References  http:/ / www.aslbislfoundation.org/ content/ view/ 12/ 17/ lang,en/  http:/ / www.aslbislfoundation.org/ component/ option,com_docman/ task,doc_download/ gid,338/ Itemid,70/ lang,en/  Remko van der Pols, Ralph Donatz, Frank van Outvorst.
BiSL, Framework for Business Information Management. (2007) ISBN 978-90-8753-042-6  Dutch Article (http:/ / www.computable.
Nl/ artikel/ ict_topics/ beheer/ 2924006/ 1277800/ nieuwe-voorzitter-voor-stichting-aslbisl.
Html) in Computable magazine over the ASL-BiSL Foundation External links • ASL BiSL Foundation (http://www.ASLbislFoundation.org) Information technology management IT Management is the discipline whereby all of the technology resources of the firm are managed in accord with the company’s needs and priorities.
Those resources include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staffs who are hired to maintain them.
Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, organizing and controlling, plus aspects that are unique to technology, like change management, software design, network planning, tech support and others. IT Management is a different subject from Management Information Systems.
Management Information Systems refer to information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making. IT Management, as stated in the above definition, refers to the IT related management activities in organizations.
MIS as it is referred to is focused mainly on the business aspect with a strong input into the technology phase of the business/organization.
A primary focus of IT Management is the value creation made possible by technology.
This requires the alignment of technology and business strategies.
While the value creation for an organization is a network of relationships between internal and external environments, technology plays an important role in improving the overall value chain of an organization.
However, this increase requires business and technology management to work as a creative, synergistic, and collaborative team instead of a purely mechanistic span of control according to Bird. IT Infrastructure The term IT Infrastructure is defined in ITIL v3 as combined set of hardware, software, networks, facilities, etc. (including all of the Information Technology), in order to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control or support IT services.
Associated people, Processes and documentation are not part of IT Infrastructure. List of IT Management disciplines The below concepts are commonly listed or investigated under the broad term IT Management:    • • • • • Business/IT alignment IT Governance IT Financial Management IT Service Management Sourcing • IT configuration management Information technology management 3 IT Managers IT Managers have a lot in common with Project Managers but their main difference is one of focus: IT Managers are responsible and accountable for an ongoing program of IT services while the Project Managers’ responsibility and accountability are both limited to a project with a clear start and end date. Most of the IT management programs are designed to educate and develop managers who can effectively manage the planning, design, selection, implementation, use, and administration of emerging and converging information and communications technologies.
The program curriculum provides students with the technical knowledge and management knowledge and skills needed to effectively integrate people, information and communication technologies, and business processes in support of organizational strategic goals.
Graduates should be able 1.
To explain the important terminology, facts, concepts, principles, analytic techniques, and theories used in IT management. 2.
To apply important terminology, facts, concepts, principles, analytic techniques, and theories in IT management when analyzing complex factual situations. 3.
To integrate (or synthesize) important facts, concepts, principles, and theories in IT management when developing solutions to IT management multifaceted problems in complex situations. References  McNurlin, Barbara, et.
Al. (2009). “Information Systems Management in Practice (8th ed.)”.
Prentice Hall.  O’Brien, J (1999).
Management Information Systems – Managing Information Technology in the Internetworked Enterprise.
Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
ISBN 0071123733.  Bird, M. (2010).
Modern Management Guide to Information Technology.
Create Space. (http:/ / harvardbookstore.
Biz)  Veen, Annelies van der; Jan van Bon (2007).
Foundations of ITIL V3.
Van Haren Publishing.
ISBN 9789087530570.  28 Nov. 2008 http:/ / www.gartner.com/ it/ products/ research/ topics/ topics.
Jsp  28 Nov. 2008 http:/ / www.gartner.com/ it/ products/ research/ research_services.
Jsp  McKeen, James D., and Smith, Heather A., Making IT Happen: Critical Issues in IT Management, Wiley Series in Information Systems, 2003  CIO Wisdom: Best Practise from Silicon Valley’s Leading IT Experts, Lane, D. (ed), Prentice Hall 2004  Thomas, Rhané (June 15, 2009). “IT Managers and Project Management” (http:/ / www.pmhut.com/ it-managers-and-project-management).
PM Hut. .
Retrieved December 13, 2009. Data proliferation 4 Data proliferation Data proliferation refers to the prodigious amount of data, structured and unstructured, that businesses and governments continue to generate at an unprecedented rate and the usability problems that result from attempting to store and manage that data.
While originally pertaining to problems associated with paper documentation, data proliferation has become a major problem in primary and secondary data storage on computers.
While digital storage has become cheaper, the associated costs, from raw power to maintenance and from metadata to search engines, have not kept up with the proliferation of data.
Although the power required to maintain a unit of data has fallen, the cost of facilities which house the digital storage has tended to rise.  “ At the simplest level, company e-mail systems spawn large amounts of data.
Business e-mail – some of it important to the enterprise, some much less so – is estimated to be growing at a rate of 25-30% annually.
And whether it’s relevant or not, the load on the system is being magnified by practices such as multiple addressing and the attaching of large text, audio and even video files. ”  — The following are many applications: • A composite SOA application composed of a set of reusable services and a user interface that leverages those services.
There are at least two applications here (the user interface and one or more service components).
Each service is not counted as an application. • A legacy client-server app that writes to a database to store data and an Excel spreadsheet that uses macros to read data from the database to present a report.
There are TWO apps in this example.
The database clearly belongs to the legacy app because it was developed with it, delivered with it, and is tightly coupled to it.
This is true even if the legacy system uses the same stored procedures as the Excel spreadsheet. References  HBR Prod. #: 74104-PDF-ENG  “The State Of Global Enterprise IT Budgets: 2009 To 2010”, Forrester Research, (http:/ / www.forrester.com/ rb/ Research/ state_of_global_enterprise_it_budgets_2009/ q/ id/ 53332/ t/ 2)  Definition of an Application, Inside Architecture Blog (http:/ / blogs.
Msdn.com/ nickmalik/ archive/ 2006/ 08/ 11/ third-attempt-definition-of-an-application-in-a-soa-environment.
Aspx), Nick Malik Application Services Library 27 Application Services Library ASL is a methodology used in the IT industry.
The Application Services Library (ASL) is a public domain standard, which describes a standard for processes within Application Management (the discipline of producing and maintaining information systems and applications).
The term “library” is used because the ASL standard is based on the descriptions of best practices from the industry.
This standard was developed in the late nineties in the Netherlands, originally as the proprietary R2C model, which evolved into ASL in 2000.
In 2001 it was donated by the IT Service Provider PinkRoccade to the ASL Foundation, now the ASL BiSL Foundation.
ASL is closely related to ITIL, BiSL and CMM.
It is described in several books and articles (most of them only available in Dutch), as well as on the official website of the ASL BiSL Foundation.
The standard was developed because of the inability to structure the way of working within the Application Management departments by only using the ITIL framework, an older library embraced by the IT infrastructure departments for structuring their way of working.
At the time of development, ITIL was very useful for infrastructure management but lacked specific guidance for application design, development, maintenance and support.
Newer ITIL versions, particularly V3, have increasingly addressed the Application Development and Application Management domains.
A reference to a white paper comparing ITIL V3 and ASL is included.
ASL was defined in order to fill this gap for Application Management.
A similar development has led to the definition of the BiSL-standard for Information Management / Functional Management. Purpose The ASL is intended to support Application Management by providing tools.
Two main categories of aids are defined: • Descriptions of the processes for Application Management.
Plus the use of best-practises • Standard terminology, avoiding the pitfall of talking about different topics while using the same words.
The goal of ASL is to assist in the professionalisation of Application Management. Structure of ASL Application Services Library 28 ASL contains six clusters of processes, three on the operational level, one on the tactical level and two on the strategic level. Operational level Service organisation There are five processes within the cluster Service Organisation.
The processes in the Service Organisation cluster support the daily use of the information systems.
The processes in this cluster are: • • • • • incident management continuity management capacity management availability management configuration management — Strategic level Application Cycle Management Applications live for longer than expected.
Systems, functionality, concepts and structure of information systems remain stable over many years.
This knowledge is rarely used.
It is important that, while maintaining and enhancing systems, there is a clear view needed what the demands are in the future, and based on that, what and how the future of these applications should look like.
This view, the application management strategies, is created within the cluster application cycle management.
The processes in this cluster are: • • • • • life cycle management information portfolio management customer organisation strategy customer environment strategy ICT development strategy. Organisation Cycle Management Also the future of the Application Management organisation, with aspects as skills and capabilities, markets and customers, is very important.
Creating the organisation management strategies for this is the aim of Organization Cycle Management.
Processes in this cluster include: • • • • • account definition market definition skills definition technology definition service delivery definition Information For more information, many articles, best practises and information are available at the website of the ASL BiSL Foundation. References • ASL BiSL Foundation website  • ASL, a framework for Application Management (book on ASL, ISBN 90-77212-05-1) • Comparison ASL & ITIL V3  Application Services Library 30 References  http:/ / www.aslbislfoundation.org/  http:/ / www.best-management-practice.com/ Knowledge-Centre/ White-Papers/ Autonomic Networking Autonomic Networking follows the concept of Autonomic Computing, an initiative started by IBM in 2001.
Its ultimate aim is to create self-managing networks to overcome the rapidly growing complexity of the Internet and other networks and to enable their further growth, far beyond the size of today. Increasing size and complexity The ever-growing management complexity of the Internet caused by its rapid growth is seen by some experts as a major problem that limits its usability in the future.
What’s more, increasingly popular smartphones, PDAs, networked audio and video equipment, and game consoles need to be interconnected.
Pervasive Computing not only adds features, but also burdens existing networking infrastructure with more and more tasks that sooner or later will not be manageable by human intervention alone.
Another important aspect is the price of manually controlling huge numbers of vitally important devices of current network infrastructures. Autonomic nervous system — Needs • • • • • • More and smaller changes–mean less risk Giving developers more environment control Giving infrastructure more application-centric understanding Clearly articulating simple processes Automating as much as possible Collaboration between dev and ops In summary, as companies seek to streamline the cumbersome transition between development and operations, they typically confront 3 different types of problems: Release Management Problems Companies with release management problems are looking for better release planning than spreadsheets.
They want an easy way to understand release risks, dependencies, stage gates adherence and an ensure compliance.
Release/Deployment Coordination Problems Teams with release/deployment coordination problems are focused on better execution of release/deployment events.
They want better tracking of discrete activities, faster escalation of issues, documented process control and granular reporting.
Release/Deployment Automation Problems Companies with release/deployment automation problems usually have existing automation but want to more flexibly manage and drive this automation – without needing to enter everything manually at the command-line.
Ideally, this automation can be invoked by non-operations resources in specific non-production environments.
One way to start streamlining release process is to identify which of the above problems is the overall team’s highest priority. Release coordinator A relatively new role in enterprise IT which is primarily tasked with coordinating deployments of enterprise software to pre-production environments.
The need for the release coordinator has been driven by: 1. 2. 3. 4.
The need to fill the Devops “gap” Increased infrastructure complexity – multiple layers and platforms which form web applications Growth in rate of releases – due to agile and iterative development Distributed teams – globally deployed, outsourced and hybrid development, testing and infrastructure teams The release co-ordinator role (also referred to as a deployment or integration co-ordinator) has emerged from the release management or release engineering teams.
This role is similar to an air traffic controller—performing real time co-ordination activities across diverse teams to achieve a group goal (safe landing and take-off) using shared resources (airspace, flight paths, airport runways, and terminal gates).
Release co-ordination contrasts with release management, which is often focused on planning and reporting on software changes, in order to control the release of specific application changes into production.
Release engineering DevOps is concerned with the systematic and technical work related to building and deploying code into environments.
Change management is the infrastructure discipline for tracking all types of changes in the enterprise IT environment—including both application and infrastructure changes.
Change management is a core part of ITIL v3. 160 Criticisms of Devops Some in the IT blogging field have cited criticisms of the “Devops” label as just a primarily elitist sysadmin club to rebrand an existing problem or a marketing scheme to sell already well-understood methodologies.  References  Pant, Rajiv (2009-03-17). “devops” (http:/ / www.rajiv.com/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ 17/ technology-department/ ).organizing a Technology Department. .  Samovskiy, Dmitriy (2010-03-02). “The Rise of devops” (http:/ / somic.org/ 2010/ 03/ 02/ the-rise-of-devops/ ).
Fubaredness Is Contagious. .  Edwards, Damon. “What is devops?” (http:/ / dev2ops.org/ blog/ 2010/ 2/ 22/ what-is-devops.
Html). .  Vambenepe, William. “Steve Ballmer gets Cloud” (http:/ / stage.
Vambenepe.com/ archives/ 1393). .  Lyman, Jay. “devops mixing dev, ops, agile, cloud, open source and business” (http:/ / blogs.
The451group.com/ opensource/ 2010/ 03/ 03/ devops-mixing-dev-ops-agile-cloud-open-source-and-business/ ). 451 CAOS Theory. .  Nasrat, Paul. “Agile Infrastructure” (http:/ / www.infoq.com/ presentations/ agile-infrastructure).
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  http:/ / agileoperations.net/  Debois, Patrick. “devops Cafe Episode 12” (http:/ / devopscafe.org/ show/ 2010/ 9/ 15/ episode-12.
Devops Cafe. .
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  Debois, Patrick. “Devops Days Ghent 2009” (http:/ / www.devopsdays.org/ events/ 2009-ghent/ ).
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  Debois, Patrick. “Devops Days” (http:/ / www.devopsdays.org/ ).
Devops Days. .
Retrieved 31 March 2011.  Turnbull, James. “What Devops means to me…” (http:/ / www.kartar.net/ 2010/ 02/ what-devops-means-to-me/ ). .  “10+ Deploys Per Day: Dev and Ops Cooperation at Flickr” (http:/ / www.slideshare.net/ jallspaw/ 10-deploys-per-day-dev-and-ops-cooperation-at-flickr). .  “SAM SIG: Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing” (http:/ / www.sdforum.org/ index.
SDForum. .  “Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing” (http:/ / www.slideshare.net/ pascallouis/ applied-lean-startup-ideas-continuous-deployment-at-kaching). .  “Devops Group” (http:/ / www.linkedin.com/ groups?mostPopular=& gid=2825397).
LinkedIn. .  “Devops Days 2009 Conference” (http:/ / www.devopsdays.org/ ghent09/ programme/ ). .  Edwards, Damon. “Devops Meetup Recap” (http:/ / dev2ops.org/ blog/ 2010/ 4/ 26/ devops-meetup-recap.
Html). .  Lyman, Jay. “Devops mixing dev, ops, agile, cloud, open source and business” (http:/ / blogs.
The451group.com/ opensource/ 2010/ 03/ 03/ devops-mixing-dev-ops-agile-cloud-open-source-and-business/ ). 451 CAOS Theory. .  “Virtual Infrastructure products: features comparison” (http:/ / www.it20.
Info/ misc/ virtualizationscomparison.
Welcome to IT 2.0: Next Generation IT infrastructures. .  Ellard, Jennifer. “Bringing Order to Chaos through Data Center Automation” (http:/ / www.information-management.com/ infodirect/ 20071026/ 10000120-1.
SourceMedia, Inc.. .  Debois, Patrick. “The leaning of life – History of the Silos” (http:/ / www.jedi.
Be/ blog/ 2010/ 06/ 07/ the-leaning-of-life/ ). .  Booth, David. “How to Measure the Effects of Development + Operations improvements, an OpenSpace conversation” (http:/ / www.zeroturnaround.com/ blog/ how-to-measure-the-effectiveness-of-implementing-devops). .  Nelson-Smith, Stephen. “What Is This Devops Thing, Anyway?” (http:/ / www.jedi.
Be/ blog/ 2010/ 02/ 12/ what-is-this-devops-thing-anyway/ ). .  Dziuba, Ted. “Devops Is a Poorly Executed Scam” (http:/ / teddziuba.com/ 2011/ 03/ devops-scam.
Html). . Digital asset management 161 Digital asset management Digital asset management (DAM) consists of management tasks and decisions surrounding the ingestion, annotation, cataloguing, storage, retrieval and distribution of digital assets.
Digital photographs, animations, videos and music exemplify the target-areas of media asset management (a sub-category of DAM). Digital asset management systems (DAMS) include computer software and hardware systems that aid in the process of digital asset management.
The term “digital asset management” (DAM) also refers to the protocol for downloading, renaming, backing up, rating, grouping, archiving, optimizing, maintaining, thinning, and exporting files.
The “media asset management” (MAM) sub-category of digital asset management mainly addresses audio, video and other media content.
The more recent concept of enterprise content management (ECM) often deals with solutions which address similar features but in a wider range of industries or applications. Smaller DAM systems are easier to categorize as to content and usage since they normally operate in a particular operational context.
This would hold true for systems attached to audio or video production systems.
The key differentiators here are the type of decoders and I/O (input/output) used for the asset ingest, use and outgest.
Since metadata describes the essence (and proxy copies), the metadata can serve as a guide to the playout decoders, transcoders, and channels as well as an input to access control rules.
This means that the essence can be treated as a non-described storage object except when being accessed for viewing or editing.
There is relevance to this when considering the overall design and use of larger implementations.
The closer the asset is to the ingest/edit/playout tool, the greater the technical architecture needs to accommodate delivery requirements such as bandwidth, latency, capacity, access control, availability of resources, etc.
The further the asset moves into a general storage architecture (eg hierarchical storage management [HSM]) the more it can be treated as a general blob (binary large object) that is typically held in the filesystem, not the database.
The impact of this set of needs means that it is possible and reasonable to design larger systems using smaller, more expensive performance-systems at the edge of the network where the essence is being used in its intended form and less expensive systems further back for storage and archival.
This type of design exemplifies Infrastructure Convergence Architecture, where the line-of-business operations technology and IT technologies depend on one another for functional and performance (non-functional) requirements. — Information Technology Infrastructure Library SAM represents the software component of IT asset management.
This includes hardware asset management because effective hardware inventory controls are critical to efforts to control software.
This means overseeing software and hardware that comprise an organisation’s computers and network. 322 Planning to Implement Service Management The ITIL discipline – Planning to Implement Service Management attempts to provide practitioners with a framework for the alignment of business needs and IT provision requirements.
The processes and approaches incorporated within the guidelines suggest the development of a Continuous Service Improvement Program (CSIP) as the basis for implementing other ITIL disciplines as projects within a controlled program of work.
Planning to Implement Service Management focuses mainly on the Service Management processes, but also applies generically to other ITIL disciplines.components include: • • • • creating vision analyzing organisation setting goals implementing IT service management Small-Scale Implementation ITIL Small-Scale Implementation provides an approach to ITIL framework implementation for smaller IT units or departments.
It is primarily an auxiliary work that covers many of the same best practice guidelines as Planning to Implement Service Management, Service Support, and Service Delivery but provides additional guidance on the combination of roles and responsibilities, and avoiding conflict between ITIL priorities. Overview of the ITIL v3 library ITIL v3 is an extension of ITIL v2 and will fully replace it following the completion of the withdrawal period on 30 June 2011 .
ITIL v3 provides a more holistic perspective on the full life cycle of services, covering the entire IT organisation and all supporting components needed to deliver services to the customer, whereas v2 focused on specific activities directly related to service delivery and support.
Most of the v2 activities remained untouched in v3, but some significant changes in terminology were introduced in order to facilitate the expansion.
Five volumes comprise the ITIL v3, published in May 2007: 1.
ITIL Service Strategy 2.
ITIL Service Design 3.
ITIL Service Transition 4.
ITIL Service Operation 5.
ITIL Continual Service Improvement Service Strategy As the center and origin point of the ITIL Service Lifecycle, the ITIL Service Strategy volume provides guidance on clarification and prioritisation of service-provider investments in services.
More generally, Service Strategy focuses on helping IT organisations improve and develop over the long term.
In both cases, Service Strategy relies largely upon a market-driven approach.
Key topics covered include service value definition, business-case development, service assets, market analysis, and service provider types.
List of covered processes: • Service Portfolio Management  • Demand Management • IT Financial Management  Information Technology Infrastructure Library 323 Service Design The ITIL Service Design volume provides good-practice guidance on the design of IT services, processes, and other aspects of the service management effort.
Significantly, design within ITIL is understood to encompass all elements relevant to technology service delivery, rather than focusing solely on design of the technology itself.
As such, Service Design addresses how a planned service solution interacts with the larger business and technical environments, service management systems required to support the service, processes which interact with the service, technology, and architecture required to support the service, and the supply chain required to support the planned service.
Within ITIL v2, design work for an IT service is aggregated into a single Service Design Package (SDP).
Service Design Packages, along with other information about services, are managed within the service catalogues.
List of covered processes: • • • • • • • Service Catalogue Management Service Level Management Risk Management Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management Information Security Management • Compliance Management • IT Architecture Management • Supplier Management Service Transition Service transition, as described by the ITIL Service Transition volume, relates to the delivery of services required by a business into live/operational use, and often encompasses the “project” side of IT rather than “BAU” (Business as usual).
This area also covers topics such as managing changes to the “BAU” environment.
List of processes: • • • • • • Service Asset and Configuration Management Service Validation and Testing Evaluation Release Management Change Management Knowledge Management — Other Frameworks ITIL is generally equivalent to the scope of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard (previously BS 15000). .
While it is not possible for an organization to be certified as being ITIL compliant, certification of an organisation is available for ISO20000 .
COBIT is an IT governance framework and supporting toolset developed by ISACA.
ISACA view ITIL as being complimentory to COBIT.
They see COBIT as providing a governance and assurance role while ITIL providing guidance for service management. The enhanced Telecom Operations Map eTOM published by the TeleManagement Forum offers a framework aimed at telecommunications service providers.
In a joined effort, TM Forum and itSMF developed an Application Note to eTOM (GB921) that shows how the two frameworks can be mapped to each other.
It addresses how eTom process elements and flows can be used to support the processes identified in ITIL.  IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) is aligned with ITIL, but is presented as a complete, integrated process model compatible with IBM’s products. Information Technology Infrastructure Library 326 Certification Individuals The certification scheme differs between ITIL v2 and ITIL v3 and bridge examinations let v2 certification owners transfer to the new program.
ITIL v2 offers 3 certification levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.
These should be progressively discontinued in favour of the new ITIL v3 scheme.
ITIL v3 certification levels are: Foundation, Intermediate, Expert and Master.
The ITIL v3 certification scheme offers a modular approach.
Each qualification is assigned a credit value; so that upon successful completion of the module, the candidate is rewarded with both a certification and a number of credits.
At the lowest level – Foundation candidates are awarded a certification and 2 credits.
At the Intermediate level, a total of 15 credits must be earned.
These credits may be accumulated in either a “Lifecycle” stream or a “Capability” stream; or combination thereof.
Each Lifecycle module and exam is 3 An ITIL Foundation certificate pin.
Each Capability module and corresponding exam is 4 credits.
A candidate wanting to achieve the Expert level will have, among other requirements, to gain the required number of credits (22).
That is accomplished with two from Foundations, then 15 from Intermediate, and finally 5 credits from the “Managing Across the Lifecycle” exam.
Together, the total of 22 earned credits designates one as ITIL v. 3 Expert. The ITIL Certification Management Board (ICMB) manages ITIL certification.
The Board includes representatives from interested parties within the community around the world.
Members of the Board include (though are not limited to) representatives from the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC), APM Group (APMG), The Stationery Office (TSO), V3 Examination Panel, Examination Institutes (EIs) and the IT Service Management Forum International (itSMF) as the recognised user group. Since the early 1990s, EXIN and ISEB have been setting up the ITIL based certification program, developing and providing ITIL exams at three different levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.
EXIN and BCS/ISEB (the British Computer Society) have from that time onwards been the only two examination providers in the world to develop formally acknowledged ITIL certifications, provide ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers worldwide.
These rights were obtained from OGC, the British government institution and owner of the ITIL trademark.
OGC signed over the management of the ITIL trademark and the accreditation of examination providers to APMG in 2006.
Now, after signing a contract with EXIN , BCS/ISEB and other certification bodies, APMG is accrediting them as official examination bodies, to offer ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers.
On July 20, 2006, the OGC signed a contract with the APM Group  to become its commercial partner for ITIL accreditation from January 1, 2007. APMG manage the ITIL Version 3 exams.
APMG maintains a voluntary register of ITIL Version 3-certified practitioners at their Successful Candidate Register. A voluntary registry of ITIL Version 2-certified practitioners is operated by the ITIL Certification Register. Information Technology Infrastructure Library 327 ITIL® pins It has been a well-known tradition for years that passing an EXIN exam in IT Service Management (based on ITIL®) does not only result in a certificate, but is also accompanied by the presentation of a metal pin which can be attached to a shirt or jacket.
This distinguishing badge with basic gold colour is set in the form of the internationally well-known ITIL®-logo.
The ITIL® pins consist of small diamond like structure that is accepted worldwide.
The meaning and the shape of the diamond depicts coherence in the IT industry (infrastructure as well).
The four corners of the pin symbolises service support, service delivery, Infrastructure Management and IT Management.
There are three colours of ITIL® V2 pins: 1.
Green, for the Foundation Certificate 2.
Blue, for the Practitioner’s Certificate 3.
Red, for the Manager’s Certificate Exam candidates who have successfully passed the examinations for ITIL® version 2 will receive their appropriate pin from EXIN or their certification provider regional office or agent.
With the arrival of ITIL® V3, there are several new pins to display your achievements.
As of July 2008, EXIN and all certification providers will also provide ITIL® pins to exam candidates who have obtained ITIL® version 3 certificates.
The new pins are very similar to ITIL® V2 pins, but every level has a different color corresponding to the ITIL® V3 core books. Organisations Organisations and management systems cannot claim certification as “ITIL-compliant”.
An organisation that has implemented ITIL guidance in IT Service Management (ITSM), may however, be able to achieve compliance with and seek certification under ISO/IEC 20000.
Note that there are some significant differences between ISO/IEC20000 and ITIL Version 3 • ISO20000 only recognises the management of financial assets, not assets which include “management, organisation, process, knowledge, people, information, applications, infrastructure and financial capital”, nor the concept of a “service asset”.
So ISO20000 certification does not address the management of ‘assets’ in an ITIL sense. • ISO20000 does not recognise Configuration Management System (CMS) or Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS), and so does not certify anything beyond Configuration Management Database (CMDB). • An organisation can obtain ISO20000 certification without recognising or implementing the ITIL concept of Known Error, which is usually considered essential to ITIL. References  David Clifford, Jan van Bon (2008).
Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap.
Van Haren Publishing.
ISBN 908753082X.  Office of Government Commerce (UK) CCTA and OGC (http:/ / www.ogc.
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The Stationery Office.
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IT Infrastructure Library.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113300174.  Office of Government Commerce (2002).
ICT Infrastructure Management.
The Stationery Office.
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The Stationery Office.
ISBN 011330014X.  Office of Government Commerce (2002).
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113308663.  Office of Government Commerce (2002).
Planning to Implement Service Management.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113308779.  Office of Government Commerce (2005).
ITIL Small Scale Implementation.
The Stationery Office.
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ITIL Service Strategy.
The Stationery Office.
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ITIL Service Design.
The Stationery Office.
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ITIL Service Transition.
The Stationery Office.
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ITIL Service Operation.
The Stationery Office.
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ITIL Continual Service Improvement.
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Microsoft.com/ fwlink/ ?LinkId=151991).
May 2009. .  http:/ / www.thefitsfoundation.org  Van Bon, Jan; Verheijen, Tieneke (2006), Frameworks for IT Management (http:/ / books.
Google.com/ books?id=RV3jQ16F1_cC), Van Haren Publishing, ISBN 9789077212905,  http:/ / www.itsmsolutions.com/ newsletters/ DITYvol2iss3.
Htm  ISACA (2008), COBIT Mapping: Mapping of ITIL V3 With COBIT 4.1 (http:/ / www.isaca.org/ Knowledge-Center/ Research/ ResearchDeliverables/ Pages/ COBIT-Mapping-Mapping-of-ITIL-V3-With-COBIT-4-1.
Aspx), ITGI, ISBN 9781604200355,  Brooks, Peter (2006), Metrics for IT Service Management (http:/ / books.
Google.com/ books?id=UeWDivqKcm0C), Van Haren Publishing, pp. 76–77, ISBN 9789077212691,  Morreale, Patricia A.; Terplan, Kornel (2009), “220.127.116.11 Matching ITIL to eTOM” (http:/ / books.
Google.com/ books?id=VEp0aMmH3iQC), CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications, Second Edition (2 ed.), CRC Press, ISBN 9781420078008,  ITIL V3 Qualification Scheme (http:/ / www.itil-officialsite.com/ Qualifications/ ITILV3QualificationScheme.
OGC Official Site. .
Retrieved 2011-05-02.  APMG (2008). “ITIL Service Management Practices: V3 Qualifications Scheme” (http:/ / www.itil-officialsite.com/ nmsruntime/ saveasdialog.
Asp?lID=572& sID=86). .
Retrieved 24 February 2009.  “EXIN Exams” (http:/ / www.exin-exams.com/ ).
EXIN Exams. .
Retrieved 2010-01-14.  “ISEB Professionals Qualifications, Training, Careers BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT” (http:/ / www.bcs.org/ server.
Retrieved 2010-01-14.  http:/ / www.apmgroupltd.com/  Office of Government Commerce (2006). “Best Practice portfolio: new contracts awarded for publishing and accreditation services” (http:/ / www.ogc.
Retrieved 19 September 2006.  http:/ / www.apmgroup.
Asp  http:/ / www.certification-register.org/  Office of Government Commerce (2008). “Best Management Practice: ITIL V3 and ISO/IEC 20000” (http:/ / www.best-management-practice.com/ gempdf/ ITIL_and_ISO_20000_March08.
Retrieved 24 February 2009. 328 External links • Official ITIL Website (http://www.itil-officialsite.com/home/home.asp) • The OGC website (http://www.ogc.gov.uk/) Information technology planning 329 Information technology planning Information Technology Planning is a discipline within the Information Technology domain and is concerned with making the planning process for information technology investments and decision-making a quicker, more flexible, and more thoroughly aligned process. According to Architecture & Governance Magazine, (Strategic) IT planning has become an overarching discipline within the Strategic Planning domain in which enterprise architecture is now one of several capabilities. Arguments for Information Technology Planning IT takes too long to adjust plans to meet business needs.
By the time IT is prepared, opportunities have passed and the plans are obsolete.
IT doesn’t have the means to understand how it currently supports business strategy.
The linkage between IT’s capabilities — and their associated costs, benefits, and risks — and business needs is not mapped out.
Additionally, information gathering and number crunching hold the process back. IT makes plans that don’t reflect what IT will actually do or what the business actually needs.
In the end, business doesn’t understand how IT contributes to the execution of strategy.
IT doesn’t start planning with a clear picture of which demand is truly strategic or which actions will have the biggest impact.
Information regarding business needs and the costs, benefits, and risks of IT capabilities comes from sources of varying quality.
IT then makes planning decisions based on misleading information. IT’s plans often end up rigid and unverifiable.
Plans don’t include contingencies that reduce the impact of change, nor have they been verified as the best plan of action via comparison to alternatives and scenarios.
IT simply doesn’t have the time and information for it.
Manually preparing multiple plans and selecting the best one would take too long for most organizations — especially considering the availability of the information needed for a comparison. — A workload is considered “intelligent” when it a) understands its security protocols and processing requirements so it can self-determine whether it can deploy in the public cloud, the private cloud or only on physical machines; b) recognizes when it is at capacity and can find alternative computing capacity as required to optimize performance; c) carries identity and access controls as well as log management and compliance reporting capabilities with it as it moves across environments; and d) is fully integrated with the business service management layer, ensuring that end user computing requirements are not disrupted by distributed computing resources, and working with current and Intelligent workload management emergent IT management frameworks. 334 Intelligent Workloads and Security in the Cloud The deployment of individual workloads and workload-based business services in the “hybrid distributed data center,” – including physical machines, data centers, private clouds, and the public cloud – raises a host of issues for the efficient management of provisioning, security, and compliance.
By making workloads “intelligent” so that they can effectively manage themselves in terms of where they run, how they run, and who can access them, intelligent workload management addresses these issues in a way that is efficient, flexible, and scalable. References  “IT Management Software Market Update” (http:/ / blogs.
Forrester.com/ vendor_strategy/ 2009/ 10/ it-management-software-market-update.
October 26, 2009. .
Retrieved 2009-11-12.  “Dynamic workload management for very large data warehouses: juggling feathers and bowling balls” (http:/ / portal.
VLDB Endowment. 2007. .
Retrieved 2008-11-12.  “What Is Your Definition of Database Workload?” (http:/ / www.databasejournal.com/ features/ oracle/ article.
Php/ 3794731/ What-Is-Your-Definition-of-Database-Workload.
January 8, 2009. .
Retrieved 2009-11-15.  “IT Services, Business Services, Services…what’s next?” (http:/ / www.communities.
Hp.com/ online/ blogs/ itil/ archive/ 2008/ 03/ 03/ HPPost5853.
HP ITIL v3 Community Blog.
March 3, 2008. .
Retrieved 2009-11-15.  “The Hybrid Distributed Data Center -er- Cloud?” (http:/ / blogs.
Sun.com/ jasoncatsun/ entry/ the_hybrid_distributed_data_center).
October 1, 2009. .
Retrieved 2009-11-15. International Association for Human Resource Information Management The International Association for Human Resource Information Management (IHRIM) is a professional association for information management in human resources founded in 1980. External links • IHRIM home page  Formed when HR and IT professionals found themselves needing mediators, IHRIM is the only Professional Human Resource Association dedicated to the HRIS and HR Technology professions.
IHRIM is the clearinghouse for the HRIM (Human Resource Information Management) industry.
Today, IHRIM is a community of experts – a dynamic group of practitioners, vendors, consultants, students, and faculty that continues to grow. • Human Resource Information Management Foundation  The Human Resource Information Management (HRIM) Foundation is an independent, charitable, 501(c)(3) organization chartered with promoting scholarships, research and education to drive innovation, and the use of technology and information management in the human resource (HR) profession.
One of our recent achievements has been to fund the development of the only professional certification program designed to solidify and enhance the HRMS profession – the Human Resource Information Professional (HRIP) Certification Program.
Future plans include to: • Fund scholarly publications on specific HR and HRIM issues. • Encourage development of educational programs and course curriculum to advance the HRIM profession. • Conduct research and development activities related to HRIM and the needs of HR systems professionals.
For additional information about the HRIM Foundation’s initiatives or to inquire about donation opportunities, International Association for Human Resource Information Management 335 References  http:/ / www.ihrim.org  http:/ / www.ihrim.org/ index.
Php?option=com_content& task=view& id=140& Itemid=184 The International Records Management Trust —  http:/ / www.cisco.com/ en/ US/ docs/ solutions/ Enterprise/ Security/ Baseline_Security/ securebasebook.
Html  http:/ / www.nortel.com/ corporate/ news/ collateral/ ntj3_baseline_04.
Pdf  “Department Baseline Security Policy and End User Agreement” (http:/ / www.ag.
Edu/ biochem/ department/ Documents/ Baseline Security Policy and End User Agreement.
Purdue University. .
Retrieved 17 December 2009.  “D16 Baseline Security Requirements for Information Systems” (http:/ / www.kent.
Uk/ About Kent Police/ policies/ d/ d16.
Kent Police. .
Retrieved 17 December 2009.  “Mapping ISO 27000 to baseline security” (https:/ / www.bsi.
De/ cae/ servlet/ contentblob/ 471598/ publicationFile/ 31081/ Vergleich_ISO27001_GS_pdf.
Retrieved 17 December 2009.  Entwurf BSI 100-4 (http:/ / www.bsi.
De/ literat/ bsi_standard/ bsi-standard_100-4_v090.
Pdf) (pdf)  http:/ / www.bsi.
De/ gshb/ Leitfaden/ GS-Leitfaden.
Pdf  http:/ / www.bsi.
De/ gshb/ deutsch/ download/ it-grundschutz-kataloge_2006_de.
Pdf  http:/ / www.bsi.
De/ literat/ bsi_standard/ index.
Htm  http:/ / www.humpert-partner.
De/ conpresso/ _rubric/ index.
Php?rubric=6 External links • • • • Federal Office for Security in Information Technology (http://www.bsi.bund.de/english/index.htm) IT Security Yellow Pages (http://www.branchenbuch-it-sicherheit.de/) IT Baseline protection tools (http://www.bsi.bund.de/english/gstool/index.htm) Open Security Architecture- Controls and patterns to secure IT systems (http://www.opensecurityarchitecture.org) IT cost transparency 350 IT cost transparency IT cost transparency is a new category of information technology management software and systems and that enables enterprise IT organizations to model and track the total cost to deliver and maintain the IT Services they provide to the business.
It is increasingly a task of management accounting.
IT cost transparency solutions integrate financial information such as labor, software licensing costs, hardware acquisition and depreciation, data center facilities charges, from general ledger systems and combines that with operational data from ticketing, monitoring, asset management, and project portfolio management systems to provide a single, integrated view of IT costs by service, department, GL line item and project.
In addition to tracking cost elements, IT Cost Transparency tracks utilization, usage and operational performance metrics in order to provide a measure of value or ROI.
Costs, budgets, performance metrics and changes to data points are tracked over time to identify trends and the impact of changes to underlying cost drivers in order to help managers address the key drivers in escalating IT costs and improve planning.
IT cost transparency combines elements of activity based costing, business intelligence, operational monitoring and performance dashboards.
It provides the system on which to implement ITIL v3 Financial Management guidelines to assist with Financial Management for IT services and is closely related to IT Service Management. Capabilities While specific solutions vary, capabilities can include: • • • • • • • • Simplified or automated collection of key cost driver data An allocation or cost modeling interface Custom reporting and analysis of unit cost drivers, including CIO dashboards Ability to track operational metrics such as utilization, service levels, support tickets along with cost Bill of IT reports for chargeback or service allocation to Lines of Business Forecast and budget tracking versus actual and over time Hypothetical scenario planning for new project ROI analysis Cost benchmarking against industry averages or common metrics Analysts’ take “Globalization, consumerization, new competitors and new service models are radically ‘changing the shape of IT’.
IT leaders must develop greater transparency into the costs, utilization and operations of their IT services in order to optimize their IT investments and evolve from being technology managers to being stewards of business technology.”  — Barbara Gomolski , Research Vice President, Gartner “By making these costs transparent, the IT organization can fundamentally change the way business units consume IT resources, drive down total enterprise IT costs, and focus on IT spending that delivers real business value.
The CIO who leads this change can usher in a new era of strategic IT management–and true partnership with the business.”  –Andrew M.
Appel, Neeru Arora, and Raymond Zenkich.
McKinsey & Company. “Companies can get an understanding of the best candidates for virtualization or consolidation, for instance, and further reduce the cost of resources.
IT organizations consistently try to become more efficient, and this type of detailed information enables visibility, billing and chargeback in the future,” —  IT cost transparency 351 References     http:/ / www.networkworld.com/ news/ 2008/ 110308-mgmt-cos.
Html?page=2 http:/ / www.gartner.com/ AnalystBiography?authorId=14850 http:/ / www.mckinseyquarterly.com/ Unraveling_the_mystery_of_IT_costs_1651 CIOs seek IT cost transparency in 2010 by Denise Dubie, comment on IT cost optimization (http:/ / www.digitalfuel.com/ products/ it-cost-optimization) by Yisrael Dancziger, president and CEO of Digital Fuel • Unraveling the Mystery of IT Costs (http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/ Unraveling_the_mystery_of_IT_costs_1651) Andrew M.
Appel, Neeru Arora, and Raymond Zenkich.
The McKinsey Quarterly, August 2005. • Taking Control of IT Costs.
Nokes, Sebastian. (http://www.amazon.com/dp/0273649434) London (Financial Times / Prentice Hall): March 20, 2000.
ISBN: 978-0-273-64943-4 • IT Cost Transparency: Optimizing ITIL v3 Service and Financial Management (http://www.apptio.com/ solutions/resources/whitepapers/) Kurt Shubert, IT Manager, Certified ITIL v2 and v3.
July 2008. • The Changing Face of Asset Management: Merging Asset, Service, and Financial Management (http://www.enterprisemanagement.com/research/asset.php?id=751) Lisa EricksonHicks, Research Director, Enterprise Management Associates.
IT Financial Management (http://www.itlibrary.org/index.php?page=IT_Financial_Management) • Know Your Costs: The Key to IT Business (http://analytics.informationweek.com/abstract/81/2813/ Business-Intelligence-and-Information-Management/informed-cio-it-cost-transparency.html) David Stodder.
April 2010. • Leveraging IT Chargeback as a Cost-Cutting Tool (http://www.nicus.com/?page_id=187) Rob Mischianti, CEO Nicus Software, IFTMA Presenter. 2009. External links • How to cut IT costs without Hemorrhaging (http://www.networkworld.com/news/2009/012209-cost-cut.
Html?page=1) • Scalpel or Cleaver: CIOs Can Show CFOs the Light (http://www.on-demandenterprise.com/features/ Scalpel_or_Cleaver_CIOs_Can_Show_CFOs_the_Light_34973684.html) • Unraveling the Mystery of IT Costs (http://news.cnet.com/Unraveling-the-mystery-of-IT-costs/ 2030-1069_3-5841812.html) • Can IT Spending Shift from Reactive to Proactive? (http://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=10194) • Avoid spending more ‘just in case’ (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/413649b8-6d4d-11de-8b19-00144feabdc0.
Html?nclick_check=1) IT Interaction Model 352 IT Interaction Model The IT interaction model is a holistic view of Management Information Systems in the context of the organization.
According to Mark S.
Silver, the model addresses the interaction of an information system’s features with five elements of the organization: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Its external environment its strategy its structure and culture its business processes its IT infrastructure. The model considers the consequences of this interaction for system use, for organizational performance, for the organization’s personnel, and for the firm’s future flexibility.
Moreover, the model relates various aspects of the interaction process to the phases of the development and implementation lifecycles.
Tools such as Porter’s five forces, value chain analysis and SWOT analysis can be used to analyze a company’s strategy.
Information flow diagrams can be used to analyze a company’s business processes. IT portfolio management IT portfolio management is the application of systematic management to large classes of items managed by enterprise Information Technology (IT) capabilities.
Examples of IT portfolios would be planned initiatives, projects, and ongoing IT services (such as application support).
The promise of IT portfolio management is the quantification of previously informal IT efforts, enabling measurement and objective evaluation of investment scenarios. — IT portfolio management important tool that IT portfolio management provides to judge the level of investments on the basis of how investments should be made in various elements of the portfolio), (3) Continuous Alignment with business goals (highest levels of organizations should have a buy-in in the portfolio) and (4) Continuous Improvement (lessons learned and investment adjustments).
Maizlash and Handler (2007) provide a proven step-by-step methodology for applying IT portfolio management that has eight stages.
In today’s fast-paced world, waterfall approaches to delivering anything are proving to be less and less effective.
Nonetheless, the eight stages are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Developing an IT portfolio management game plan Planning the IT portfolio Creating the IT portfolio Assessing the IT portfolio Balancing the IT portfolio Communicating the IT portfolio Developing and evolving IT portfolio governance and organization Assessing IT portfolio management process execution 354 There is no single best way to implement IT portfolio approach and therefore variety of approaches can applied.
Obviously the methods are not set in stone and will need altering depending upon the individual circumstances of different organizations. IT portfolio management vs.
Balanced scorecard The biggest advantage of IT portfolio management is the agility of the investment adjustments.
While balanced scorecards also emphasize the use of vision and strategy in any investment decision, oversight and control of operation budgets is not the goal.
IT portfolio management allows organizations to adjust the investments based upon the feedback mechanism built into the IT portfolio management. History The first mention of the portfolio concept as related to IT was from Richard Nolan in 1973: “investments in developing computer applications can be thought of as a portfolio of computer applications.”  Further mention is found in Gibson and Nolan’s Managing the Four Stages of EDP Growth in 1973. Gibson and Nolan proposed that IT advances in observable stages driven by four “growth processes” of which the Applications Portfolio was key.
Their concepts were operationalized at Nolan, Norton & Co.
With measures of application coverage of business functions, applications functional and technical qualities, applications age and spending.
McFarlan  proposed a different portfolio management approach to IT assets and investments.
Further contributions have been made by Weill and Broadbent, Aitken, Kaplan, and Benson, Bugnitz, and Walton. The ITIL version 2 Business Perspective and Application Management volumes and the ITIL v3 Service Strategy volume also cover it in depth.
Various vendors have offerings explicitly branded as “IT Portfolio Management” solutions.
ISACA’s Val IT framework is perhaps the first attempt at standardization of IT portfolio management principles.
In peer-reviewed research, Christopher Verhoef has found that IT portfolios statistically behave more akin to biological populations than financial portfolios. Verhoef was general chair of the first convening of the new IEEE conference, “IEEE Equity,” March 2007, which focuses on “quantitative methods for measuring, predicting, and understanding the relationship between IT and value.” IT portfolio management 355 McFarlan’s IT portfolio matrix High ^ |—————————————————————| |strategic Impact of IS/IT applications on future industry competitiveness | | | |Central Planning |Critical to achieving |future business strategy. (Developer) | Turnaround |May be critical to |achieving future |business success | | | | (Entrepreneur) | | | | | | |—————————————————————| |Leading Edge/Free Market |—————————————————————| |Critical to existing business |operations | | |Monopoly |Factory High Value to the business of existing applications. (Controller) | | Scarce Resource | Support | | |Valuable but not critical | | | | (Caretaker) |to success |_______________________________|_______________________________| |<---------------------------------------------------------------Low Relationship to other IT disciplines IT portfolio management is an enabling technique for the objectives of IT Governance.
It is related to both IT Service Management and Enterprise Architecture, and might even be seen as a bridge between the two.
ITIL v3 calls for Service Portfolio Management which appears to be functionally equivalent. References  Jeffery, M., & Leliveld, I. (2004).
Best Practices in IT Portfolio Management.
MIT Sloan Management Review. 45 (3), 41.
Http:/ / sloanreview.
Edu/ the-magazine/ articles/ 2004/ spring/ 45309/ best-practices-in-it-portfolio-management  Kaplan, J.
Strategic IT portfolio support, which consume the bulk of IT spending.
The challenge for including application maintenance and suppofolio management : governing enterprise transformation.
United States, Pittiglio Rabin Todd & McGrath Inc.  Maizlish, B. & Handler, R. (2007).
IT Portfolio Management Step-by-Step: Unlocking the Business Value of Technology.
New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.  Nolan, Richard (1973). “Plight of the EDP Manager.” Harvard Business Review, May–June 1973.  Managing the Four Stages of EDP Growth Publication date: Jan 01, 1974.
Prod. #: 74104-PDF-ENG  McFarlan, F.
W. (1981). “Portfolio approach to information systems.” Harvard Business Review (September–October 1981): 142-150  Weill, P.
And Broadbent, M. (1998).
Leveraging the New Infrastructure: How Market Leaders Capitalize on Information Technology.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Business School Press.  Aitken, I. (2003).
Value-driven IT management.
Remenyi, Computer Weekly Professional Series.
Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann.  Benson, R.
Bugnitz, et al. (2004).
From business strategy to IT action : right decisions for a better bottom line.
Hoboken, N.J., Wiley  Office of Government Commerce (2004).
Business Perspective: The IS View on Delivering Services to the Business.
OGC, ITIL© Managing IT Services (IT Infrastructure Library).
London, The Stationery Office.  Office of Government Commerce (2002).
OGC, ITIL© Managing IT Services (IT Infrastructure Library).
London, The Stationery Office.  Verhoef, Christopher, “Quantitative IT portfolio management,” Science of Computer Programming, Volume 45, Issue 1, pages 1–96 (October 2002). IT portfolio management  http:/ / www.cs.
Nl/ equity2007/ index.
Php?id=1 356 Further reading • Sanwal, Anand (2007).
Optimizing Corporate Portfolio Management: Aligning Investment Proposals with Organizational Strategy (http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470126884.html).
ISBN 978-0-470-12688-2. IT risk Information technology risk, or IT risk, IT-related risk, is a risk related to information technology.
This relatively new term due to an increasing awareness that information security is simply one facet of a multitude of risks that are relevant to IT and the real world processes it supports.
Because risk is strictly tied to uncertainty, Decision theory should be applied to manage risk as a science, ie rationally making choices under uncertainty.
Generally speaking, risk is the product of likelihood times impact (Risk = Likelihood * Impact). The measure of a IT risk can be determined as a product of threat, vulnerability and asset values: Risk = Threat * Vulnerability ? Asset — MOF 4.0 was created to provide guidance across the entire IT life cycle.completed in early 2008, MOF 4.0 integrates community-generated processes; governance, risk, and compliance activities; management reviews, and Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF) best practices.
The guidance in the Microsoft Operations Framework encompasses all of the activities and processes involved in managing an IT service: its conception, development, operation, maintenance, and—ultimately—its retirement. Structure of MOF 4.0 MOF 4.0 describes the IT service lifecycle in terms of three phases and a foundational layer: The Plan Phase focuses on ensuring that, from its inception, a requested IT service is reliable, policy-compliant, cost-effective, and adaptable to changing business needs.
The Deliver Phase concerns the envisioning, planning, building, stabilization, and deployment of requested services.
The Operate Phase deals with the efficient operation, monitoring, and support of deployed services in line with agreed-to [[service level agreement] (SLA) targets.
The Manage Layer helps users establish an integrated approach to IT service management activities through the use of risk management, change management, and controls.
It also provides guidance relating to accountabilities and role types.
Service Management Functions MOF organizes IT activities and processes into Service Management Functions (SMFs), white papers that provide detailed processes and outcomes related to a series of IT disciplines.
Each SMF is anchored within a related lifecycle phase and contains a unique set of goals and outcomes supporting the objectives of that phase.
Management Reviews An IT service’s readiness to move from one phase to the next is confirmed by management reviews, which ensure that goals are achieved in an appropriate fashion and that IT’s goals are aligned with the goals of the organization.
Governance, Risk, and Compliance The interrelated disciplines of governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) represent a cornerstone of MOF 4.0.
IT governance is a senior management–level activity that clarifies who holds the authority to make decisions, determines accountability for actions and responsibility for outcomes, and addresses how expected performance will be evaluated.
Risk represents possible adverse impacts on reaching goals and can arise from actions taken or not taken.compliance is a process that ensures individuals are aware of regulations, policies, and procedures that must be followed as a result of senior management’s decisions. Microsoft Operations Framework 446 External links • • • • Microsoft Operations Framework 4.0 homepage  Microsoft Solution Accelerators  Microsoft Operations Framework Brazil Project  Cross-reference MOF v4 versus ITIL v3  References     http:/ / www.microsoft.com/ MOF http:/ / www.microsoft.com/ solutionaccelerators http:/ / www.mof.com.
Br/ http:/ / go.
Microsoft.com/ fwlink/ ?LinkId=151991 Mobile business development Mobile business development is a category of business development which focuses on attracting new customers in the Mobile Web markets.
There are large efforts being made to make innovative mobile ICT services work.
Examples of these services include mobile tourist guides and shopping guides for consumers.
As an emerging trend, technology and service providers combine their expertise and resources to design these services.
This incorporates designing several models: the Value network, a Value proposition, a Revenue model and a Technological architecture. Economic value Together contributors need to create a business model that forms the blueprint of the cooperating network of organisations intends to create economic value from technological innovation.
Therefore, it is useful to define the different relevant issues: Customer Value of services, Organizational arrangements, Technological architecture, and possible financial arrangements.
A business model is: 1.
An architecture for the product, service and information flows, including a description of the various business actors and their roles. 2.
A description of the potential benefits for the various business actors. 3.
A description of the sources of revenues. Collaboration engineering To facilitate the collaboration between the contributors, the methods can be used to act as a guideline for successful innovation during the pre-product phase.
Most methods are based on the innovation prototyping method (3), which emphasizes on the balance between different viewpoints. Concepts Organizational arrangements — External links • Revere, Inc.
Official Website (http://www.revereinc.com) • Maintenance Management Software Blog (http://maintenancemanagementsoftware.wordpress.com) • Avantce, LLC Official Website (http://www.avantce.com/) RPR Problem Diagnosis RPR is a problem diagnosis method specifically designed to determine the root cause of IT problems. Overview RPR (Rapid Problem Resolution) deals with failures, incorrect output and performance issues, and its particular strengths are in the diagnosis of ongoing & recurring grey problems.
The method comprises: • Core Process • Supporting Techniques The Core Process defines a step-by-step approach to problem diagnosis and has three phases: • Discover • Gather & review existing information • Reach an agreed understanding • Investigate • Create & execute a diagnostic data capture plan • Analyse the results & iterate if necessary • Identify Root Cause • Fix • Translate diagnostic data • Determine & implement fix • Confirm Root Cause addressed The Supporting Techniques detail how the objectives of the Core Process steps are achieved, and cite examples using tools and techniques that are available in every business. Standards alignment RPR has been fully aligned with ITIL v3 since RPR 2.01 was released in April 2008.
RPR fits directly into the ITIL v3 Problem Management Process as a sub-process.
Some organisations handle ongoing recurring problems within Incident Management, and RPR also fits into the ITIL v3 Incident Management Process as a sub-process.
COBIT also defines a Problem Management Process (DS10) with key activity of Perform root cause analysis.
RPR is a superset of this step in that it defines a process that covers all of the activities needed to perform Problem investigation & diagnosis, including Root Cause identification. RPR Problem Diagnosis 551 Limitations RPR has some limitations and considerations, including: • RPR deals with a single symptom at a time • RPR is not a forensic technique and so historical data alone is rarely sufficient • The Investigate phase requires the user to experience the problem one more time History The method was originally developed by Advance7 in 1990 as the Rapid Problem Resolution Method, with the first fully documented version produced in 1995.
Early versions included problem management guidance but this was removed over time as the method became more closely aligned to ITIL.
RPR is now focused on Problem Diagnosis based on Root Cause Identification.
Due to the highly practical nature of the Supporting Techniques and the ever changing IT landscape, Advance7 continues to develop RPR to keep it relevant to current IT environments.
Until November 2007 Advance7 made the RPR material available to its employees only, although a limited number of other IT professionals had been trained in the use of the method.
In late 2007 the company announced its intention to make RPR training and material more widely available.
In March 2009 the TSO added a significant amount of RPR information to the ITIL Best Practice Live website within the areas dealing with Problem Management. Further reading • RPR presentation to the British Computer Society  • Case Study:  Aberdeen City Council solves four-month IT problem in two days • Article:  Misunderstand the symptoms, fail with the cure References — 564 References         An outline of the core elements of an SLA.
The Service Level Agreement (http:/ / www.sla-zone.
Http:/ / www.us.
Ntt.net/ support/ sla/ network.
Cfm http:/ / www.verizonbusiness.com/ terms/ global_latency_sla.
Xml http:/ / www.att.com/ gen/ general?pid=6622 http:/ / en.
Wikisource.org/ wiki/ Telecommunications_Act_of_1996#SEC. _101. _ESTABLISHMENT_OF_PART_II_OF_TITLE_II.
Http:/ / www.research.
Ibm.com/ wsla/ WSLASpecV1-20030128.
Pdf IT-Tude.com – Service Level Agreements (http:/ / www.it-tude.com/ sla-article.
Html) SLA@SOI (http:/ / sla-at-soi.
Eu) Service level requirement In the IT field, a Service Level Requirement (SLR) is a broad statement from a customer to a service provider describing their service expectations.
It includes the requirements of the customer from the service provider.
A service provider then prepares the service level agreement (SLA) based on the requirements from the customer.
For example: A customer may require a server be operational (uptime) for 99.95% of the year excluding maintenance.
SLRs are part of the Service Level Management stage of Service Design within the IT field.
The organization of these concepts is spelled out in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL); a method of standardizing the practices of IT services and design. References • Bajada, Stephen (2008), ITIL v3 Foundations Certification Training, GTSLearning External links • Definition at ITIL People website  • Sample Service Level Requirement form  • Service Level Requirement Agreement, Indiana Office of Technology  References  http:/ / www.itilpeople.com/ Glossary/ Glossary_s.
Htm  http:/ / www.call-center-management.com/ slr-template.
Htm  http:/ / www.in.
Gov/ iot/ files/ SLA_7-09.
Pdf Service Measurement Index 565 Service Measurement Index The Service Measurement Index is a framework designed to “Measure the relative goodness of an IT Service”.
Formally: The Service Measurement Index (SMI) defines a framework and method for the calculation of a relative index, which may be used to compare IT Services against one another, or to track services over time.
From a practical standpoint, SMI enables consumers of IT business services to perform “apples-to-apples” comparisons so they can make informed decisions about selecting specific services and service providers.
SMI works by letting consumers of cloud services rate them, via standardized surveys, across six key metrics: quality, agility, risk, cost, capability, and security (more about that below).
There is a large and growing database of completed surveys and currently over 120 services have been rated.
One unique feature for the person wishing to compare services is that he/she can indicate how important each of the six metrics is to him/her for a particular type of service.
These ratings then generate comparison scores (1-99), relative to other services of the same type – scored in consideration of the concerns of this person.
For example, if you want to compare email services and for you, Security is more important than Cost, the SMI will assign higher scores to email services where security is a stronger point than cost.
So the scores are customized to “your” concerns, even though the metrics are standardized.
Here is how it works.
In order to determine the relative goodness of an IT Service, we must first understand: • Relative to What? and • the meaning of goodness.
In order for a meaningful comparison (relative) of an IT Services, only those services which are functionally similar can be included in any comparison.
This implies either each user of the Service Measurement Index must define the functions they are searching for, or a standard taxonomy of IT Services must be used.
Such a taxonomy is currently being produced by the TM Forum project “Cloud Service Definitions (Taxonomy)”, and can be viewed here .
The term “goodness” is used to express the appropriateness or usefulness of the IT Service to a specific consumer of that service.
We must, therefore, define the factors, or characteristics, which go to making up the composite called “goodness”; understanding that each consumer will have their own weighting of the characteristics making it unique to them.
The initial characteristics are organized in an hierarchical structure as follows: • The value to the consumer of an index, such as SMI, is especially great with the expansion of both Service and Sourcing choices brought about by the widespread adoption (by Vendors) of cloud-based Services and Service delivery. • The characteristics and sub-characteristics shown above are measured through a set of metrics or indicators, following an ontology similar to that defined by Punter in Using checklists to evaluate software product quality . SMI Characteristics
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