ITIL : We hope you find this book to be a useful….

ITILITIL : We hope you find this book to be a useful….

Managing Cloud Computing Processes 1 Foreword___________________________ The evolution of managing Cloud Computing Services in principles and practices provided by the best practices IT Service Management framework provides the more holistic guidance needed for an industry that continues to mature and develop at a rapid pace.

Many organizations and individuals who had previously struggled with their adoption and implementation of Cloud Computing solutions will continue to find challenges in implementing a management framework as part of their approach for governance of their Cloud Computing initiatives.

In light of this, the primary goal of this book is to provide the support materials needed to enable the understanding and application of the Service Management framework in a Cloud Computing Solution.

This comprehensive book is designed as an easy reference that will walk you through the 5 Lifecycle critical steps you need to take to create a successful portfolio of managed Cloud Computing IT Services.

In addition you will learn how to manage and refine your Cloud Computing service portfolio as your company’s business evolves.

We hope you find this book to be a useful tool in your educational library and wish you well in your IT Service Management for Cloud Computing career! ITIL® is a Registered Community Trade Mark of OGC (Office of Government Commerce, London, UK), and is Registered in the U.S.

Patent and Trademark Office. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 2 Contents FOREWORD___________________________ 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.4 4.5 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.4 INTRODUCTION_______________________ THE FOUR PERSPECTIVES (ATTRIBUTES) OF ITSM BENEFITS OF ITSM BUSINESS AND IT ALIGNMENT WHAT IS ITIL®? COMMON TERMINOLOGY_______________ THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE________________ MAPPING THE CONCEPTS OF ITIL® TO THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE HOW DOES THE SERVICE LIFECYCLE WORK? SERVICE STRATEGY____________________ OBJECTIVES MAJOR CONCEPTS CREATING SERVICE VALUE SERVICE PACKAGES AND SERVICE LEVEL PACKAGES SERVICE STRATEGY PROCESSES FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FOR IT SERVICES SERVICE PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT DEMAND MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SERVICE STRATEGY SUMMARY SERVICE STRATEGY SERVICE SCENARIO SERVICE DESIGN_____________________ OBJECTIVES MAJOR CONCEPTS SERVICE DESIGN PROCESSES SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT CAPACITY MANAGEMENT AVAILABILITY MANAGEMENT IT SERVICE CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT SUPPLIER MANAGEMENT SERVICE CATALOGUE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SERVICE DESIGN SUMMARY 1 6 6 7 7 9 10 14 15 17 18 18 19 19 20 22 22 25 29 32 36 37 39 39 40 41 42 47 51 56 60 64 67 67 71 Managing Cloud Computing Processes 3 73 75 75 76 78 78 80 85 92 97 98 102 103 104 104 105 107 108 111 113 115 116 117 119 124 128 129 129 129 130 130 131 131 131 132 5.5 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 6.4 6.5 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 7.4.6 SERVICE DESIGN SCENARIO SERVICE TRANSITION__________________ OBJECTIVES MAJOR CONCEPTS SERVICE TRANSITION PROCESSES KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SERVICE ASSET AND CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT RELEASE AND DEPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT SERVICE VALIDATION AND TESTING IMPLEMENTATION SERVICE TRANSITION SUMMARY SERVICE TRANSITION SCENARIO SERVICE OPERATION_______________ OBJECTIVES MAJOR CONCEPTS SERVICE OPERATION FUNCTIONS THE SERVICE DESK TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT IT OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT APPLICATION MANAGEMENT SERVICE OPERATION PROCESSES EVENT MANAGEMENT INCIDENT MANAGEMENT PROBLEM MANAGEMENT REQUEST FULFILLMENT ACCESS MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION MANAGING CHANGE IN SERVICE OPERATION CHANGE TRIGGERS CHANGE ASSESSMENT SERVICE OPERATION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT ASSESSING AND MANAGING RISK IN SERVICE OPERATION OPERATIONAL STAFF IN SERVICE DESIGN AND TRANSITION PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING SERVICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES Managing Cloud Computing Processes 4 132 132 133 133 134 134 134 135 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 143 145 146 153 157 158 159 162 162 163 LICENCES SHARED LICENCES WEB LICENCES SERVICE ON DEMAND DEPLOYMENT CAPACITY CHECKS TIMING OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT TYPE OF INTRODUCTION 7.5 7.6 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 8.4 8.5 9 10 10.1 10.2 SERVICE OPERATION SUMMARY SERVICE OPERATION SCENARIO CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT_______ OBJECTIVES MAJOR CONCEPTS CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT PROCESSES SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING CSI (7 STEP) IMPROVEMENT PROCESS METHODS & TECHNIQUES IMPLEMENTATION CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT SUMMARY CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO GLOSSARY_________________________ CERTIFICATION______________________ ITIL® CERTIFICATION PATHWAYS ISO/IEC 20000 PATHWAYS Managing Cloud Computing Processes 5 Managing Cloud Computing Processes 6 1 Introduction_______________________ The term IT Service Management (ITSM) is used in many ways by different management frameworks and organizations seeking governance and increased maturity of their IT organization.

Standard elements for most definitions of ITSM include: • Description of the processes required to deliver and support IT Services for customers. • The purpose primarily being to deliver and support the technology or products needed by the business to meet key organizational objectives or goals. • Definition of roles and responsibilities for the people involved including IT staff, customers and other stakeholders involved. • The management of external suppliers (partners) involved in the delivery and support of the technology and products being delivered and supported by IT.

The combination of these elements provide the capabilities required for an IT organization to deliver and support quality IT Services that meet specific business needs and requirements.

The official ITIL® definition of IT Service Management is found within the Service Design book on page 11, describing ITSM as “A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services”. 1.1 The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM Figure 1.A – Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM Managing Cloud Computing Processes 7 There are four perspectives (“4P’s”) or attributes to explain the concept of ITSM. • Partners/Suppliers Perspective: Takes into account the importance of Partner and External Supplier relationships and how they contribute to Service Delivery. • People Perspective: Concerned with the “soft” side: IT staff, customers and other stakeholders.

E.g.

Do staff have the correct skills and knowledge to perform their roles? • Products/Technology Perspective: Takes into account IT services, hardware & software, budgets, tools. • Process Perspective: Relates the end to end delivery of service based on process flows.

Quality IT Service Management ensures that all of these four perspectives are taken into account as part of the continual improvement of the IT organization. 1.2 Benefits of ITSM While the benefits of applying IT Service Management practices vary depending on the organization’s needs, some typical benefits include: • improved quality service provision • cost justifiable service quality • services that meet business, Customer and User demands • integrated centralized processes • everyone knows their role and knows their responsibilities in service provision • learning from previous experience • demonstrable performance indicators 1.3 Business and IT Alignment A central concept to keep in mind when discussing the benefits of IT Service Management is the goal of business and IT alignment.

When staff members of an IT organization have an internal focus on the technology being delivered and supported, they lose sight of the actual purpose and benefit that their efforts deliver to the business.

A way in which to communicate how IT supports the business is using the following Figure demonstrating business and IT alignment. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 8 Figure 1.B below divides an organization into a number of supporting layers that work towards meeting a number of organizational goals.

These layers are communicated by the following: 1.

Organization (What are the key goals for the organization?) 2.

CORE Business Processes (These business processes enable the objectives above to be met) 3.

IT Service Organization (What IT Services are required to enable the effective and efficient execution of the business processes above?) 4.

IT Service Management (The focus here is on the ITIL® processes required for quality delivery and support of the IT Services above) 5.

IT Technical Activities (The actual technical activities required as part of the execution of the ITIL® processes above.

These are technology specific and as such not the focus of ITIL® or this document.

Example to illustrate business and IT alignment: Business: A fashion store What are some of your organization’s objectives or strategic goals? We want to make a lot of money $$$! We want to have a good image and reputation.

What Business Processes aide in achieving those objectives? Retail, marketing, buying, procurement, HR etc.

What IT Services are these business processes dependent on? Web site, email, automatic procurement system for buying products, Point of Sale Services We have ITSM in order to make sure the IT Services are: What we need (Service Level Management, Capacity Management etc) Available when we need it (Availability MGT, Incident MGT etc.) Provisioned cost-effectively (Financial MGT, Service Level MGT) Figure 1.B – Business and IT Alignment If we don’t manage the IT Services appropriately we cannot rely on these services to be available when we need.

If this occurs we cannot adequately support our business processes effectively and efficiently.

And therefore we cannot meet or support our overall organization’s objectives!!! Managing Cloud Computing Processes 9 1.4 What is ITIL®? ITIL® stands for the Information Technology Infrastructure Library.

ITIL® is the international de facto management framework describing “best practices” for IT Service Management.

The ITIL® framework evolved from the UK government’s efforts during the 1980s to document how successful organizations approached service management.

By the early 1990s they had produced a large collection of books documenting the “best practices” for IT Service Management.

This library was eventually entitled the IT Infrastructure Library.

The Office of Government Commerce in the UK continues to operate as the trademark owner of ITIL®.

ITL has gone through several evolutions and was most recently refreshed with the release of version 3 in 2007.

Through these evolutions the scope of practices documented has increased in order to stay current with the continued maturity of the IT industry and meet the needs and requirements of the ITSM professional community.

ITL is only one of many sources for best practices, including those documented by: • Public frameworks (ITIL®, COBIT, CMMI etc.) • Standards (ISO 20 000, BS 15 000) • Proprietary knowledge of organizations and individuals Generally best practices are those formalized as a result of being successful in wideindustry use. Five volumes make up the IT Infrastructure Library (Version 3). • Service Strategy • Service Design • Service Transition • Service Operation • Continual Service Improvement Managing Cloud Computing Processes 10 2 Common Terminology_______________ Critical to our ability to participate with and apply the concepts from the ITIL® framework is the need to be able to speak a common language with other IT staff, customers, end-users and other involved stakeholders.

This next section documents the important common terminology that is used throughout the ITIL® framework.

Terminology IT Service Management: Capabilities: Explanations A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services.

The ability of an organization, person, process, application, CI or IT service to carry out an activity. • The functions and processes utilized to manage services. • Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization and cannot be purchased, but must be developed and matured over time. • The ITSM set of organizational capabilities aims to enable the effective and efficient delivery of services to customers.

A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure, people, money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service.

Resources are also considered to be tangible assets of an organization.

A set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders. • Processes are strategic assets when they create competitive advantage and market differentiation. • Processes may define roles, responsibilities, tools, management controls, policies, standards, guidelines, activities and work instructions if they are needed. Resources: Process: Managing Cloud Computing Processes 11 Functions: A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more Processes or Activities.

Functions provide units of organization responsible for specific outcomes.

ITIL® Functions covered include: • Service Desk • Technical Management • Application Management • IT Operations Management A technique used to define roles and responsibilities of people or groups in relation to processes and activities.

R – Responsibility (actually does the work for that activity but reports to the function or position that has an “A” against it).

A – Accountability (is made accountable for ensuring that the action takes place, even if they might not do it themselves).

C – Consult (advice/ guidance / information can be gained from this function or position prior to the action taking place).

I – Inform (the function or position that is told about the event after it has happened). **Refer to Figure 2.A* A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs or risks The person responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for the desired purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process.

Example: The owner for the Availability Management Process The person who is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service.

They are responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting Services under their care.

Example: The owner of the Payroll Service The person responsible for the operational management of a process.

There may be several Managers for the one process.

They report to the Process Owner.

An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit.

E.g.

One IT organization within each of the business units.

The key factor is that the IT Services provide a source of competitive advantage in the market space the business exists in. RACI Model: Service: Process Owner: Service Owner: Process Manager: Internal Service Providers: Managing Cloud Computing Processes 12 — Managing Cloud Computing Processes 13 Managing Cloud Computing Processes 14 3 The Service Lifecycle________________ Figure 3.A – ITIL® Service Lifecycle Model (Acknowledgement – OGC) Lifecycle: The natural process of stages that an organism or inanimate object goes through as it matures.

For example, human stages are birth, infant, toddler, kid, pre-teen, teenager, young adult, adult and death.

The concept of the Service Lifecycle is fundamental to the refresh of ITIL® for Version 3.

Previously, much of the focus of ITIL® was on the processes required to design, deliver and support services for customers.

As a result of this previous focus on processes, Version 2 of the ITIL® Framework provided best practices for ITSM based around the how questions.

These included: • How should we design for availability, capacity and continuity of services? • How can we respond to and manage incidents, problems and known errors? As Version 3 now maintains a holistic view covering the entire lifecycle of a service, no longer does ITIL® just answer the how questions, but also why? Managing Cloud Computing Processes 15 • • • Why does a customer need this service? Why should the customer purchase services from us? Why should we provide (x) levels of availability, capacity and continuity? By first asking these questions it enables a service provider to provide overall strategic objectives for the IT organization, which will then be used to direct how services are designed, transitioned, supported and improved in order to deliver maximum value to customers and stakeholders.

The ultimate success of service management is indicated by the strength of the relationship between customers and service providers.

The 5 phases of the Service Lifecycle provide the necessary guidance to achieve this success.

Together they provide a body of knowledge and set of good practices for successful service management.

This end-to-end view of how IT should be integrated with business strategy is at the heart of ITIL®’s five core volumes (books). 3.1 Mapping the Concepts of ITIL® to the Service Lifecycle There has been much debate as to exactly how many processes exist within Version 3 of ITIL®.

Questions asked include: • What exactly constitutes a process? • Shouldn’t some processes be defined as functions? • Why has x process been left out? In developing this material we have based our definitions of processes and functions and where they fit on the guidance provided by the ITIL® Foundation syllabus by EXIN International.

Figure 3.B demonstrates the processes and functions of ITIL® in relation to the 5 Service Lifecycle Phases.

It also demonstrates the increased scope now covered by ITIL® over the previous version. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 16 Service Desk Function Continual Service Improvement Service Transition IT Operations Mgt Function Supplier Mgt Application Mgt Function Technical Mgt Function Knowledge Mgt Service Validation & Testing Release & Deployment Mgt Service Asset & Configuration Mgt Change Mgt Event Mgt Request Fulfilment Mgt Access Mgt Problem Mgt Incident Mgt ITIL V2 ITIL V3 Functions Service Strategy Service Design Service Operation Information Security Mgt Service Catalogue Mgt Service Level Mgt Service Portfolio Mgt Demand Mgt Financial Mgt IT IT Service Continuity Mgt Availability Mgt Capacity Mgt Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Continual Service Improvement SLM Service Measurement & Reporting CSI Improvement Process Figure 3.B – The Major Concepts of ITIL® NOTES: • The Service Lifecycle phases (and ITIL® books) are shown through the arrows at the bottom. • The concepts in light shading are the V2 ITIL® concepts. • The concepts not shaded are the new ITIL® V3 concepts. • The concepts in dark shading are Functions. • Although Service Level Management officially sits in the Service Design book, it plays a very important role in the Continual Service Improvement phase, and therefore could also fit in the CSI book as a process. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 17 3.2 How does the Service Lifecycle work? Although there are 5 phases throughout the Lifecycle, they are not separate, nor are the phases necessarily carried out in a particular order.

The whole ethos of the Service Lifecycle approach is that each phase will affect the other, creating a continuous cycle.

For this to work successfully, the Continuous Service Improvement (CSI) phase is incorporated throughout all of the other phases.

Figure 3.C demonstrates some the key outputs from each of the Service Lifecycle Phases. •IT Budgets Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Continual Service Improvement •Patterns of Business Activity •Service Portfolio information •New and changed service assets •Service Catalogue, SLAs, OLAs, UCs •Testing and Validation Criteria •Known Errors from Development •Testing and validation results •Change Authorization •Incidents & Problems, Events, Service Requests •Request for Changes •Information collected from infrastructure monitoring Service and Process Improvements — Service Retirement An often over looked investment, this is potentially one of the largest hidden costs in a service providers organization, particularly in a large organization with a long history.

Few providers have a clear plan for retiring increasingly redundant services.

This is often due to a number of reasons, including a lack of visibility of what services are actually offered, and the fear that retiring a service may impact other services being offered.

Refreshing the Portfolio As conditions and markets change, some services may no longer be required. • The CIO must monitor, measure, reassess and make changes as business needs change • By organizing an efficient portfolio with optimal levels of Return on Investment (ROI) and risk, the organization maximizes the value realization on its resources and capabilities. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 29 4.3.3 Demand Management GOAL: To assist the IT Service Provider in understanding and influencing Customer demand for Services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands. Demand Management was previously an activity found within Capacity Management, and now within Version 3 of ITIL® it has been made a separate process found within the Service Strategy phase.

The reasoning behind this is that before we decide how to design for capacity, decisions must be made regarding why demand should be managed in a particular way.

Such questions asked here include: • Why does the business need this capacity? • Does the benefit of providing the required capacity outweigh the costs? • Why should the demand for services be managed to align with the IT strategic objectives? Demand Management is responsible for understanding and strategically responding to business demands for services by: • Analysing patterns of activity and user profiles. • Provisioning capacity in line with strategic objectives. Two ways to influence or manage demand: 1.

Physical/Technical constraints (E.g.

Restrict number of connections, users, running times) 2.

Financial constraints (E.g.

Using expensive charging for services near full capacity or over capacity quotas) Managing Cloud Computing Processes 30 Capacity Maximum safe capacity So rce the Art of Service Time — Software Apps Data Technical Service Catalogue Figure 5.C – The Service Catalogue Service Level Agreement Structures There are a number of ways in which Service Level Agreements can be structured.

The important factors to consider when choosing the SLA structure are: • Will the SLA allow flexibility in the levels of service to be delivered for various customers? • Will the SLA structure require a lot of duplication of effort? • Who will sign the SLAs? Three types of SLAs structures that are discussed within ITIL® are Service-based, Customer-based and Multi-level or Hierarchical SLAs. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 46 Multi-level SLAs Customer 3 Corporate Level Customer-based and Service-based SLAs Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer based Service based — •Service •Revised •Financial •Budgets •Effectiveness •Audit reports Figure 5.G – Capacity Management relationships with the rest of ITIL® Managing Cloud Computing Processes 51 5.3.3 Availability Management GOAL: To optimize the capability of the IT infrastructure and supporting the organization to deliver a cost effective and sustained level of availability that enables the business to satisfy its objectives. Other Availability objectives are: • Reduction in the frequency and duration of Availability related incidents. • Maintain a forward looking Availability plan. 30 min outage 60 min outage Figure 5.H – The Perception of Availability — Planning: • Defining the strategy, policy, scope, objectives, processes and procedures. • Roles and responsibilities of involved staff and stakeholders. • Location of storage areas and libraries used to hold hardware, software and documentation. • CMDB Design. • CI naming conventions. • Housekeeping including license management and archiving of CI’s.

Identification: The selection, identification, labelling and registration of CIs.

It is the activity that determine what CIs will be recorded, what their attributes are, and what relationships exist with other CIs.

Identification can take place for: • Hardware and Software – include OS • Business systems – custom built • Packages – off the shelf • Physical databases • Feeds between databases and links • Configuration baselines • Software releases • Documentation Control: Ensures that only authorized and identifiable CIs are recorded from receipt to disposal in order to protect the integrity of the CMDB.

Control occurs anytime the CMDB is altered, including: • Registration of all new CIs and versions • Update of CI records and licence control • Updates in connection with RFCs and Change Management • Update the CMDB after periodic checking of physical items Status Accounting: The reporting of all current and historical data concerned with each CI throughout its lifecycle.

Provides information on: • Configuration baselines • Latest software item versions • The person responsible for status change • CI change/incident/problem history Managing Cloud Computing Processes 83 Verification and Audit: Reviews and audits verify the existence of CIs, checking that they are correctly recorded in the CMDB and that there is conformity between the documented baselines and the actual environment to which they refer.

Configuration Audits should occur at the following times: • Before and after major changes to the IT infrastructure • Following recovery from disaster • In response to the detection of an unauthorized CI • At regular intervals The benefits of the CMDB (not necessarily one physical database): • One tool and not several tools -> reduce costs • Consistent and visible information about the IT infrastructure available to all staff. • One team and not several support teams -> reduce costs, improve consistency in CI management • On stop shop for Configuration queries • The data about CIs and methods of controlling CIs is consolidated -> reduces auditing effort. • Opens opportunities for consolidation in CIs to support services. Roles and Responsibilities Service Asset Management: The management of service assets across the whole lifecycle including: • Full lifecycle management of IT and service assets from acquisitions to disposal • Maintenance of the asset inventory.

Configuration Management: • To provide a logical model of the services, assets and infrastructure by recording the relationships between service assets and configuration items. • To ensure control procedures are complied with to protect the integrity of Configurations. • To support the information needs of other ITIL® processes. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 84 The actual roles related to Service Asset and Configuration Management includes: • Service Asset Manager • Configuration Manager • Configuration Analyst • Configuration Administrator/Librarian • CMS/Tools Administrator • Change Manager (all Changes to CIs must be authorized by Change Management) Managing Cloud Computing Processes 85 6.3.3 Change Management GOAL: To ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for controlled, efficient and prompt handling of all Changes, in order to minimize the impact of Changerelated Incidents upon service quality, and consequently to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization. “Remember: Not every change is an improvement, but every improvement is a change!” Change Management acts as the greatest contributor to the CMDB, as Changes to CMDB must be assessed and authorized by Change Management first.

To work effectively, Change Management needs to remain impartial to the needs of any one particular IT group or customer, in order to make effective decisions that best support the overall organizational objectives. — * Includes build and test the Figure 6.C– The Activities of Change Management Important Steps: 1.

The RFC is logged: 2.

An initial review is performed (filter RFCs) 3.

The RFCs are assessed – may require involvement of CAB or ECAB. 4.

This is authorized by the Change Manager 5.

Work orders are issued for the build of the Change (carried out by other groups) 6.

Change Management coordinates the work performed. 7.

The Change is reviewed. 8.

The Change is closed. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 88 Where can RFCs be initiated? Anywhere (Other ITIL® processes, customers, end-users etc.) Who does the actual build/test/implement? • Technical areas • Project Teams • Release and Deployment Management Assessing and Evaluating Changes To ensure that the Change Management process does not become a bottleneck, it is important to define what Change Models will be used to ensure effective and efficient control and implementation of RFCs.

Impact: • Standard Escalation Level: Executed using a pre-defined form/template Normal Changes • Minor • Significant • Major Urgency: • Normal • Emergency Change Manager (CM) Change Advisory Board (CAB) IT Management Board Change Manager or CAB Emergency CAB Committee (ECAB) The 7Rs of Change Management: When assessing Changes, it is important to have answers to the following seven questions: • Who RAISED the change? • What is the REASON for the change? • What is the RETURN required from the change? • What are the RISKS involved in the change? • What RESOURCES are required to deliver the change? • Who is RESPONSIBLE for the build, test and implementation of the change? • What is the RELATIONSHIP between this change and other changes? Managing Cloud Computing Processes 89 — Reactive: An organization that is extremely reactive is not able to effectively support the business strategy.

Unfortunately a lot of organizations focus on reactive management as the sole means to ensure services are highly consistent and stable, actively discouraging proactive behavior VS from staff.

The worst aspect of this approach is that discouraging effort investment in proactive Service Management can ultimately increase the effort and cost of reactive activities and further risk stability and consistency in services. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 107 7.3 Service Operation Functions “Know your role, do your job” Team motto describing the goal for every player, coach and general staff member of the Kansas City Chiefs. Functions refer to the people and automated measures that execute a defined process, an activity or combination of both.

The functions within Service Operation are needed to manage the ‘steady state’ operation IT environment.

Just like in sports where each player will have a specific role to play in the overall team strategy, IT Functions define the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall Service Delivery and Support of IT Services. Figure 7.A – The ITIL® Functions from Service Operation NOTE: These are logical functions and do not necessarily have to be performed by equivalent organizational structure.

This means that Technical and Application Management can be organized in any combination and into any number of departments.

The lower groupings (e.g.

Mainframe, Server) are examples of activities performed by Technical Management and are not a suggested organizational structure. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 108 7.3.1 The Service Desk GOAL: To support the agreed IT service provision by ensuring the accessibility and availability of the IT organization and by performing various supporting activities.

Terminology Service Desk Types: Explanation • Relates to the skill level and first-time resolution rate for service calls. • Handling/logging of large volumes of calls.

Low first-time resolution rate for calls and requests.

Manage and co-ordinate incidents.

Medium first-time resolution rate for calls and requests.

A wide variety of services offered.

High first-time resolution rate for calls and requests.

Relates to the physical organization of the service desk. Call Centre: Help Desk: • — and Application Managing Cloud Computing Processes 123 Key Performance Indicators for Incident Management Just like any other ITIL® process, a balanced range of metrics must be used to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the Incident Management process, including: • Total number of incidents • Percentage of Incidents handled within agreed response time (Incident responsetime targets may be specified in SLAs, for example, by impact code) • Average cost per Incident • Percentage of Incidents closed by the Service Desk without reference to other levels of support • Number and percentage of Incidents resolved remotely, without the need for a visit. Challenges affecting Incident Management: • • • • • Are all calls registered? Under a unique number? Which priority codes do we use and how is the priority determined? Organization of the 1st line Organization of the 2nd line What % “closed on first call” is possible through Incident Management? Managing Cloud Computing Processes 124 7.4.3 Problem Management Goal: To minimize the adverse impact of Incidents and Problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent the recurrence of Incidents related to these errors. Defined as two major processes: Reactive Problem Management Proactive Problem Management ** ** (initiated in Service Operation but generally driven as part of Continual Service Improvement) Terminology Problem: — Measurable targets How do we get there? Service & process improvement Measurement & metrics Did we get there? Figure 8.A – Continual Service Improvement Model. The Continual Service Improvement Model summarizes the constant cycle for improvement.

The questions require close interactions with all the other ITIL® processes in order to achieve Continual Service Improvement. Relationships within the Service Lifecycle: • • • • • • What is the Vision? Service Strategy, Service Portfolio Where are we now? Baselines taken using Service Portfolios, Service Level Management, and Financial Management for IT etc.

Where do we want to be? Service Portfolio, Service Measurement and Reporting.

How do we get there? CSI and all ITIL® processes! Did we get there? Service Measurement and Reporting How do we keep the momentum going? Continual Service Improvement. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 140 8.3 Continual Service Improvement Processes 8.3.1 Service Level Management GOAL: To ensure that that the levels of IT service delivery are achieved, both for existing services and new services in accordance with the agreed targets.

Service Level Management is a critical element of Continual Service Improvement.

Why embark on any service improvement initiative if the customers and the business are satisfied with the levels of service received? Because business requirements change! Activities Service Design Continual Service Improvement Monitor — Results Rollout urance Quality Ass Source: Deming Improvement Figure 8.C – The Deming Cycle Continuous improvement is a part of every process in ITIL®.

The CSI Improvement Process is based on the Deming Cycle of Continual Improvement (Plan, Do, Check, Act) Implementing ITIL®/ITSM is an ongoing activity, where you improve quality through incremental steps.

These four steps are carried out in the exact order, as many times as necessary in order to achieve the improvement desired.

Some of the items that occur during each of the 4 phases: • Plan: Scope, requirements, objectives, Roles and Responsibilities • Do: Funds, Policies, reports, managing, changing • Check: Monitor against plans, survey, report • Act: Policy on improvement, assess, implement (if appropriate) Managing Cloud Computing Processes 146 Notes on William Edwards Deming: An American statistician best known for his work in Japan in the post-WWII period.

There, from 1950 onward he taught top management how to improve design (and thus service), product quality, testing and sales (the last through global markets).

Deming made a significant contribution to Japan’s later renown for innovative high-quality products and its economic power. Identify • Tactical Goals • Operational Goals • Vision • Strategy 1.

Define what you should measure — 161 UC: Underpinning Contract Utility: Functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need.

Often summarized as ‘what it does’.

VBF: Vital Business Function Warranty: A promise or guarantee that a product or service will meet its agreed requirements. Managing Cloud Computing Processes 162 10 Certification______________________ 10.1 ITIL® Certification Pathways Below illustrates the possible pathways that available to you.

Currently it is intended that the highest certification is the ITIL® V3 Expert, considered to be equal to that of Diploma Status. Figure 12.A – ITIL® Certification Pathway Managing Cloud Computing Processes 163 ISO/IEC 20000 Pathways 10.2 ISO/IEC 20000 Standard is becoming a basic requirement for IT Service providers and is fast becoming the most recognized symbol of quality regarding IT Service Management processes.

Once you have acquired your ITIL® Foundation Certification, you are eligible to pursue the ISO/IEC 20000 certification pathways.

ISO/IEC 20000 programs aim to assist IT professionals master and understand the standard itself and issues relating to earning actual standards compliance. Figure 12.B – ISO/IEC 20000 Certification Pathway

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