88 References  Crosby, Philip B. (1979).
Quality is Free (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ Quality-Mentor-Books-Philip-Crosby/ dp/ 0451622472/ ref=sr_1_1?s=books& ie=UTF8& qid=1297880287& sr=1-1).
ISBN 0451622472. .  Nolan, Richard (July 1973). “Managing the computer resource: a stage hypothesis” (http:/ / portal.
Cfm?id=362284).communications of the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) 16 (7): 399–405.
Doi:10.1145/362280.362284. .  Humphrey, Watts (March 1988). “Characterizing the software process: a maturity framework” (http:/ / www.sei.
Edu/ reports/ 87tr011.
IEEE Software 5 (2): 73–79.
Doi:10.1109/52.2014. .  Humphrey, Watts (1989).
Managing the Software Process (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ Managing-Software-Process-Watts-Humphrey/ dp/ 0201180952/ ref=sr_1_1?s=books& ie=UTF8& qid=1297880472& sr=1-1).
ISBN 0201180952. .  Paulk, Mark C.; Weber, Charles V; Curtis, Bill; Chrissis, Mary Beth (February 1993). “Capability Maturity Model for Software, Version 1.1” (http:/ / www.sei.
Edu/ library/ abstracts/ reports/ 93tr024.
Technical Report (Carnegie Mellon University / Software Engineering Institute).
CMU/SEI-93-TR-024 ESC-TR-93-177. .  Paulk, Mark C.; Weber, Charles V; Curtis, Bill; Chrissis, Mary Beth (1995).
The Capability Maturity Model: Guidelines for Improving the Software Process (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ Capability-Maturity-Model-Guidelines-Improving/ dp/ 0201546647/ ref=sr_1_1?s=books& ie=UTF8& qid=1297880523& sr=1-1).
Boston: Addison Wesley.
ISBN 0201546647. . External links • Official website (http://http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/start/) • Capability Maturity Model (http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Programming/Methodologies/ Capability_Maturity_Model/) at the Open Directory Project Capacity management Capacity Management is a process used to manage information technology (IT).
Its primary goal is to ensure that IT capacity meets current and future business requirements in a cost-effective manner.
One common interpretation of Capacity Management is described in the ITIL framework. ITIL version 3 views capacity management as comprising three sub-processes: business capacity management, service capacity management, and component capacity management (known as resource capacity management in ITIL version 2).
As the usage of IT Services change and functionality evolves, the amount of processing power, memory etc also changes.
If it is possible to understand the demands being made currently, and how they will change over time, this approach proposes that planning for IT Service growth becomes easier and less reactive.
If there are spikes in, for example, processing power at a particular time of the day, it proposes analyzing what is happening at that time and make changes to maximize the existing infrastructure, for example, tune the application, or move a batch cycle to a quieter period.
These activities are intended to optimize performance and efficiency, and to plan for and justify financial investments.
Capacity management is concerned with: • • • • • • Monitoring the performance and throughput or load on a server, server farm, or property Performance analysis of measurement data, including analysis of the impact of new releases on capacity Performance tuning of activities to ensure the most efficient use of existing infrastructure Understanding the demands on the Service and future plans for workload growth (or shrinkage) Influences on demand for computing resources Capacity planning – developing a plan for the Service Capacity management interacts with the discipline of Performance Engineering, both during the requirements and design activities of building a system, and when using performance monitoring as an input for managing capacity of deployed systems. Capacity management 89 References  ITIL Capacity Management (http:/ / www.itlibrary.org/ index.
Php?page=Capacity_Management) – The ITIL Open Guide CatDV CatDV Developer(s) Stable release Square Box Systems Ltd. 8.1.10 / November 25, 2010 Operating system Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows License Website Proprietary  — The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of concepts and practices for Information Technology Services Management (ITSM), Information Technology (IT) development and IT operations.
ITIL gives detailed descriptions of a number of important IT practices and provides comprehensive checklists, tasks and procedures that any IT organization can tailor to its needs.
ITIL is published in a series of books, each of which covers an IT management topic.
The names ITIL and IT Infrastructure Library are registered trademarks of the United Kingdom’s Office of Government Commerce (OGC). History Responding to growing dependence on IT, the UK Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency in the 1980s developed a set of recommendations.
It recognised that without standard practices, government agencies and private sector contracts were independently creating their own IT management practices.
The IT Infrastructure Library originated as a collection of books, each covering a specific practice within IT Service Management.
ITIL was built around a process-model based view of controlling and managing operations often credited to W.
Edwards Deming and his plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle. After the initial publication in 1989–1996, the number of books quickly grew within ITIL v1 to over 30 volumes.
In 2000/2001, to make ITIL more accessible (and affordable), ITIL v2 consolidated the publications into 8 logical “sets” that grouped related process-guidelines to match different aspects of IT management, applications, and services.
However, the main focus was known as the Service Management sets (Service Support and Service Delivery) which were by far the most widely used, circulated, and understood of ITIL v2 publications. • In April 2001 the CCTA was merged into the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), an office of the UK Treasury. • In 2006, the ITIL v2 glossary was published. • In May 2007, this organisation issued the version 3 of ITIL (also known as the ITIL Refresh Project) consisting of 26 processes and functions, now grouped under only 5 volumes, arranged around the concept of Service lifecycle structure. Information Technology Infrastructure Library • In 2009, the OGC officially announced that ITIL v2 certification would be withdrawn and launched a major consultation as per how to proceed. 314 Overview of the ITIL v2 library The eight ITIL version 2 books and their disciplines are: The IT Service Management sets 1.
Service Support 2.
Service Delivery Other operational guidance 3.
ICT Infrastructure Management 4.
Security Management 5.
The Business Perspective 6.
Application Management 7.
Software Asset Management To assist with the implementation of ITIL practices a further book was published (Apr 9, 2002) providing guidance on implementation (mainly of Service Management): 8.
Planning to Implement Service Management And this has more recently (Jan 26, 2006) been supplemented with guidelines for smaller IT units, not included in the original eight publications: 9.
ITIL Small-Scale Implementation Service Support The Service Support ITIL discipline focuses on the User of the ICT services and is primarily concerned with ensuring that they have access to the appropriate services to support the business functions.
To a business, customers and users are the entry point to the process model.
They get involved in service support by: • • • • Asking for changes Needing communication, updates Having difficulties, queries Real process delivery The service desk functions as the single contact-point for end-users’ incidents.
Its first function is always to “create” an incident.
If there is a direct solution, it attempts to resolve the incident at the first level.
If the service desk cannot solve the incident then it is passed to a 2nd/3rd level group within the incident management system.
Incidents can initiate a chain of processes: Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Release Management and Configuration Management.
This chain of processes is tracked using the Configuration Management Database (CMDB), which records each process, and creates output documents for traceability (Quality Management). Information Technology Infrastructure Library Service Desk / Service Request Management Tasks include handling incidents and requests, and providing an interface for other ITSM processes.
Features include: • • • • • • single point of contact (SPOC) and not necessarily the first point of contact (FPOC) single point of entry single point of exit easier for customers data integrity streamlined communication channel 315 Primary functions of the Service Desk include: • incident control: life-cycle management of all service requests • communication: keeping the customer informed of progress and advising on workarounds The Service Desk function can have various names, such as: • Call Center: main emphasis on professionally handling large call volumes of telephone-based transactions • Help Desk: manage, co-ordinate and resolve incidents as quickly as possible at primary support level • Service Desk: not only handles incidents, problems and questions but also provides an interface for other activities such as change requests, maintenance contracts, software licenses, service-level management, configuration management, availability management, financial management and IT services continuity management The three types of structure for consideration: • Local Service Desk: to meet local business needs – practical only until multiple locations requiring support services are involved • Central Service Desk: for organisations having multiple locations – reduces operational costs and improves usage of available resources • Virtual Service Desk: for organisations having multi-country locations – can be situated and accessed from anywhere in the world due to advances in network performance and telecommunications, reducing operational costs and improving usage of available resources Incident Management Incident Management aims to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimise the adverse effect on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service-quality and -availability are maintained. ‘Normal service operation’ is defined here as service operation within Service Level Agreement (SLA) limits.
Incident Management can be defined as : An ‘Incident’ is any event which is not part of the standard operation of the service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption or a reduction of the quality of the service.
The objective of Incident Management is to restore normal operations as quickly as possible with the least possible impact on either the business or the user, at a cost-effective price.
Problem Management Problem Management aims to resolve the root causes of incidents and thus to minimise the adverse impact of incidents and problems on business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors.
A ‘problem’ is an unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents, and a ‘known error’ is a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which either a work-around or a permanent resolution has been identified.
The CCTA(Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) defines problems and known errors as follows Information Technology Infrastructure Library A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple incidents that exhibit common symptoms.
Problems can also be identified from a single significant incident, indicative of a single error, for which the cause is unknown, but for which the impact is significant.
A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, and the subsequent development of a work-around.
Problem management differs from incident management.
The principal purpose of problem management is to find and resolve the root cause of a problem and thus prevent further incidents; the purpose of incident management is to return the service to normal level as soon as possible, with smallest possible business impact.
The problem-management process is intended to reduce the number and severity of incidents and problems on the business, and report it in documentation to be available for the first-line and second line of the help desk.
The proactive process identifies and resolves problems before incidents occur.
Such processes include: • Trend analysis; • Targeting support action; • Providing information to the organisation The Error Control Process iteratively diagnoses known errors until they are eliminated by the successful implementation of a change under the control of the Change Management process.
The Problem Control Process aims to handle problems in an efficient way.
Problem control identifies the root cause of incidents and reports it to the service desk.
Other activities are: • Problem identification and recording • Problem classification • Problem investigation and diagnosis A technique for identifying the root cause of a problem is to use an Ishikawa diagram, also referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram, tree diagram, or fishbone diagram.
Alternatively, a formal Root Cause Analysis method such as Apollo Root Cause Analysis can be implemented and used to identify causes and solutions.
An effective root cause analysis method and/or tool will provide the most effective/efficient solutions to address problems in the Problem Management process.
Change Management Change Management aims to ensure that standardised methods and procedures are used for efficient handling of all changes, A change is “an event that results in a new status of one or more configuration items (CIs)” approved by management, cost effective, enhances business process changes (fixes) – with a minimum risk to IT infrastructure.
The main aims of Change Management include: • Minimal disruption of services • Reduction in back-out activities • Economic utilisation of resources involved in the change 316 — Other Frameworks ITIL is generally equivalent to the scope of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard (previously BS 15000). .
While it is not possible for an organization to be certified as being ITIL compliant, certification of an organisation is available for ISO20000 .
COBIT is an IT governance framework and supporting toolset developed by ISACA.
ISACA view ITIL as being complimentory to COBIT.
They see COBIT as providing a governance and assurance role while ITIL providing guidance for service management. The enhanced Telecom Operations Map eTOM published by the TeleManagement Forum offers a framework aimed at telecommunications service providers.
In a joined effort, TM Forum and itSMF developed an Application Note to eTOM (GB921) that shows how the two frameworks can be mapped to each other.
It addresses how eTom process elements and flows can be used to support the processes identified in ITIL.  IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) is aligned with ITIL, but is presented as a complete, integrated process model compatible with IBM’s products. Information Technology Infrastructure Library 326 Certification Individuals The certification scheme differs between ITIL v2 and ITIL v3 and bridge examinations let v2 certification owners transfer to the new program.
ITIL v2 offers 3 certification levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.
These should be progressively discontinued in favour of the new ITIL v3 scheme.
ITIL v3 certification levels are: Foundation, Intermediate, Expert and Master.
The ITIL v3 certification scheme offers a modular approach.
Each qualification is assigned a credit value; so that upon successful completion of the module, the candidate is rewarded with both a certification and a number of credits.
At the lowest level – Foundation candidates are awarded a certification and 2 credits.
At the Intermediate level, a total of 15 credits must be earned.
These credits may be accumulated in either a “Lifecycle” stream or a “Capability” stream; or combination thereof.
Each Lifecycle module and exam is 3 An ITIL Foundation certificate pin.
Each Capability module and corresponding exam is 4 credits.
A candidate wanting to achieve the Expert level will have, among other requirements, to gain the required number of credits (22).
That is accomplished with two from Foundations, then 15 from Intermediate, and finally 5 credits from the “Managing Across the Lifecycle” exam.
Together, the total of 22 earned credits designates one as ITIL v. 3 Expert. The ITIL Certification Management Board (ICMB) manages ITIL certification.
The Board includes representatives from interested parties within the community around the world.
Members of the Board include (though are not limited to) representatives from the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC), APM Group (APMG), The Stationery Office (TSO), V3 Examination Panel, Examination Institutes (EIs) and the IT Service Management Forum International (itSMF) as the recognised user group. Since the early 1990s, EXIN and ISEB have been setting up the ITIL based certification program, developing and providing ITIL exams at three different levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.
EXIN and BCS/ISEB (the British Computer Society) have from that time onwards been the only two examination providers in the world to develop formally acknowledged ITIL certifications, provide ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers worldwide.
These rights were obtained from OGC, the British government institution and owner of the ITIL trademark.
OGC signed over the management of the ITIL trademark and the accreditation of examination providers to APMG in 2006.
Now, after signing a contract with EXIN , BCS/ISEB and other certification bodies, APMG is accrediting them as official examination bodies, to offer ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers.
On July 20, 2006, the OGC signed a contract with the APM Group  to become its commercial partner for ITIL accreditation from January 1, 2007. APMG manage the ITIL Version 3 exams.
APMG maintains a voluntary register of ITIL Version 3-certified practitioners at their Successful Candidate Register. A voluntary registry of ITIL Version 2-certified practitioners is operated by the ITIL Certification Register. Information Technology Infrastructure Library 327 ITIL® pins It has been a well-known tradition for years that passing an EXIN exam in IT Service Management (based on ITIL®) does not only result in a certificate, but is also accompanied by the presentation of a metal pin which can be attached to a shirt or jacket.
This distinguishing badge with basic gold colour is set in the form of the internationally well-known ITIL®-logo.
The ITIL® pins consist of small diamond like structure that is accepted worldwide.
The meaning and the shape of the diamond depicts coherence in the IT industry (infrastructure as well).
The four corners of the pin symbolises service support, service delivery, Infrastructure Management and IT Management.
There are three colours of ITIL® V2 pins: 1.
Green, for the Foundation Certificate 2.
Blue, for the Practitioner’s Certificate 3.
Red, for the Manager’s Certificate Exam candidates who have successfully passed the examinations for ITIL® version 2 will receive their appropriate pin from EXIN or their certification provider regional office or agent.
With the arrival of ITIL® V3, there are several new pins to display your achievements.
As of July 2008, EXIN and all certification providers will also provide ITIL® pins to exam candidates who have obtained ITIL® version 3 certificates.
The new pins are very similar to ITIL® V2 pins, but every level has a different color corresponding to the ITIL® V3 core books. Organisations Organisations and management systems cannot claim certification as “ITIL-compliant”.
An organisation that has implemented ITIL guidance in IT Service Management (ITSM), may however, be able to achieve compliance with and seek certification under ISO/IEC 20000.
Note that there are some significant differences between ISO/IEC20000 and ITIL Version 3 • ISO20000 only recognises the management of financial assets, not assets which include “management, organisation, process, knowledge, people, information, applications, infrastructure and financial capital”, nor the concept of a “service asset”.
So ISO20000 certification does not address the management of ‘assets’ in an ITIL sense. • ISO20000 does not recognise Configuration Management System (CMS) or Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS), and so does not certify anything beyond Configuration Management Database (CMDB). • An organisation can obtain ISO20000 certification without recognising or implementing the ITIL concept of Known Error, which is usually considered essential to ITIL. References  David Clifford, Jan van Bon (2008).
Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap.
Van Haren Publishing.
ISBN 908753082X.  Office of Government Commerce (UK) CCTA and OGC (http:/ / www.ogc.
Retrieved May 5, 2005.  Office of Government Commerce (UK) (http:/ / www.ogc.
Retrieved August 19, 2009.  Office of Government Commerce (2000).
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113300158.  Office of Government Commerce (2001).
IT Infrastructure Library.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113300174.  Office of Government Commerce (2002).
ICT Infrastructure Management.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113308655.  Cazemier, Jacques A.; Overbeek, Paul L.; Peters, Louk M. (2000).
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 011330014X.  Office of Government Commerce (2002).
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113308663.  Office of Government Commerce (2002).
Planning to Implement Service Management.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113308779.  Office of Government Commerce (2005).
ITIL Small Scale Implementation.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113309805.  http:/ / www.ogc.
Asp  Majid Iqbal and Michael Nieves (2007).
ITIL Service Strategy.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 9780113310456.  Vernon Lloyd and Colin Rudd (2007).
ITIL Service Design.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 9780113310470.  Shirley Lacy and Ivor Macfarlane (2007).
ITIL Service Transition.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 9780113310487.  David Cannon and David Wheeldon (2007).
ITIL Service Operation.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 9780113310463. Information Technology Infrastructure Library — IT portfolio management important tool that IT portfolio management provides to judge the level of investments on the basis of how investments should be made in various elements of the portfolio), (3) Continuous Alignment with business goals (highest levels of organizations should have a buy-in in the portfolio) and (4) Continuous Improvement (lessons learned and investment adjustments).
Maizlash and Handler (2007) provide a proven step-by-step methodology for applying IT portfolio management that has eight stages.
In today’s fast-paced world, waterfall approaches to delivering anything are proving to be less and less effective.
Nonetheless, the eight stages are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Developing an IT portfolio management game plan Planning the IT portfolio Creating the IT portfolio Assessing the IT portfolio Balancing the IT portfolio Communicating the IT portfolio Developing and evolving IT portfolio governance and organization Assessing IT portfolio management process execution 354 There is no single best way to implement IT portfolio approach and therefore variety of approaches can applied.
Obviously the methods are not set in stone and will need altering depending upon the individual circumstances of different organizations. IT portfolio management vs.
Balanced scorecard The biggest advantage of IT portfolio management is the agility of the investment adjustments.
While balanced scorecards also emphasize the use of vision and strategy in any investment decision, oversight and control of operation budgets is not the goal.
IT portfolio management allows organizations to adjust the investments based upon the feedback mechanism built into the IT portfolio management. History The first mention of the portfolio concept as related to IT was from Richard Nolan in 1973: “investments in developing computer applications can be thought of as a portfolio of computer applications.”  Further mention is found in Gibson and Nolan’s Managing the Four Stages of EDP Growth in 1973. Gibson and Nolan proposed that IT advances in observable stages driven by four “growth processes” of which the Applications Portfolio was key.
Their concepts were operationalized at Nolan, Norton & Co.
With measures of application coverage of business functions, applications functional and technical qualities, applications age and spending.
McFarlan  proposed a different portfolio management approach to IT assets and investments.
Further contributions have been made by Weill and Broadbent, Aitken, Kaplan, and Benson, Bugnitz, and Walton. The ITIL version 2 Business Perspective and Application Management volumes and the ITIL v3 Service Strategy volume also cover it in depth.
Various vendors have offerings explicitly branded as “IT Portfolio Management” solutions.
ISACA’s Val IT framework is perhaps the first attempt at standardization of IT portfolio management principles.
In peer-reviewed research, Christopher Verhoef has found that IT portfolios statistically behave more akin to biological populations than financial portfolios. Verhoef was general chair of the first convening of the new IEEE conference, “IEEE Equity,” March 2007, which focuses on “quantitative methods for measuring, predicting, and understanding the relationship between IT and value.” IT portfolio management 355 McFarlan’s IT portfolio matrix High ^ |—————————————————————| |strategic Impact of IS/IT applications on future industry competitiveness | | | |Central Planning |Critical to achieving |future business strategy. (Developer) | Turnaround |May be critical to |achieving future |business success | | | | (Entrepreneur) | | | | | | |—————————————————————| |Leading Edge/Free Market |—————————————————————| |Critical to existing business |operations | | |Monopoly |Factory High Value to the business of existing applications. (Controller) | | Scarce Resource | Support | | |Valuable but not critical | | | | (Caretaker) |to success |_______________________________|_______________________________| |<---------------------------------------------------------------Low Relationship to other IT disciplines -- 385 Frameworks There are a variety of frameworks and authors contributing to the overall ITSM discipline. There are a variety of proprietary approaches available. Professional organizations There is an international, chapter-based professional association, the IT Service Management Forum (ITSMF), which has a semi-official relationship with ITIL and the ITSM audit standard ISO/IEC 20000.
There is also a global professional association, the IT Service Management Professionals Association (IT-SMPa). Information Technology Infrastructure Library IT Service Management is often equated with the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, (ITIL) an official publication of the Office of Government Commerce in the United Kingdom.
However, while a version of ITSM is a component of ITIL, ITIL also covers a number of related but distinct disciplines and the two are not synonymous.
The current version of the ITIL framework is version 3.
It was upgraded from version 2 in mid-2007.
The next update of the framework is envisaged to be mid-2011.
The “Service Management” section of ITIL version 2 was made up of eleven different disciplines, split into two sections, Service Support and Service Delivery.
This use of the term “Service Management” is how many in the world interpret ITSM, but again, there are other frameworks, and conversely, the entire ITIL library might be seen as IT Service Management in a larger sense. Other frameworks and concern with the overhead Analogous to debates in software engineering between agile and prescriptive methods, there is debate between lightweight versus heavyweight approaches to IT service management.
Lighter weight ITSM approaches include: • ITIL Small-scale Implementation colloquially called “ITIL Lite” is an official part of the ITIL framework. • FITS  was developed for UK schools.
It is a simplification of ITIL. • Core Practice  (CoPr or “copper”) calls for limiting Best Practice to areas where there is a business case for it, and in other areas just doing the minimum necessary. • OpenSDLC.org  A Creative Commons ITSM/SDLC Framework Wiki • MOF 4 Microsoft Operations Framework covers the IT service management lifecycle with a practical focus IT service management 386 Governance and audit Several benchmarks and assessment criteria have emerged that seek to measure the capability of an organization and the maturity of its approach to service management.
Primarily, these alternatives provide a focus on compliance and measurement and therefore are more aligned with corporate governance than with IT service management per se. • ISO/IEC 20000 (and its ancestor BS15000).
This standard is not identical in taxonomy to ITIL and includes a number of additional requirements not detailed within ITIL and some differences.
Adopting ITIL best practices is therefore a good first step for organizations wishing to achieve ISO 20000 certification for their IT Service Management processes. • COBIT (or the lighter COBIT Quickstart) is comprehensive and widely embraced.
It incorporates IT Service Management within its Control Objectives for Support and Delivery. References  IT Service Management Forum (2002).
Van Bon, J..
IT Service Management: An Introduction.
Van Haren Publishing.
Emphasis added.  van Bon, J.(Editor) (2002).
The guide to IT service management.
ISBN 0201737922.  For a (somewhat dated but comprehensive) discussion of frameworks visit hci-itil.com (http:/ / hci-itil.com/ options_frameworks.
Html)  Sharon Taylor and Ivor Macfarlane (2005).
ITIL Small Scale Implementation.
The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0113309805.     http:/ / becta.org.
Uk/ fits http:/ / www.corepractice.org http:/ / OpenSDLC.org http:/ / microsoft.com/ mof Further reading
Read more about ITIL Version 2 : 1 ITIL version 3 views capacity management as comprising three….: