/ AGLS/ index.

Aspx) [23] HBS is the FIFA host broadcaster (http:/ / www.hbs.

Tv/ hostbroadcasting/ ) [24] Host Broadcast Media Server and Related Applications (http:/ / 01/ MyDocuments/ CS_BOB_EVScontributon_0808_ENG.

Pdf) [25] logs during sport events (http:/ / worldcup/ fifa-world-cup-techonlogy-0610/ ) [26] http:/ / libraries.


Edu/ guides/ subjects/ metadata/ standards/ fgdc.

Html [27] Sualeh Fatehi. “SchemaCrawler” (http:/ / schemacrawler. ).

SourceForge. . 39 External links • Mercury: Metadata Management, Data Discovery and Access (, managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center • Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia ( metacrap.htm) – Cory Doctorow’s opinion on the limitations of metadata on the Internet, 2001 • Retrieving Meta Data from Documents and Pictures Online ( – AnonWatch • Understanding Metadata ( – NISO, 2004 • Journal of Library Metadata (Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group).

ISSN 1937-5034.


Retrieved 8 January 2010. • International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies (IJMSO) (Inderscience Publishers).

ISSN 1744-263X.


Retrieved 8 January 2010. • AFC2IC Vocabulary OneSource Tool ( Configuration management database A configuration management database (CMDB) is a repository of information related to all the components of an information system.

It contains the details of the configuration items (CI) in the IT infrastructure.

Although repositories similar to CMDBs have been used by IT departments for many years, the term CMDB stems from ITIL.

In the ITIL context, a CMDB represents the authorized configuration of the significant components of the IT environment.

A CMDB helps an organization understand the relationships between these components and track their configuration.

The CMDB is a fundamental component of the ITIL framework’s Configuration Management process.

CMDB implementations often involve federation, the inclusion of data into the CMDB from other sources, such as Asset Management, in such a way that the source of the data retains control of the data.

Federation is usually distinguished from ETL ({Extract, transform, load}) solutions in which data is copied into the CMDB.

The CMDB records CIs and details about the important attributes and relationships between CIs.

Configuration managers usually describe CIs using three configurable attributes: 1.

Technical 2.

Ownership 3.

Relationship A key success factor in implementing a CMDB is the ability to automatically discover information about the CIs (auto-discovery) and track changes as they happen.

CMDBs contain metadata, and thus the concept overlaps with that of a metadata repository which are both used in running large IT organizations.

Configuration management addresses how the data is to be kept up to date, which has historically been a weakness of metadata repositories. Configuration management database 40 Federated CMDBs Information-technology managers can use a federated CMDB – an enterprise-level CMDB – to accumulate information about configurations, changes and other data from disparate sources.[1] The goal is to enable management data providers to integrate their data into a coherent, seamless CMDB, using an industry-standard interface.[2] The architecture for this standard was proposed in a 2007 white paper, written by representatives from several CMDB vendors: ASG, BMC Software, CA, Fujitsu, HP Software Division, IBM and Microsoft.[3] These members represented the CMDB Federation Workgroup, or CMDBf.[4] In 2009, the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) standardized the CMDBf specification to provide a cross-vendor, standardized solution for federating system-management data.[5] References • Office of Government Commerce (OGC), ed.: Service Support.

IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL).

The Stationery Office, Norwich, UK (2000) • OGC, ed.: Introduction to ITIL.

IT Infrastructure Library.

The Stationery Office (2005) [1] “The federated CMDB vision.” (http:/ / features. networking/ 3221/ the-federated-cmdb-vision/ ) [2] [3] [4] [5] The Federated CMDB Vision white paper. (http:/ / CMDB-Federation-white-paper-vision-v1. 0.

Pdf) The Federated CMDB Vision white paper. (http:/ / CMDB-Federation-white-paper-vision-v1. 0.

Pdf) CMDBf Workgroup (http:/ / ) Configuration Management Database (CMDB) Federation Specification (http:/ / xml. DMTF-DSP0252-CMDB-Federation.

Pdf) External links • ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus ITIL CMDB ( itil-cmdb.html) • LiveTime’s Cloud based CMDB ( configuration-management-cmdb/) • How to build a CMDB ( with open source software • Get your OpenSource CMDB with iTop. ( iTop is developed by Combodo a French OpenSource Software editor • IBM Tivoli Configuration and Change Management Database IBM CCMDB • HP Universal CMDB ( cp=1-11-15-25^1059_4000_100__&jumpid=reg_R1002_USEN) • Configuration Management Database (CMDB) Federation Specification ( DMTF-DSP0252-CMDB-Federation.pdf) • CMDBuild – Configuration and Management Database Open Source ( • i-doit Open Source CMDB ( • CMDB ( References BMC Software 41 BMC Software BMC Software, Inc. Type Traded as Public [1] NASDAQ: BMC NASDAQ-100 Component S&P 500 Component Computer software September 1980 Houston, Texas, U.S.

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Retrieved 2009-08-14. 52 External links • BMC homepage ( • NASDAQ:  BMC ( CA Technologies 53 — HP Software Division 69 Product and Solution Portfolio HP Software products are integral to HP’s Instant-On Enterprise initiative,[19] a corporate program similar to the Smarter Planet program of rival IT company IBM.[20] The HP Enterprise Business initiative seeks to highlight the fundamental shifts in the way information technology is being used to meet changing business models and the growing role of technology to drive business decisions and help organizations achieve economic growth, improve efficiency, and to further the development of society through the use of technology.[21] This vision sees the IT department as both a builder and broker of IT services, who needs to use existing technology in the data center as well as new technologies to deliver services.[22] HP Software markets its software in four categories: IT management software, information management software, business intelligence solutions, and communications and media software and solutions.

HP Software also provides consulting, Software as a service,cloud computing solutions, education and support services. IT Management Products & Solutions The largest category of software sold by the HP Software Division is HP IT Management Software.

The concept behind IT management software is that IT needs be run as a business rather than a cost center and the main purpose of IT is to support business objectives.[23] Other companies who develop and sell IT management software include IBM, BMC Software, Borland, CA, and Compuware.

HP markets its IT management software products via product centers.

The centers and the products in each are: HP Application Lifecycle Management (HP ALM) is a software product used for managing and automating application modernization activities.[24] The latest version of the software, HP ALM 11.0, was released in Nov. 2010.[25] IT departments use the solution for accelerating the delivery of secure, reliable modern applications.

It is a combination of a common platform, several key applications and a dashboard targeted at managing the core lifecycle of applications.

ALM 11.0 is designed to support the key stakeholders responsible for delivering applications as they progress through their lifecycle.

It focuses on the core lifecycle from design through readiness for delivery to operations.[26] HP ALM 11 includes products from HP Quality Center and HP Performance Center, including Business Process Testing, HP Functional Testing, HP LoadRunner, HP Requirements Management module, HP Service Test Management module, HP Service Test, HP Sprinter, HP Test Data Management, HP Unified Functional Testing.

HP ALM 11.00 delivers requirements management, test planning and functional testing, performance testing (when merged with HP Performance Center), developer management (through integration with the most widely used developer environments such as Collabnet TeamForge and Microsoft Visual Studio) and defect management.[27] All of these core lifecycle activities are connected together from a workflow perspective with a common management console, layer of project tracking and planning and built on a common software foundation containing a consistent repository and open integration architecture with a supported SDK.[28] HP Business Service Automation is a set of technology software products that work together to present a comprehensive approach to unifying and standardizing the work of Information Technology (IT).

HP Business Service Automation creates a common, enterprise-wide view of each business service; enables the automation of change and compliance across all devices that make up a business service; connects IT processes and coordinates teams via common workflows; and integrates with monitoring and ticketing tools to form a complete, integrated business service management solution.[29] HP Application Security Center consists of products that were formerly part of the SPI Dynamics software company portfolio.[30] The Application Security Center catalog includes DevInspect, Assessment Platform, QAInspect and WebInspect.

HP Business Availability Center includes several application management products: HP Business Service Management Software, Business Process Monitor, Business Process Insight, Discovery and Dependency Mapping, End User Management Problem Isolation, HP SiteScope, System Availability Management, TransactionVision and HP Software Division HP Universal CMDB software, a configuration management database for ITIL-based initiatives.

HP Data Center Automation Center consists of Business Service Automation Essentials, Network Automation, Server Automation, Service Automation Reporter, Service Automation Visualizer, Storage Essentials, Operations Orchestration and Release Control software.

HP Network Management Center consists of the following products previously branded as HP OpenView: Network Node Manager, Performance Insight, TeMIP, Report Pack for Cisco Wireless LAN Pack, and Report Pack for Radius Call Detail v 1.3.[31] HP Operations Center catalog includes a number of products from its 2007 acquisition of Opsware: Discovery and Dependency Mapping, GlancePlus Pak,Operations Dashboard, Operations Manager Dependency Mapping Automation, Operations Manager i 8.0, Operations Smart Plug-ins, Performance Manager, Reporter, SiteScope, and HP Universal CMDB.[32] HP Performance Center consists of four products gained from HP’s 2006 purchase of Mercury Interactive: Center Management for Performance Center, HP Diagnostics, HP LoadRunner Monitors, and HP LoadRunner.

HP Project and Portfolio Management Center(PPM) consists of nine products, many from its Mercury acquisition.[33] The HP PPM catalog includes HP Deployment Management module, Discovery and Dependency Mapping software, PPM Demand Management module, PPM Financial Management module, PPM Portfolio Management module, PPM Program Management module, PPM Project Management module, PPM Resource Management module, and PPM Time Management module.

HP Quality Center includes HP Business Process Testing, Center Management for Quality Center software, Change Impact Testing for SAP Applications, HP Functional Testing software, QuickTest Professional, Requirements Management module, Service Test Management module for SOA, Service Test and HP WinRunner software.

HP SOA Service-oriented architecture Center includes SOA Governance Interoperability Framework, SOA Policy Enforcer, SOA Registry Foundation, SOA Systinet and HP Universal CMDB software.

The Systinet product is a result of HP’s purchase of Mercury Interactive.[34] HP Service Management Center includes Asset Manager, HP Connect-It software, DecisionCenter, HP Client Automation Software and Service Manager software.

HP Business Service Management 9.0 was announced by HP Software Division in June 2010.

The HP BSM 9.0 suite is composed of HP Business Availability Center 9.0 (BAC ), HP Operations Manager i 9.0 (OMi) and HP Network Management Center (NMC) 9.0.[35] HP BSM 9.0 was designed to serve as a common single platform for managing complex applications, including those supported by both private and public cloud computing, outsourced IT, software-as-a-service (Saas) and traditional IT service delivery.[36] HP Software cloud computing portfolio consists of a number of software, services and third-party integrations designed to help IT departments adopt and manage the entire lifecycle of the cloud, both public and private, as well managing traditional IT delivery.[37] HP’s enterprise-grade cloud portfolio uses HP’s complete technology stack including server and storage technology, consulting services, as well HP’s IT management software. [38] HP Software Division markets its cloud initiatives using a lifecycle approach.

For planning and design of a cloud strategy and architecture, HP offers the HP Cloud Discovery Workshop, HP Cloud Roadmap Service, HP Cloud Design Service and HP Service Management Consulting Services.[39] HP markets two solutions for automating and managing cloud infrastructure and applications, HP Cloud Service Automation Software and HP Business Technology Optimization Services for Cloud Infrastructure.[40] Two solutions, HP Cloud Assure and HP Elastic Test, are designed for securing cloud-based services.[41] HP LoadRunner in the Cloud is another cloud offering from HP Software Division.

In May 2010, HP announced that an on-demand version of the application performance testing software would be available via Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud.[42] 70 HP Software Division 71 Information Management Products and Solutions Information Management software is used to organize, protect, retrieve, acquire, manage and maintain information.

The amount of data that companies have to deal with has grown tremendously over the past decade, making the management of this information more difficult.[43] The University of California at Berkeley claims the amount of information produced globally increases by 30 percent annually.[44] According to Julian Stuhler, director of Triton Consulting, data enterprise servers will “grow at a staggering 60 percent per year, resulting in 14 exabytes of corporate data by 2011.”[45] Because of this Information explosion IT companies have created technology solutions to help business manage this ever-expanding data.

HP Information Management Software consists of a portfolio of two main categories, business continuity and availability, and governance and E-discovery.

Business Continuity has one main offering, the HP Data Protector software that automates high-performance backup and recovery from disk or tape to enable 24×7 business continuity.

This software can be used any size business as it can grow from a single server environment to the largest distributed enterprise infrastructure.

Governance and E-Discovery solutions help companies meet the requirements of legal Electronic discovery and compliance regulations.

The solutions meet the Electronic Discovery Reference Model (EDRM)[46] for capturing, classifying, preserving, finding, analyzing and recovering information.

Products include HP TRIM Records Management System for electronic document management and Records Management, HP Integrated Archive Platform for compliance archiving, and HP Clearwell E-Discovery Platform for legal analytics. Business Intelligence Solutions Business intelligence Solutions (BI) incorporate hardware, software, services and partner technologies to connect the intelligence distributed throughout an organization to achieve a consistent view of business data.

By implementing business intelligence solutions, companies can integrate, reconcile, report, and analyze information across IT functions and business processes to aid in decision making, resource balancing, forecasting, and setting metrics.

According to TechWeb’s Tech Encyclopedia, “Business Intelligence software is software that enables users to obtain enterprise-wide information more easily.

Such products are considered a step up from the typical decision support tools because they more tightly integrate querying, reporting, OLAP, data mining and data warehousing functions,” says TechEncyclopedia from TechWeb.[47] HP offers Business Intelligence consulting services to assist companies with their BI implementations.

These services include BI Strategy and Management services for detailed planning and prioritization; Data Integration and Data Warehousing services; Performance Management and Analytics services; Information Strategy and Governance services; Information Quality Management services; Master Data Management services, and a number of software as a service offerings. Communications and Media Solutions Communications & media solutions are marketed by HP under four specific solution domains: Service delivery infrastructure and applications covers the core of the network including mobility management, call control, service delivery platform and device management, as well as subscriber data management and rich communication technologies.

Customer intelligence and billing covers mediation and real-time charging, data retention and management, and the CentralView solution family, which includes offerings that range from fraud management to revenue assurance and dealer management.

Next generation operational support systems (NGOSS) spans from service provisioning and management to assurance, including network fault and element management.

Digital media addresses the conversion of analog content to digital, digital content management and distribution. — References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / http:/ / standards/ asf/ http:/ / initiatives/ dash_initiative/ http:/ / standards/ cmdbf/ http:/ / initiatives/ vman_initiative/ [6] http:/ / standards/ published_documents/ DSP1042.

Pdf/ [7] http:/ / standards/ published_documents/ DSP1057.

Pdf/ [8] http:/ / standards/ published_documents/ DSP1059.

Pdf/ [9] http:/ / standards/ published_documents/ DSP1041.

Pdf/ [10] http:/ / standards/ published_documents/ DSP1043.

Pdf/ [11] http:/ / sblim. [12] http:/ / [13] http:/ / wbemservices. [14] http:/ / openwbem. [15] http:/ / about/ cloud-incubator/ Visual CMDB 107 Visual CMDB An ITIL Visual Configuration Management Database (Visual CMDB) is a series of spreadsheet applications that integrates the CMDB with Change Management and Service Level Management.

A Visual CMDB provides a unified view of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure in a visual representation.

This common view is a cornerstone for implementing a successful Configuration Management process.

A Visual CMDB helps manage IT assets(CIs) such as Hardware, Software and network components and associated details such as data files, documentation and service level information.

The integration of Change Management with a Visual CMDB allows users to do impact assessments for change and to make the correct changes to the infrastructure to keep the CMDB in sync with reality.

The Forward Schedule of Change provides additional visual information to help with change impact assessment over time. References • Office of Government Commerce (OGC), ed.: Service Support.

IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL).

The Stationery Office, Norwich, UK (2000) • OGC, ed.: Introduction to ITIL.

IT Infrastructure Library.

The Stationery Office (2005) ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus 108 ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus Operating system Windows2000,WinXP,Windows2003,Linux Platform Size Type Website P III 1Ghz and above, 256 MB RAM 44.1 MB Web Application [1] ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus is a complete web based and ITIL ready service desk solution with integrated asset management[2] .

It is developed by ManageEngine of ZOHO Corporation.

ServiceDesk plus has been selected as the Winner in Help Desk Category of Readers’ Choice Awards[3] by Features Its features also include Contract management, purchasing and knowledge management functionality with an ITIL ready version.

It enables end-users to raise tickets via an online web form, email, telephone or API’s.

It automates several key workflow tasks such as case routing, acknowledging requester, technician notification and handling of SLA’s and business rules.

The latest version[4] also includes Active Directory Integration, mobile interface[5] , purchasing system with approver, business rules for better request management, ability to group similar requests and assign to queues, comprehensive custom reports, announcement boards, enhanced list views, billing based on time spent on request, automated password reset[6] , HTML editors for solutions and notifications and ITIL ready functionalities.

Incident management, Problem management, Change management and Configuration management database has been implemented with all functionalities. License ServiceDesk Plus is proprietory software with license and annual maintenance fees based on the number of support representative seats.

The Free Edition allows a single Technician manage upto 25 Workstations. Summary of Features • • • • • • • • • • • • Web-based interface Automatic ticket routing and assignments Email ticket creation Service Catalog[7] FAQ Knowledgebase and self-service portal Asset management and tracking Automated Password Reset Tool Integration with monitoring software, Remote Control, E-mails and pagers, AD Synchronization, Windows Single Sign-on and Mobile Access Software license tracking Purchase,contract and report management Incident and problem management Available in 22 languages ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus 109 Sources [1] http:/ / products/ service-desk/ [2] “ITIL Ready HelpDesk with Asset Management” (http:/ / customer-feedback/ servicedesk-plus-ondemand). . [3] The Editor (26 January 2011). “Winner in Help Desk Category of Readers’ Choice Awards” (http:/ / news/ WindowsNetworking-Readers-Choice-Award-Help-Desk-ManageEngine-ServiceDesk-Plus-Dec10.

Html). . [4] “ManageEngine Launches ServiceDesk Plus Version 8” (http:/ /

Ph/ corporate/ updates/ latest_articles/ manageengine_launches_servicedesk_plus_version_8). 5 January 2011. . [5] SYS-CON Media (28 January 2010). “ManageEngine Adds Mobile Interface to ServiceDesk Plus” (http:/ / windows-mobile. mobile-news/ 1863/ manageengine-adds-mobile-interface-to-servicedesk-plus-itil-ready-help-desk-). . [6] “Help Desk Software includes automated password reset tool” (http:/ / news. fullstory/ Help-Desk-Software-includes-automated-password-reset-tool-513532). 6 April 2007. . [7] Nathan Eddy,Associate Editor (1 December 2010). “ManageEngine Adds Service Catalog to Service Desk Plus 8.0” (http:/ / c/ a/ Midmarket/ ManageEngine-Adds-Service-Catalog-to-Service-Desk-Plus-80-406096/ ). . External links • IT Help Desk Software ( – Official Website • ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus Blogs ( • ManageEngine ServiceDesk Plus Forums ( • Automated Password Reset Tool ( automated-password-reset.html) • Knowledge Base ( • CMDB ( IBM Tivoli Configuration and Change Management Database Tivoli Change and Configuration Management Database is IBM’s strategic tool that is said to automatically discover the physical and application infrastructure in an enterprise, given the appropriate credentials.

The low level component of CCMDB is called Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager (TADDM in short).

TADDM creates comprehensive application maps that include complete run-time dependencies, deep information about the Configuration Items (CIs) and tracks changes to the CIs.

Deploying TADDM is the first step in populating a Change and Configuration Management Database (CCMDB) that serves as the basis for the automation of ITIL processes such as configuration and change management.

It is also said to enable other ITIL processes like Incident and Problem Management.

Here is a summary of what TADDM/CCMDB is said to provide: 1.

Visibility of your IT Infrastructure: Understand what you have, through discovery of servers, network components and application infrastructure and middleware.

Discover deep configuration about these components and the dependencies between them. 2.

Change History: Learn how your configuration items are changing over time: The tool not only discovers the configuration, but also changes in configuration to provide analytics.

For EG, The Procurement application worked last week, but not working today.

What would have changed? 3.compliance: Compare the discovered configuration with systems that are considered as the standard reference models and determine the noncompliance.

For example, how does the configuration of our DR system compare with the production system? Active database 110 Active database An Active Database is a database that includes an event driven architecture (often in the form of ECA rules) which can respond to conditions both inside and outside the database.

Possible uses include security monitoring, alerting, statistics gathering and authorization.

Most modern relational databases include active database features in the form of SQL Triggers. References • Paton, Norman W; Díaz, Oscar (1999). “Active database systems” [1].

ACM Computing Surveys (NY, USA: ACM) 31 (1): 63–103.


ISSN 0360-0300.

Retrieved 8 July 2010. • “Active Database” [2].

IT Toolbox.

Retrieved 8 July 2010. References [1] http:/ / portal. citation.

Cfm?id=311623 [2] http:/ / it. wiki/ index.

Php/ Active_Database ADO.NET — Article Sources and Contributors Trigger list  Source:  Contributors: Altenmann, Elsendero, Eugene126, HalfShadow, Kortaggio, Markles, OlEnglish, Pmagistro, R’n’B, 10 anonymous edits Triplestore  Source:  Contributors: Andy Dingley, Cnorvell, Djlambert, Earle Martin, Enric Naval, Erick.Antezana, FrankTobia, Inverse.chi, Jreast, JustAnotherJoe, Linas, LostVagabond, Mdd, Nhumfrey, Nicolas1981, Pholding, Simnia, Soumyasch, Spencerk, WiseWoman, 23 anonymous edits Two-phase locking  Source:  Contributors: Andreas Kaufmann, Beta16, Clausen, Comps, Craig Pemberton, Cxz111, Cybercobra, Jeskeca, John of Reading, Michael Hardy, Nchaimov, Neilc, OrangeDog, Paul20070, Poor Yorick, Rich Farmbrough, SeanMon, Svick, Syst3m, Thomas Bjørkan, Touko vk, Woohookitty, 27 anonymous edits Universal IR Evaluation  Source:  Contributors: Alan Liefting, TchrLibrarian, Venustas 12, Wilhelmina Will Universal relation assumption  Source:  Contributors: History2007, Rpyle731 unixODBC  Source:  Contributors: Amillar, Andreas Kaufmann, Bvssatish, Craig Stuntz, Frap, Gronky, JLaTondre, Lurcher300b, Michael B.

Trausch, Peteralexharvey, ?wing, 7 anonymous edits User-defined function  Source:  Contributors: AKGhetto, ANNAfoxlover, Amcguinn, Andreas Kaufmann, Andrzej P.

Wozniak, Chowbok, Chriscf, Crystallina, Frap, Giraffedata, Gpvos, Lankiveil, Materialscientist, Mercy, Mikeblas, Mitsukai, Mpin, Petersap, RevRagnarok, ReyBrujo, Seqsea, SmilesALot, Stolze, Tobias Bergemann, ZacBowling, 24 anonymous edits Variable data publishing  Source:  Contributors: Alvin Seville, Bearcat, Dcowe, Falcon8765, Grafen, Jake Wartenberg, Parhamr, 2 anonymous edits Versant Object Database  Source:  Contributors: Bearcat, Eugene-elgato, Germanviscuso, Ipsign, JLaTondre, Nick Number, R’n’B, Smallman12q, WikiDan61, 4 anonymous edits Virtual Laboratory  Source:  Contributors: AndrewHowse, Colonies Chris, David Ludwig, Iridescent, Schaxel, Venturar, 1 anonymous edits Voter database  Source:  Contributors: Alansing, AvicAWB, Btball, Ceyockey, Chadlupkes, Deipnosophista, Electiontechnology, ErinRaub, Evercat, Evil saltine, Flamingspinach, Fuhghettaboutit, Garyrust, Ground Zero, Hughstimson, Idp, Inks.LWC, JonHarder, Lankiveil, Longhair, MONGO, Marcika, Mediamezcla, MisterJayEm, Ottawan, Robofish, SanDiegoPolitico, SimonP, Steviecorey, TheParanoidOne, Welsh, 68 anonymous edits Weak entity  Source:  Contributors: Babbling.Brook, Crypticstargate, Dodo bird, Gareth Owen, J’raxis, JForget, Jsmethers, Jwoodger, Qu1j0t3, Rholton, Ritchy, Ron Ritzman, Rustushki, Salam32, Sanfranman59, Stdazi, Tarquin, TheParanoidOne, Woohookitty, Zondor, 36 anonymous edits XLDB  Source:  Contributors: Drbreznjev, Jbecla, Kdborne, PirateMink, 13 anonymous edits XML database  Source:  Contributors: 16×9, AJackl, Abukaspar, Adrianwn, Americanpiggy, Amirfr, Andionita, Arnabdotorg, Avoided, Barefootliam, Belovedfreak, Bernd vdB old, Bohumir Zamecnik, Brick Thrower, Bunnyhop11, Ccouvrette, Cdicarlo, Chowbok, ChristianGruen, Colonies Chris, CorcaighAbu, Courcelles, DickieRose, Dilane, Dizzzz, Dmccreary, Doclabyrinth, DoriSmith, Edward C.

Zimmermann, Eedeebee, Enric Naval, Epbr123, EricBloch, GVogeler, Glen Pepicelli, Gpallis, Gregburd, Happygiraffe, Hgkamath, Hobartimus, Joerg84, John Vandenberg, Johndbritton, Juansempere, Jzhang2007, Klingon, Kmorozov, Kokotero, Lamdk, Libcub, Materialscientist, Mdd, Metaperl, Michael Slone, MiddleEarth, Nichtich, Nikkimaria, OlliX, Pearle, Pedant17, Philip Trueman, Playmobilonhishorse, Q Chris, R’n’B, Radim Baca, Rastgoo, Rayngwf, Rjwilmsi, Rtweed1955, Signalhead, Slakr, Snodnipper, Stevertigo, Sykamoore, TRosenbaum, Tags123, Tbradford, Terrifictriffid, Themfromspace, Thumperward, Tide rolls, Touko vk, Xafran, Xmlchamp, Xmlizer, Xpriori, Xshezang, Xxanthippe, 267 anonymous edits YAGO (ontology)  Source:  Contributors: JosebaAbaitua, KathrynLybarger, King of Hearts, Pmj005, Qwfp, Ruud Koot, Sandos, Tobias Bergemann, 2 anonymous edits 639 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 640 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors Image:ConfiurationActivityModel.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Department of Defense Handbook Image:CS Venn Diagram.pdf  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Pfuchs722 Image:Wearer of an ITIL Foundation Certificate pin.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:IIVQ File:ETL Architecture Pattern.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:ETL Image:BMC Software Logo.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Adam sk File:Increase2.svg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Sarang File:BMC Campus, Building 4 Houston.jpg  Source:,_Building_4_Houston.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: FlickrLickr, FlickreviewR, Infrogmation, Loadmaster, Nyttend, WhisperToMe, Xnatedawgx Image:CA-brand.svg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Fbagirov, Gurmeetd, L.patera, Seoidau File:Computer-Associates-HQ.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Americasroof File:CA House in Canberra.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Bidgee Image:Fujitsu-Logo.svg  Source:  License: Trademarked  Contributors: unbekannt.

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