JavaScript

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JavaScript

JavaScript

Paradigm(s) Multi-paradigm: scripting, object-oriented (prototype-based), imperative, functional

JavaScript

Developer Netscape Communications Corporation, Mozilla Foundation

JavaScript

Influenced ActionScript, CoffeeScript, Dart, JScript .NET, Objective-J, QML, TIScript, TypeScript, Node.js

JavaScript

JavaScript (JS) is an interpreted computer programming language. As part of web browsers, implementations allow client-side scripts to interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content that is displayed. It has also become common in server-side programming, game development and the creation of desktop applications.

JavaScript

JavaScript is a prototype-based scripting language with dynamic typing and has first-class functions. Its syntax was influenced by C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme programming languages. It is a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.

JavaScript

The application of JavaScript to uses outside of web pages—for example, in PDF documents, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets—is also significant. Newer and faster JavaScript VMs and frameworks built upon them (notably Node.js) have also increased the popularity of JavaScript for server-side web applications.

JavaScript

JavaScript was formalized in the ECMAScript language standard and is primarily used as part of a web browser (client-side JavaScript). This enables programmatic access to computational objects within a host environment.

JavaScript Birth at Netscape

JavaScript was originally developed by Brendan Eich. While battling with Microsoft over the Internet, Netscape considered their client-server offering a distributed OS, running a portable version of Sun Microsystems’ Java. Because Java was a competitor of C++ and aimed at professional programmers, Netscape also wanted a lightweight interpreted language that would complement Java by appealing to nonprofessional programmers, like Microsoft’s Visual Basic (see JavaScript and Java).

JavaScript Birth at Netscape

Although it was developed under the name Mocha, the language was officially called LiveScript when it first shipped in beta releases of Netscape Navigator 2.0 in September 1995, but it was renamed JavaScript when it was deployed in the Netscape browser version 2.0B3.

JavaScript Birth at Netscape

The change of name from LiveScript to JavaScript roughly coincided with Netscape adding support for Java technology in its Netscape Navigator web browser. The final choice of name caused confusion, giving the impression that the language was a spin-off of the Java programming language, and the choice has been characterized by many as a marketing ploy by Netscape to give JavaScript the cachet of what was then the hot new web programming language.

JavaScript Server-side JavaScript

Netscape introduced an implementation of the language for server-side scripting (SSJS) with Netscape Enterprise Server, first released in December, 1994 (soon after releasing JavaScript for browsers). Since the mid-2000s, there has been a proliferation of server-side JavaScript implementations. Node.js is one recent notable example of server-side JavaScript being used in real-world applications.

JavaScript Adoption by Microsoft

JavaScript very quickly gained widespread success as a client-side scripting language for web pages. Microsoft introduced JavaScript support in its own web browser, Internet Explorer, in version 3.0, released in August 1996.[not in citation given] Microsoft’s webserver, Internet Information Server, introduced support for server-side scripting in JavaScript with release 3.0 (1996). Microsoft started to promote webpage scripting using the umbrella term Dynamic HTML.

JavaScript Adoption by Microsoft

Microsoft’s JavaScript implementation was later renamed JScript to avoid trademark issues. JScript added new date methods to fix the Y2K-problematic methods in JavaScript, which were based on Java’s java.util.Date class.

JavaScript Standardization

In November 1996, Netscape announced that it had submitted JavaScript to Ecma International for consideration as an industry standard, and subsequent work resulted in the standardized version named ECMAScript

JavaScript Standardization

A fourth edition of the ECMAScript standard was not released and does not exist. Fifth edition of the Ecmascript standard was released in December 2009. The current edition of the ECMAScript standard is 5.1, released in June 2011.

JavaScript Later developments

The result was a proliferation of comprehensive frameworks and libraries, improved JavaScript programming practices, and increased usage of JavaScript outside of web browsers, as seen by the proliferation of server-side JavaScript platforms.

JavaScript Later developments

In January 2009, the CommonJS project was founded with the goal of specifying a common standard library mainly for JavaScript development outside the browser.

JavaScript Trademark

Today, “JavaScript” is a trademark of Oracle Corporation. It is used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape Communications and current entities such as the Mozilla Foundation.

JavaScript Features

The following features are common to all conforming ECMAScript implementations, unless explicitly specified otherwise.

JavaScript Imperative and structured

Like C, JavaScript makes a distinction between expressions and statements

JavaScript Dynamic

As in most scripting languages, types are associated with values, not with variables. For example, a variable x could be bound to a number, then later rebound to a string. JavaScript supports various ways to test the type of an object, including duck typing.

JavaScript Dynamic

JavaScript has a small number of built-in objects such as Function and Date.

JavaScript Dynamic

Run-time evaluation

JavaScript Dynamic

JavaScript includes an eval function that can execute statements provided as strings at run-time.

JavaScript Functional

Functions are first-class; they are objects themselves

JavaScript Prototype-based

JavaScript uses prototypes where many other object oriented languages use classes for inheritance. It is possible to simulate many class-based features with prototypes in JavaScript.

JavaScript Prototype-based

Functions as object constructors

JavaScript Prototype-based

While it is possible to modify the Object prototype, it is generally considered bad practice because most objects in Javascript will inherit methods and properties from the Object prototype and they may not expect the prototype to be modified.

JavaScript Prototype-based

Unlike many object-oriented languages, there is no distinction between a function definition and a method definition. Rather, the distinction occurs during function calling; when a function is called as a method of an object, the function’s local this keyword is bound to that object for that invocation.

JavaScript Miscellaneous

JavaScript typically relies on a run-time environment (e.g. a web browser) to provide objects and methods by which scripts can interact with the environment (e.g. a webpage DOM). It also relies on the run-time environment to provide the ability to include/import scripts (e.g. HTML

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