Virtual Switch

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Virtual Switch

VMware ESX – Cisco Nexus 1000v

Network-connectivity between ESX hosts and the VM’s running on it relies on virtual NIC’s (inside the VM) and virtual switches

VMware ESX – Network limitations

When using the advanced and extended network capabilities by using the Cisco Nexus 1000v distributed virtual switch the following network-related limitations apply:

Virtual firewall

The VF can be realized as a traditional software firewall on a guest virtual machine already running, a purpose-built virtual security appliance designed with virtual network security in mind, a virtual switch with additional security capabilities, or a managed kernel process running within the host hypervisor.

Virtual firewall – Virtual firewalls

The VF can be installed as a traditional software firewall on a guest VM already running within the virtualized environment; or it can be a purpose-built virtual security appliance designed with virtual network security in mind; or it can be a virtual switch with additional security capabilities; or it can be a managed kernel process running within the host hypervisor that sits atop all VM activity.

Virtual firewall – Virtual firewalls

The current direction in virtual firewall technology is a combination of security-capable virtual switches, and virtual security appliances. Some virtual firewalls integrate additional networking functions such as site-to-site and remote access VPN, QoS, URL filtering and more.

Virtual firewall – Operation

A virtual firewall operating in bridge-mode acts like its physical-world firewall analog; it sits in a strategic part of the network infrastructure — usually at an inter-network virtual switch or bridge — and intercepts network traffic destined for other network segments and needing to travel over the bridge

Big Switch Networks – Products

* Big Virtual Switch: A network virtualization bate metal SDN fabric application for cloud switching.

Network virtualization – Examples of internal network virtualization

Major Crossbow features include VNIC pseudo-interfaces and virtual switches, which emulate network connectivity by enabling containers to exchange data without having to pass that data onto the external network.

OpenFlow – Development

In February 2012, Big Switch Networks released Project Floodlight, an Apache-licensed open-source software OpenFlow Controller, and announced its OpenFlow-based SDN Suite in November of that year, which contains a commercial controller, and virtual switching and tap monitoring applications.

OpenFlow – Development

In January 2013, NEC unveiled a virtual switch for Microsoft’s Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V hypervisor, which is designed to bring OpenFlow-based software-defined networking and network virtualisation to those Microsoft environments.

Logical partition (virtual computing platform) – Hardware partitioning

The Hypervisor or PowerVM acts as a virtual switch between the LPARs and also handles the virtual SCSI traffic between LPARs

Windows Virtual PC – Virtual PC by Connectix

* A Virtual Switch available in Virtual PC version 4.1 or earlier allows adding multiple network adapters.

VMware ESXi – Cisco Nexus 1000v

Network-connectivity between ESX hosts and the VM’s running on it relies on virtual NIC’s (inside the VM) and virtual switches

VMware ESXi – Cisco Nexus 1000v

The Nexus1000v is developed in co-operation between Cisco and VMWare and uses the Application programming interface|API of the vDSOverview of the [ http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps9441/ps9902/data_sheet_c78-492971.html Nexus 1000v] virtual switch, visited 9 July 2012

VMware ESXi – Network limitations

When using the advanced and extended network capabilities by using the Cisco Nexus switches#Nexus 1000v|Cisco Nexus 1000v distributed virtual switch the following network-related limitations apply:

Nexus 1000v

The 1000v is a virtual switch for use in virtual environments including both VMware vSphere and Microsoft Hyper-V http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns340/ns517/ns224/ns955/ns963/solution_overview_c22-687087.html It is as such not a physical box but a software application that interacts with the hypervisor so you can virtualize the networking environment and be able to configure your system as if all virtual servers have connections to a physical switch and include the capabilities that a switch offers such as multiple VLANs per virtual interface, layer-3 options, security features etc

Nexus 1000v

The VEM uses the vDS Application programming interface|API, which was developed by VMWare and Cisco togetherOverview of the [ http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps9441/ps9902/data_sheet_c78-492971.html Nexus 1000v] virtual switch, visited 8 July 2012 Besides offering the NX-OS interface to configure, manage and monitor the virtual switch it also supports Link aggregation#Link Aggregation Control Protocol|LACP link aggregation where the standard virtual switches only support Link aggregation#Initial release 802.3ad in 2000|static LAGsCisco brochure [ http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns340/ns517/ns224/ns892/ns894/at_a_glance_c45-492852.pdf Cisco1000v Virtual Switch], PDF, retrieved 28 May 2011

InterSwitch Trunk

http://www.brocade.com/forms/getFile?p=documents/white_papers/Brocade_Multi-Chassis_Trunking_WP.pdf Cisco calls this a VSL (Virtual Switch Link)

Nexus 7000 – Nexus 1000v

The 1000v is a virtual switch for use in virtual environments including both VMware vSphere and Microsoft Hyper-V http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns340/ns517/ns224/ns955/ns963/solution_overview_c22-687087.html It is as such not a physical box but a software application that interacts with the hypervisor so you can virtualize the networking environment and be able to configure your system as if all virtual servers have connections to a physical switch and include the capabilities that a switch offers such as multiple VLANs per virtual interface, layer-3 options, security features etc

Nexus 7000 – Nexus 1000v

The VEM uses the vDS Application programming interface|API, which was developed by VMWare and Cisco togetherOverview of the [ http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps9441/ps9902/data_sheet_c78-492971.html Nexus 1000v] virtual switch, visited 8 July 2012 Besides offering the NX-OS interface to configure, manage and monitor the virtual switch it also supports Link aggregation#Link Aggregation Control Protocol|LACP link aggregation where the standard virtual switches only support Link aggregation#Initial release 802.3ad in 2000|static LAGsCisco brochure [ http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns340/ns517/ns224/ns892/ns894/at_a_glance_c45-492852.pdf Cisco1000v Virtual Switch], PDF, retrieved 28 May 2011

Juniper EX-Series – EX4200

These switches are stackable, and 10 of them can be linked to create a single virtual switch supporting up to 480 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports, forty 1G Ethernet or twenty 10G Ethernet ports

Dell PowerConnect – 5500 series

The 5500 series are stackable to combine several 5500-series switches into one virtual switch.

Dell PowerConnect – M-series

Optionally two extension-modules can be installed that offers 10 Gbit/s ethernet or stacking-interfaces to stack multiple M6220 switches together as one virtual switch.Dell [ http://i.dell.com/sites/content/business/solutions/engineering-docs/en/Documents/blades-io-guide-2009.pdf M-series IO guide], visited 31 July 2011

Virtual network

A common example of a virtual network that is based on virtual devices is the network inside a hypervisor where traffic between virtual servers are routed using virtual switches (vSwitches) along with virtual routers and virtual firewalls for network segmentation and data isolation. Such networks can use non-virtual protocols such as Ethernet as well as virtualization protocols such as the VLAN protocol IEEE 802.1Q.

EtherChannel – Limitations

Cisco’s Virtual Switching System (VSS) allows the creation of a Multichassis Etherchannel (MEC) similar to the DMLT protocol allowing ports to be aggregated towards different physical chassis that form a single virtual switch entity

Software-defined data center – Challenges

Neutron provides an application-level abstraction of network resources and includes an API for plugging in virtual switches

OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control – Virtual switch

When the first VNIC is created on a system, a virtual switch is also created above the physical interface. Though not directly accessible to the user, the virtual switch provides connectivity between all VNICs configured on the same physical interface, enabling the virtual network in a box scenario. The virtual switch forwards packets between the system’s VNICs. Thus, packets from an internal VNIC source never have to pass to the external network to reach an internal network destination.

Telephone switchboard – Virtual switchboard

A virtual switchboard is an automated system used to connect an incoming caller with an agent or staff member. The virtual switchboard user normally has the option of controlling how incoming calls are routed via a web interface. For example calls could be routed to different destinations according to certain criteria such as the time of day etc.

Telephone switchboard – Virtual switchboard

Interactive voice response (IVR) functionality is also a common feature with virtual switchboards. IVR enables incoming callers to a virtual switchboard to hear prerecorded announcements. Popular announcements instruct callers to press a number on their key pad to select which department they want to reach (for example, press 1 for sales, 2 for accounts, 3 for support, and so on).

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Virtual Shopping

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Virtual Shopping

HomeShop18 – Scan N Shop – HomeShop18’s Virtual Shopping Wall

As a part of its mobile platform launch, HomeShop18 set up SCAN N SHOP Virtual Shopping Wall at Terminal 3 of Indira Gandhi International Airport at New Delhi (domestic departure wing). The virtual wall comprises dynamic LED TV screens.

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Video Analytics

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Video Analytics

Physical security – Video surveillance

Video monitoring does not necessarily guarantee that a human response is made to an intrusion. A human must be monitoring the situation realtime in order to respond in a timely manner. Otherwise, video monitoring is simply a means to gather evidence to be analyzed at a later time. However, advances in information technology are reducing the amount of work required for video monitoring, through automated video analytics.

IP camera – Potential advantages

Distributed intelligence: with IP cameras, video analytics can be placed in the camera itself allowing scalability in analytics solutions.

Video content analysis – Commercial applications

In many domains VCA is implemented on CCTV systems, either distributed on the cameras (at-the-edge) or centralized on dedicated processing systems. Video Analytics and Smart CCTV are commercial terms for VCA in the security domain. In the UK the BSIA has developed an introduction guide for VCA in the security domain. In addition to video analytics and to complement it audio analytics can also be used.

Surveillance – Cameras

corporations, including IBM, General Electric, and Honeywell, have been working closely with the Politics of the People’s Republic of China|Chinese government to install millions of surveillance cameras throughout People’s Republic of China|China, along with advanced video analytics and facial recognition software, which will identify and track individuals everywhere they go

Digital video recorders – Security

Some of the latest professional digital video recorders include video analytics firmware, to enable functionality such as ‘virtual tripwire’ or even the detection of abandoned objects on the scene.

Audience measurement – New media

TruMedia, Quividi, stickyPiXEL, and CognoVision provide real-time audience data including size, attention span and demographics by using video analytics technology to automatically detect, track and classify viewers watching display device|digital displays

In-Q-Tel – Material science

* Signal Innovations Group – signal, image, and video analytics

Home security – Video surveillance

Video monitoring does not necessarily guarantee that a human response is made to an intrusion. A human must be monitoring the situation realtime in order to respond in a timely manner. Otherwise, video monitoring is simply a means to gather evidence to be analyzed at a later time. However, advances in information technology are reducing the amount of work required for video monitoring, through automated video analytics.

Xilinx – Technology

Retrieved January 28, 2009.Xcell Journal, [http://www.xilinx.com/publications/xcellonline/xcell_66/xc_pdf/p28-32_66_F_XiAISM2.pdf Security Video Analytics on Xilinx Spartan-3A DSP]

Video content analysis – Functionalities

Several articles provide an overview of the modules involved in the development of video analytic applications.[http://www.eetimes.com/design/industrial-control/4013494/Introduction-to-video-analytics Nik Gagvani], Introduction to Video Analytics[http://www.eetimes.com/design/signal-processing-dsp/4013417/Video-analytics-Content-analysis-in-security-and-surveillance-applications Cheng Peng], Video Analytics

Video content analysis – Commercial applications

In the UK the BSIA has developed an introduction guide for VCA in the security domain.[http://www.bsia.co.uk/web_images/publications/262%20Intro%20to%20Video%20Content%20Analysis.pdf British Industry VCA Guide], 262 An Introduction to Video Content Analysis Industry Guide In addition to video analytics and to complement it audio analytics can also be used.Audio Analytic|UK based startup that provides audio analytics into the CCTV industry

IP video surveillance – Potential advantages

* Distributed artificial intelligence|Distributed intelligence: with IP cameras, video analytics can be placed in the camera itself allowing scalability in analytics solutions.Alexandr Lytkin. IP Video Surveillance. An Essential Guide, 2012, ISBN 978-5-600-00033-9.

Greyhound Lines – Security

In February 2013, in partnership with DriveCam, Greyhound deployed video cameras across its entire fleet to increase safety and driver compliance by combining data and video analytics with real-time driver feedback and coaching.

Garrett Camp – Investments

His portfolio companies include: [https://www.prismskylabs.com/ Prism Skylabs], a video analytics platform founded by [http://www.crunchbase.com/person/stephen-russell Stephen Russell]; [https://soundtracking.com/ SoundTracking], a music sharing application co-founded by [http://www.crunchbase.com/person/steve-jang Steve Jang] of [http://www.crunchbase.com/company/schematic-labs Schematic Labs]; [http://www.getwillcall.com/ WillCall], WillCall a live music ticket-buying application; and [http://www.psdept.com/ PSDept], a personal shopping application

Online video analytics

‘Online video analytics’ (also known as ‘Web video analytics’) is the measurement, analysis and reporting of video clip|videos viewed online. It is used for the purposes of understanding the consumption patterns (behavioral analysis) and optimizing viewing experience (quality of service analysis).

Online video analytics

Online video analytics differs from traditional television analytics because it can be measured using census-based methods instead of Survey panels|panel-based metrics. Every event that a viewer does while watching a video online can be captured and analyzed precisely.

Coin-operated machine – Innovations

After few decades of gradual progress in innovations, vending machines have seen a trend to integrate more recent technology and innovations such as interactive touch display, digital signage, video analytics to recognize gender and age group, remote content management, cloud manageability for sales, inventory, refill, etc., all of which make them to be known as smart vending machines

Stream Processors, Inc – Support hardware and software

* IP Camera Reference Design runs standard Linux 2.6 and supports multiple simultaneous codecs (e.g. H.264, MPEG-4 and MJPEG), arbitrary resolutions, CMOS and charge coupled device|CCD sensor processing as well as video analytics in a fully software programmable platform

G4S – Activities

G4S’s core services include ‘Manned security services’ – where it provides trained and screened security officers.[http://utahpeoplespost.com/2013/04/g4ss-top-pick-rating-reaffirmed-at-rbc-capital-gfs/ People’s Post] The company also provides ‘Security systems’ such as access control, CCTV, intruder alarms, ?re detection, video analytics and security and building systems integration technology.[http://www.livemint.com/Companies/dhG2p6FScwD7GoZAzX36KN/G4S-plans-to-target-IT-infrastructure-and-hospitality-secto.html Wall Street Journal Live Mint] ‘Monitoring and response services’ is another core service, where G4S provides key holding, mobile security patrol and response services and alarm receiving and monitoring facilities.[http://www.prosecurityzone.com/News_Detail_G4s_monitoring_and_response_gains_new_md_4294.asp#axzz2TvJpC51J Pro Security Zone] G4S also provides ‘Secure facilities services’ which includes integrated facilities services for entire sites or estates for commercial customers and governments.[http://www.infologue.com/company-news/g4s-wins-major-ministry-of-justice-integrated-facilities-services-contract/ Info Logue] The business provides ‘Risk management and consultancy services’ which also includes mine detection and clearance services.[http://www.stoplandmines.org/org.asp?o=116 E-Mine] G4S also provides electronic tagging and monitoring of offenders at home or in the community.[http://www.securityoracle.com/news/G4S-Secures-Half-Year-Profits-Boost_18748.html Security Oracle] The company provides back office support functions for police forces, support for front line policing including the provision of custody suite services and forensic medical services.[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-lincolnshire-22338332 BBC News] It also manages juvenile and adult custody centres

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Vehicle-to-Grid

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Vehicle-to-Grid

Distributed generation – Vehicle-to-grid

Future generations of electric vehicles may have the ability to deliver power from the battery in a vehicle-to-grid into the grid when needed.[http://www.energydsm.com/distributed-generation How electric vehicles are a part of distributed generation] An electric vehicle network could also be an important distributed generation resource.

Plug-in hybrid – Vehicle-to-grid electricity

This is accomplished with vehicle-to-grid technology

Plug-in hybrid – Vehicle-to-grid electricity

In October 2005, five Toyota engineers and one Asian AW engineer published an IEEE technical paper detailing a Toyota-approved project to add vehicle-to-grid capability to a Toyota Prius.Oyobe, H

Plug-in hybrid – Vehicle-to-grid electricity

In November 2005, more than 50 leaders from public power utility companies across the United States met at the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power headquarters to discuss plug-in hybrid and vehicle-to-grid technology

Plug-in hybrid – Vehicle-to-grid electricity

In April 2007, Pacific Gas and Electric Company showcased a PHEV at the Silicon Valley Leadership Alternative Energy Solutions Summit with vehicle-to-grid capability, and demonstrated that it could be used as a source of emergency home power in the event of an electrical power failure.Green Car Congress (April 9, 2007) [http://www.greencarcongress.com/2007/04/pge_demonstrate.html PGE Demonstrates Vehicle-to-Grid Technology]

Plug-in hybrid – Vehicle-to-grid electricity

Batteries could also be offered in low-cost leasing or renting or by donation (including maintenance) to the car owners by the public utilities, in a vehicle-to-grid agreement.Liotsakis, P

Plug-in electric vehicle – Vehicle-to-grid

in [http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2009/pluginelectricvehicles.aspx Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?] A vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system would take advantage of the fact that most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time

Vehicle-to-grid

‘Vehicle-to-grid’ (‘V2G’) describes a system in which plug-in electric vehicles, such as electric cars (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), communicate with the Grid (electricity)|power grid to sell Demand response#Electricity grids and peak demand response|demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate. Page 473.

Vehicle-to-grid

Vehicle-to-grid can be used with such gridable vehicles, that is, plug-in electric vehicles (BEVs and PHEVs), with grid capacity. Since most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time, their batteries could be used to let electricity flow from the car to the power lines and back, with a value to the utilities of up to $4,000 per year per car.

Vehicle-to-grid – History

The company AC Propulsion|AC Propulsion Inc. coined the term V2G for vehicle-to-grid.Page 34

Vehicle-to-grid – Skepticism

The Vehicle-to-grid potential of Honda’s full hybrid vehicles is unexplored, but Honda is doubtful of using them to power homes

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Unified Threat Management

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Unified Threat Management

Check Point VPN-1 – Version history

NG AI R57 April 2005 SecurePlatform NG AI R57 For product Check Point Express CI (Content Inspection), later VPN-1 UTM (Unified Threat Management)

Network security – Homes & Small Businesses

basic firewall or a unified threat management system.

Network security – Medium businesses

A fairly strong firewall or Unified Threat Management System

Netsentron

NetSentron is a network security appliance designed and sold by Kobelt Development Inc. (KDI), a Surrey, British Columbia-based IT services company. The NetSentron appliance is a firewall, website content filter, and virtual private network remote access device—often referred to as a unified threat management product.

Unified threat management

Unified threat management (UTM) is a comprehensive solution that has recently emerged in the network security industry, and since 2004 it has gained widespread currency as a primary network gateway defense solution for organizations

ZoneAlarm Z100G

ZoneAlarm Secure Wireless Router Z100G is a discontinued Unified Threat Management security router for the home and SOHO market.

Bypass switch

A ‘bypass switch’ is a hardware device that provides a fail-safe access port for an in-line monitoring appliance such as an intrusion prevention system (IPS), firewall, WAN optimization device or unified threat management system

Information Security Operations Center – Technology

SOCs typically are based around a security information and event management (SIEM) system which aggregates and correlates data from security feeds such as network discovery and vulnerability assessment systems; governance, risk and compliance (GRC) systems; web site assessment and monitoring systems, application and database scanners; penetration testing tools; intrusion detection systems (IDS); intrusion prevention system (IPS); log management systems; network behavior analysis and denial of service monitoring; wireless intrusion prevention system; firewalls, enterprise antivirus and unified threat management (UTM)

SonicWall

These include devices providing services for firewall (networking)|network firewalls, UTMs unified threat management|(Unified Threat Management), VPNs virtual private network|(Virtual Private Network), backup|backup and recovery, and anti-spam for email

Fortinet

Fortinet’s position as the revenue leader in Unified Threat Management (UTM) has been validated by International Data Corporation|IDC several times over.

Fortinet – Product overview

This is necessary in a Unified Threat Management context where total control over incoming malware and viruses is a key attribute

Sophos

‘Sophos’ is a developer and vendor of security software and hardware, providing Communication endpoint|endpoint, encryption, email, World Wide Web|web, mobile device|mobile and network security as well as Unified Threat Management products. Sophos is largely focused on providing security to organisations and businesses.

ZoneAlarm Z100G

‘ZoneAlarm Secure Wireless Router Z100G’ is a discontinued Unified Threat Management security router for the home and Small office/home office|SOHO market.

Security appliance – Types of security appliances

* ‘Unified Threat Management’ (UTM) appliances combine features together into one system, such as some firewalls, content filtering, Web cache|web caching etc.

Untangle

‘Untangle’ is a privately held company based in Sunnyvale, California, which produces and supports the software and hardware versions of the Untangle firewall (computing)|firewall Unified threat management|UTM computer network|networking application. Untangle is used by nearly 40,000 organizations worldwide.

Untangle – History

Untangle released a free bookmark utility called SaveFace in May 2010, in response to continued loosening of default privacy settings in Facebook user accounts. In June 2010 Untangle released Untangle 7.3, enabling the company’s software to be used by OEM hardware manufacturers to produce their own branded multi-function firewalls and Unified Threat Management|UTM appliances. In August 2010 Untangle released Untangle 7.4, wherein it simplified its packages to Lite, Standard, and Premium.

Cyberoam

The company offers User Identity-based network security in its Next-Generation Firewalls/ Unified Threat Management appliances, allowing visibility and granular control into WHO is accessing WHAT in Business|business networks.[http://www.scmagazine.com/utm/article/217442 UTM Reviews] – By Peter Stephenson, SC Magazine, 1 December 2011 For Small office/home office|SOHO, Small and medium businesses|SMB and large enterprise software|enterprise networks, this ensures security built around the network user for protection against Advanced persistent threat|APTs, insider threats, malware, Hacker (computer security)|hacker, and other sophisticated network attacks.

Cyberoam – Cyberoam addresses the industry-prevalent security flaw in HTTPs scan

Cyberoam issued an over-the-air (OTA) update for its unified threat management (UTM) appliances[http://www.scmagazine.com/cyberoam-updates-utm-certs-to-avoid-traffic-snooping/article/249833/ Cyberoam updates UTM certs to avoid traffic snooping] – By Darren Pauli, SC Magazine Australia, 11 July 2012 in order to force the devices to use unique certificate authority (CA) SSL certificates when intercepting SSL traffic on corporate networks.[http://www.cyberoam.com/blog/cyberoams-proactive-steps-in-https-deep-scan-inspection/ Cyberoam’s Proactive Steps in HTTPS Deep Scan Inspection] – Cyberoam Blog, 9 July 2012 After the hotfix was applied,[http://www.pcworld.com/article/258973/cyberoam_fixes_ssl_snooping_hole_in_network_security_appliances.html Cyberoam Fixes SSL Snooping Hole in Network Security Appliances] – By Lucian Constantin, IDG News Service, 9 Jul 2012 each individual appliance was required to have its unique CA certificate.

Real-time protection – Alternative solutions

Installed antivirus solutions, running on an individual computers, although the most used, is only one method of guarding against malware. Other alternative solutions are also used, including: Unified Threat Management (Unified Threat Management|UTM), hardware and network firewalls, Cloud computing|Cloud-based antivirus and on-line scanners.

List of antivirus software – Criteria

* ‘software’ products: no Unified Threat Management|UTM or other computer hardware|hardware appliances;

Deep content inspection – Background

New generation of Network Content Security devices such as Unified threat management|Unified Threat Management or Next Generation Firewalls (Garner RAS Core Research Note G00174908) use DPI to prevent attacks from a small percentage of viruses and worms; the signatures of these malware fit within the payload of a DPI’s inspection scope

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Ultracapacitors

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Ultracapacitors

Carbon nanotube – Ultracapacitors

The activated charcoal used in conventional ultracapacitors has many small hollow spaces of various size, which create together a large surface to store electric charge

Carbon nanotubes – Ultracapacitors

The activated charcoal used in conventional ultracapacitors has many small hollow spaces of various size, which create together a large surface to store electric charge

Ultracapacitors

Conway in Electrochemistry Encyclopedia: Electrochemical Capacitors — Their Nature, Function and Applications] called supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors

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Tokenization

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Tokenization

C preprocessor Phases

Tokenization: The preprocessor breaks the result into preprocessing tokens and whitespace. It replaces comments with whitespace.

Enterprise search Content processing and analysis

As part of processing and analysis, tokenization is applied to split the content into tokens which is the basic matching unit. It is also common to normalize tokens to lower case to provide case-insensitive search, as well as to normalize accents to provide better recall.

Lexical analysis – Token

A token is a string of one or more characters that is significant as a group. The process of forming tokens from an input stream of characters is called tokenization.

Lexical analysis – Tokenization

Tokenization is the process of demarcating and possibly classifying sections of a string of input characters. The resulting tokens are then passed on to some other form of processing. The process can be considered a sub-task of parsing input.

PerspecSys – Technology

The AppProtex Cloud Data Control Gateway secures data in software as a service and platform as a service provider applications through the use of encryption or tokenization. Gartner, a marketing research firm, refers to this type of technology as a cloud encryption gateway, and categorizes providers of this technology cloud access security brokers.

PerspecSys – Technology

Within the Gateway organizations may define encryption, and tokenization options at the field-level

PerspecSys – Standards

Its tokenization option was evaluated by Coalfire, a PCI DSS Qualified Security Assessor (QSA) and a FedRamp 3PAO, to ensure that it adheres to industry guidelines

Identity resolution – Data preprocessing

Standardization can be accomplished through simple rule-based data transformations or more complex procedures such as lexicon-based tokenization and probabilistic hidden Markov models

Lexing – Token

A ‘token’ is a string of one or more characters that is significant as a group. The process of forming tokens from an input stream of characters is called ‘tokenization’.

Syntax (programming languages) – Levels of syntax

This modularity is sometimes possible, but in many real-world languages an earlier step depends on a later step – for example, the lexer hack in C is because tokenization depends on context

Tokenization (disambiguation)

* Tokenization in language processing (both natural and computer)

Tokenization

‘Tokenization’ is the process of breaking a stream of text up into words, phrases, symbols, or other meaningful elements called tokens. The list of tokens becomes input for further processing such as parsing or text mining. Tokenization is useful both in linguistics (where it is a form of text segmentation), and in computer science, where it forms part of lexical analysis.

Tokenization – Methods and obstacles

Typically, tokenization occurs at the word level. However, it is sometimes difficult to define what is meant by a word. Often a tokenizer relies on simple heuristics, for example:

Tokenization – Methods and obstacles

Tokenization is particularly difficult for languages written in scriptio continua which exhibit no word boundaries such as Ancient Greek, Chinese language|Chinese,Huang, C., Simon, P., Hsieh, S., Prevot, L. (2007)[http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P07/P07-2018.pdf Rethinking Chinese Word Segmentation: Tokenization, Character Classification, or Word break Identification] or Thai language|Thai.

Tokenization – Services

*[http://tokenex.com TokenEx] Cost-effective tokenization solution on the market for one-time, recurring and archival transaction data.

Tokenization (data security)

Tokenization can be used to safeguard sensitive data involving, for example, bank accounts, financial statements, medical records, criminal records, driver’s licenses, loan applications, stock trade (financial instrument)|trades, voter registrations, and other types of personally identifiable information (PII).[http://www.shift4.com/dotn/4tify/trueTokenization.cfm What is Tokenization?]

Tokenization (data security)

In payment card industry (PCI) context, tokens are used to reference cardholder data that is stored in a separate database, application or off-site secure facility.”.[http://www.shift4.com/pr_20080917_tokenizationindepth.cfm Shift4 Corporation Releases Tokenization in Depth White Paper]

Tokenization (data security)

Building an alternate payments ecosystem requires a number of entities working together in order to deliver Near field communication|NFC or other tech based payment services to the end users. One of the issues is the interoperability between the players and to resolve this issue the role of trusted service manager (TSM) is proposed to establish a technical link between MNOs and providers of services, so that these entities can work together. Tokenization helps you to do that.

Tokenization (data security)

The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, an industry-wide standard that must be met by any organization that stores, processes, or transmits cardholder data, mandates that Creditcard data must be protected when stored.[https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/security_standards/pci_dss.shtml The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard] Tokenization, as applied to payment card data, is often implemented to meet this mandate, replacing Creditcard numbers in some systems with a random value.[http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/expert/KnowledgebaseAnswer/0,289625,sid14_gci1275256,00.html Can Tokenization of Creditcard Numbers Satisfy PCI Requirements?] Tokens can be formatted in a variety of ways

Tokenization (data security)

Tokenization makes it more difficult for hackers to gain access to cardholder data outside of the token storage system. Implementation of tokenization could simplify the requirements of the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard|PCI DSS, as systems that no longer store or process sensitive data are removed from the scope of the PCI audit.[http://www.etronixlabs.com/tokenization/ “Securing Data: What Tokenization Does”]

Credit card fraud – Countermeasures

* Tokenization (data security) – not storing the full number in computer systems

Speech synthesis

This process is often called text normalization, pre-processing, or tokenization

Informix – Key Products

There is also an advanced data warehouse edition of Informix. This version includes the Informix Warehouse Accelerator which uses a combination of newer technologies including in-memory data, tokenization, deep compression, and columnar database technology to provide extreme high performance on business intelligence and data warehouse style queries.

Yacc

Yacc produces only a parser (phrase analyzer); for full syntactic analysis this requires an external lexical analyzer to perform the first tokenization stage (word analysis), which is then followed by the parsing stage proper. Lexical analyzer generators, such as Lex programming tool|Lex or Flex lexical analyser|Flex are widely available. The IEEE POSIX P1003.2 standard defines the functionality and requirements for both Lex and Yacc.

Credit card number – Security

* Tokenization (data security)|Tokenization – in which an artificial account number (token) is printed, stored or transmitted in place of the true account number.

OpenNLP

It supports the most common NLP tasks, such as tokenization, Sentence boundary disambiguation|sentence segmentation, part-of-speech tagging, Named entity recognition|named entity extraction, Shallow parsing|chunking, Syntactic parsing|parsing, and coreference|coreference resolution

Index (search engine) – Document parsing

The terms ‘indexing’, ‘parsing’, and ‘tokenization’ are used interchangeably in corporate slang.

Index (search engine) – Document parsing

Natural language processing, as of 2006, is the subject of continuous research and technological improvement. Tokenization presents many challenges in extracting the necessary information from documents for indexing to support quality searching. Tokenization for indexing involves multiple technologies, the implementation of which are commonly kept as corporate secrets.

Index (search engine) – Challenges in natural language processing

The goal during tokenization is to identify words for which users will search

Index (search engine) – Tokenization

During tokenization, the parser identifies sequences of characters which represent words and other elements, such as punctuation, which are represented by numeric codes, some of which are non-printing control characters

Index (search engine) – Language recognition

If the search engine supports multiple languages, a common initial step during tokenization is to identify each document’s language; many of the subsequent steps are language dependent (such as stemming and part of speech tagging)

Index (search engine) – Format analysis

If the search engine supports multiple File format|document formats, documents must be prepared for tokenization

Index (search engine) – Section recognition

Some search engines incorporate section recognition, the identification of major parts of a document, prior to tokenization

Index (search engine) – Meta tag indexing

The design of the HTML markup language initially included support for meta tags for the very purpose of being properly and easily indexed, without requiring tokenization.Berners-Lee, T., Hypertext Markup Language – 2.0, RFC 1866, Network Working Group, November 1995.

Applesoft BASIC – Speed issues, features

Furthermore, because the language used tokenization, a programmer had to avoid using any consecutive letters that were also Applesoft commands or operations (one could not use the name SCORE for a variable because it would interpret the OR as a Boolean operator, thus rendering it SC OR E, nor could one use BACKGROUND because the command GR invoked the low-resolution graphics mode, in this case creating a syntax error).

Identifier – In computer languages

However, a common restriction is not to permit whitespace characters and language operators; this simplifies tokenization by making it Free-form language|free-form and context-free

Identifier – In computer languages

This overlap can be handled in various ways: these may be forbidden from being identifiers – which simplifies tokenization and parsing – in which case they are reserved words; they may both be allowed but distinguished in other ways, such as via stropping; or keyword sequences may be allowed as identifiers and which sense is determined from context, which requires a context-sensitive lexer

Tokens – Computing

** Tokenization (data security), the process of substituting a sensitive data element

IVONA – Inside IVONA

This process is often called text normalization, pre-processing, or tokenization

Identifier (computer science) – In computer languages

However, a common restriction is not to permit whitespace characters and language operators; this simplifies tokenization by making it Free-form language|free-form and context-free

Underscore – Multi-word identifiers

However, spaces are not typically permitted inside identifiers, as they are treated as delimiters between tokenization|tokens

W-shingling

The document, a rose is a rose is a rose can be tokenization|tokenized as follows:

Slot machines – Description

Recently, some casinos have chosen to take advantage of a concept commonly known as tokenization, where one token buys more than one credit

VTD-XML – Non-Extractive, Document-Centric Parsing

Traditionally, a lexical analysis|lexical analyzer represents tokens (the small units of indivisible character values) as discrete string objects. This approach is designated extractive parsing. In contrast, non-extractive tokenization mandates that one keeps the source text intact, and uses offsets and lengths to describe those tokens.

CipherCloud

Hickey, CipherCloud Uses Encryption, Tokenization to Bolster Cloud Security, CRN, February 14, 2011]

CipherCloud – Platform

Snooping, The Washington Times, August 18, 2013] The company uses Tokenization (data security)|tokenization, which is the process of substituting a sensitive data element with a non-sensitive equivalent

Parsing expression grammar – Advantages

Parsers for languages expressed as a CFG, such as LR parsers, require a separate tokenization step to be done first, which breaks up the input based on the location of spaces, punctuation, etc. The tokenization is necessary because of the way these parsers use lookahead to parse CFGs that meet certain requirements in linear time. PEGs do not require tokenization to be a separate step, and tokenization rules can be written in the same way as any other grammar rule.

ProPay

‘ProPay, Inc’ is an American financial services company headquartered in Lehi, UT. The company provides payment solutions that include Merchant account provider|merchant accounts, payment processing, ACH services, pre-paid cards and other payment-related products. ProPay also provides end-to-end encryption and tokenization services. In December, 2012, ProPay was acquired by Total System Services, Inc. (TSYS) a publicly traded company, TSS (NYSE).

ProPay – History

In 2009, ProPay was among a handful of companies that began to offer an end-to-end encryption and tokenization service.ProPay Unlocks ProtectPay Encrypted Credit Card Processing, TMC.net 02/20/2009 At that time, ProPay also introduced the MicroSecure Card Reader®, allowing small merchants to securely accept card present transactions.Pocket Credit Card Reader Takes Transactions on the Go, PC World 01/07/2009 In 2010, ProPay received the Independent Sales Organization of Year award from the Electronic Transaction Association.ProPay Receives 2010 Electronic Transaction Association ISO of the Year Award, Silicone Slopes 04/20/2010

Casio fx-7000G – Programming

Tokenization is performed by using characters and symbols in place of long lines of code to minimize the amount of memory being used

Cuban art

A movement that mirrored this artistic piece was underway in which the shape of Cuba became a token in the artwork in a phase known as tokenization

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Thin Provisioning

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Thin Provisioning

Disk image Virtualization

The virtual disk can again be implemented using split or monolithic files, except that storage is allocated on demand. Several Virtual Machine Monitor implementations initialize the storage with zeros before providing it to the virtual machine that is in operation. The dynamic growth storage scheme is also referred to as a thin provisioning scheme.

Nexenta OS – NexentaStor

Through its focus on ZFS, it carries with it potential benefits for virtualized server farms in terms of performance and thin provisioning

Storage virtualization – Disk management

Thin Provisioning to maximize storage utilization

Storage virtualization – Improved utilization

Utilization can be increased by virtue of the pooling, migration, and thin provisioning services. This allows users to avoid over-buying and over-provisioning storage solutions. In other words, this kind of utilization through a shared pool of storage can be easily and quickly allocated as it is needed to avoid constraints on storage capacity that often hinder application performance.

Storage virtualization – Improved utilization

Storage can be assigned where it is needed at that point in time, reducing the need to guess how much a given host will need in the future. Using Thin Provisioning, the administrator can create a very large thin provisioned logical disk, thus the using system thinks it has a very large disk from day 1. it presents a logical view of the physical storage

Storage virtualization – Pros

Improves storage utilization without thin provisioning restrictions

Storage virtualization – In-band vs. out-of-band

In-band, also known as symmetric, virtualization devices actually sit in the data path between the host and storage. All I/O requests and their data pass through the device. Hosts perform I/O to the virtualization device and never interact with the actual storage device. The virtualization device in turn performs I/O to the storage device. Caching of data, statistics about data usage, replications services, data migration and thin provisioning are all easily implemented in an in-band device.

Logical volume management – Implementations

Vendor Introduced in Volume manager Allocate anywhere Snapshots RAID 0 RAID 1 RAID 5 RAID 10 Thin provisioning Notes

GFS2 – Features of GFS2 compared with GFS

* GFS2 supports the generation of discard requests for thin provisioning/SCSI TRIM requests

TwinStrata

CloudArray presents an iSCSI interface and provides local performance, thin provisioning, data reduction, bandwidth optimization, at-rest encryption and in-cloud snapshots

Storage hypervisor

The storage hypervisor manages, virtualizes and controls all storage resources, allocating and providing the needed attributes (performance, availability) and services (automated Thin provisioning|provisioning, snapshots, Replication (computer science)|replication), either directly or over a storage network, as required to serve the needs of each individual environment.

3PAR – History

3PAR has been called a pioneer and champion[ http://www.infoworld.com/d/green-it/pge-adds-thin-provisioning-energy-saving-incentive-program-831 Infoworld, PGE adds thin provisioning to energy-saving incentive program][ http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS108087+28-Jul-2008+MW20080728 Reuters, 3PAR Customers Eligible for PGE Incentives] for thin provisioning,[ http://www.byteandswitch.com/document.asp?doc_id=35674 Byte and Switch, 3PAR Debut’s ‘thin provisioning’] a mechanism to improve the utilization efficiency of storage capacity deployment

Thin provisioning

The term thin provisioning is applied to disk later in this article, but could refer to an allocation scheme for any resource

Thin provisioning

The efficiency of thin or thick/fat provisioning is a function of the use case, not the technology. Thick provisioning is typically more efficient when the amount of resource used is very close to the amount of resource allocated. Thin provisioning is more efficient where the amount of resource used is much smaller than allocated so that the benefit of providing only the resource needed exceeds the cost of the virtualization technology used.

Thin provisioning

Just in time allocation is not the same as thin provisioning. Most file systems back files just in time but are not thin provisioned. Overallocation is not the same as thin provisioning; resources can be overallocated / oversubscribed without using virtualization technology, for example overselling#Transportation|overselling seats on a flight without allocating actual seats at time of sale, avoiding having each consumer having a claim on a specific seat number.

Thin provisioning

‘Thin provisioning’Thin provisioning is called sparse volumes in some contexts. is a mechanism that applies to large-scale centralized computer disk storage systems, Storage Area Network|SANs, and storage virtualization systems. Thin provisioning allows space to be easily allocated to servers, on a just-enough and just-in-time basis.

Thin provisioning – Overview

Thin Provisioning, in a shared storage environment, is a method for optimizing utilization of available storage

Thin provisioning – Overview

With thin provisioning, storage capacity utilization efficiency can be automatically driven up towards 100% with very little administrative overhead. Organizations can purchase less storage capacity up front, defer storage capacity upgrades in line with actual business usage, and save the operating costs (electricity and floorspace) associated with keeping unused disk capacity spinning.

Thin provisioning – Overview

Thin technology on a storage frame was first introduced by 3PAR. Previous systems generally required large amounts of storage to be physically preallocated because of the complexity and impact of growing volume (Logical Unit Number|LUN) space. Thin provisioning enables over-allocation or over-subscription.

Features new to Windows 8 – Storage

A storage space behaves like a physical disk to the user, with thin provisioning of available disk space

IBM Storwize V7000 – Features and software

* Space Efficient Volumes also known as Thin Provisioning

IBM SAN Volume Controller – Features (2012)

: Besides, thin provisioning is integrated in the FlashCopy features detailed below to provide space-efficient snapshots

IBM SAN Volume Controller – Features (2012)

:Real-time compression can be combined with Easy Tiering, Thin Provisioning and Virtual Disk Mirroring.

IBM Storage – Storwize Family

*Virtualization of internal storage and thin provisioning for improved storage utilization

Universal Storage Platform – Architecture

*Supports thin provisioning and storage reclamation on internal and external virtualized storage

Storage efficiency – Technologies

Thin provisioning technology is a technique to prevent under-utilization by sharing the allocated, but not yet utilized capacity. A good example is Gmail, where every Gmail account has a large amount of allocated capacity. Because most Gmail users only use a fraction of the allocated capacity, this free space is shared among all Gmail users.

Software-defined storage

‘Software-defined storage (SDS)’ is a term for computer data storage technologies which separate storage hardware from the software that manages the storage infrastructure. The software enabling a software-defined storage environment provides policy management for feature options such as deduplication, replication, thin provisioning, snapshots and backup.

Dell Compellent

Compellent’s chief product, Storage Center, is a storage area network (SAN) system that combines a standards-based hardware platform and a suite of virtualized storage management applications, including automated tiered storage, thin provisioning and replication (computer science)|replication

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Thermal Energy Storage

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Thermal Energy Storage

Thermal energy storage

Thermal energy storage (TES) is achieved with greatly differing technologies that collectively accommodate a wide range of needs

Thermal energy storage – Solar energy storage

Most practical active solar heating systems provide storage for from a few hours to a day’s worth of energy collected. There are a growing number of facilities that use seasonal thermal energy storage (STES), enabling solar energy to be stored in summer (primarily) for space heating use during winter. The Drake Landing Solar Community in Alberta, Canada has now achieved a year-round 97% solar heating fraction, a World Record and possible only by incorporating STES.

Thermal energy storage – Ice-based technology

Thermal energy storage using ice makes use of the large heat of fusion of water

Thermal energy storage – Molten salt technology

Molten salt can be employed as a thermal energy storage method to retain thermal energy collected by a solar tower or solar trough so that it can be used to generate electricity in bad weather or at night

Thermal energy storage – Molten salt technology

Several parabolic trough power plants in Spain and solar power tower developer SolarReserve use this thermal energy storage concept. The Solana Generating Station in the U.S. has 6 hours of storage by molten salt.

Seasonal thermal energy storage

[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4057290%2F4057291/04057362.pdf?arnumber.4057362authDecision=-201 Recent Inter-seasonal Underground Thermal Energy Storage Applications in Canada]

Seasonal thermal energy storage – STES technologies

* ‘UTES’ (underground thermal energy storage), in which the storage medium may be geological strata ranging from earth or sand to solid bedrock, or aquifers. UTES technologies include:

Seasonal thermal energy storage – STES technologies

** ‘ATES’ (aquifer thermal energy storage)

Seasonal thermal energy storage – STES technologies

** ‘BTES’ (borehole thermal energy storage)

Seasonal thermal energy storage – STES technologies

** ‘CTES’ (cavern or mine thermal energy storage). STES stores are possible in flooded mines, purpose-built chambers, or abandoned underground oil stores (e.g. those mined into crystalline hardrock in Norway), if they are close enough to a heat (or cold) source and market.

Seasonal thermal energy storage – Conferences and organizations

Most recent was Innostock 2012 (the 12th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage) in Lleida, Spain.

Seasonal thermal energy storage – Conferences and organizations

The IEA-ECES programme continues the work of the earlier International Council for Thermal Energy Storage which from 1978 to 1990 had a quarterly newsletter and was initially sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The newsletter was initially called ATES Newsletter, and after BTES became a feasible technology it was changed to STES Newsletter.

Seasonal thermal energy storage – Use of STES in Greenhouses

[https://intraweb.stockton.edu/eyos/energy_studies/content/docs/FINAL_PAPERS/4A-2.pdf Aquifer thermal energy storage application in greenhouse climatization]

Pumpable ice technology – Thermal energy storage systems

A pumpable-ice-based Thermal Energy Storage System (TESS) can be used in centralized water-cooled air-conditioning systems in order to eliminate peak demand loads at critical times

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Text Analytics

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Text Analytics

Medallia Capabilities

In addition to Social Media feedback and analysis, as well as mobile feedback and engagement, capabilities of the Medallia product include survey creation and management, text analytics and dashboarding, and direct goals and action management.

Predictive analytics Technology and big data influences

Thanks to technological advances in computer hardware—faster CPUs, cheaper memory, and MPP architectures-–and new technologies such as Hadoop, MapReduce, and in-database and text analytics for processing big data, it is now feasible to collect, analyze, and mine massive amounts of structured and unstructured data for new insights

Customer intelligence Example sources of data for CI

Customer satisfaction and market research surveys, often mined via text analytics, which can additionally be applied, for customer intelligence purposes, to Contact Center notes, e-mail, and other textual sources.

Data mining Commercial data-mining software and applications

Clarabridge: enterprise class text analytics solution.

Data analysis

Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical or structural models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data

Teradata – Introduction

In 2010, Teradata added text analytics to track unstructured data, such as word processor documents, and semi-structured data, such as spreadsheets.

Data extraction

Using text analytics to attempt to understand the text and link it to other information

Text mining

‘Text mining’, also referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to ‘#Text mining and text analytics|text analytics’, refers to the process of deriving high-quality information from Plain text|text

Text mining – Text mining and text analytics

The term is roughly synonymous with text mining; indeed, Ronen Feldman modified a 2000 description of text mining in 2004 to describe text analytics

Text mining – Text mining and text analytics

The term text analytics also describes that application of text analytics to respond to business problems, whether independently or in conjunction with query and analysis of fielded, numerical data. It is a truism that 80 percent of business-relevant information originates in unstructured form, primarily text. These techniques and processes discover and present knowledge – facts, business rules, and relationships – that is otherwise locked in textual form, impenetrable to automated processing.

Text mining – History

The emergence of text analytics in its current form stems from a refocusing of research in the late 1990s from algorithm development to application, as described by Prof

Text mining – Text analysis processes

* Although some text analytics systems apply exclusively advanced statistical methods, many others apply more extensive natural language processing, such as part of speech tagging, syntactic parsing, and other types of linguistic analysis.

Text mining – Text analysis processes

* Sentiment analysis involves discerning subjective (as opposed to factual) material and extracting various forms of attitudinal information: sentiment, opinion, mood, and emotion. Text analytics techniques are helpful in analyzing sentiment at the entity, concept, or topic level and in distinguishing opinion holder and opinion object.http://www.clarabridge.com/default.aspx?tabid=137ModuleID=635ArticleID=722

Text mining – Commercial

* Angoss – Angoss Text Analytics provides entity and theme extraction, topic categorization, sentiment analysis and document summarization capabilities via the embedded Lexalytics Salience Engine. The software provides the unique capability of merging the output of unstructured, text-based analysis with structured data to provide additional predictive variables for improved predictive models and association analysis.

Text mining – Commercial

* Clarabridge – text analytics (text mining) software, including natural language (NLP), machine learning, clustering and categorization. Provides SaaS, hosted and on-premise text and sentiment analytics that enables companies to collect, listen to, analyze, and act on the Voice of the Customer (VOC) from both external (Twitter, Facebook, Yelp!, product forums, etc.) and internal sources (Call Center notes, CRM, Enterprise Data Warehouse, BI, surveys, emails, etc.).

Text mining – Commercial

* Fair Isaac – leading provider of decision management solutions powered by advanced analytics (includes text analytics).

Text mining – Commercial

* General Sentiment – Social Intelligence platform that uses natural language processing to discover affinities between the fans of brands with the fans of traditional television shows in Social Media. Stand alone text analytics to capture social knowledge base on billions of topics stored to 2004.

Text mining – Commercial

* IBM LanguageWare – the IBM suite for text analytics (tools and Runtime).

Text mining – Commercial

* IBM SPSS – provider of Modeler Premium (previously called IBM SPSS Modeler and IBM SPSS Text Analytics), which contains advanced NLP-based text analysis capabilities (multi-lingual sentiment, event and fact extraction), that can be used in conjunction with Predictive Modeling. Text Analytics for Surveys provides the ability to categorize survey responses using NLP-based capabilities for further analysis or reporting.

Text mining – Commercial

* Inxight – provider of text analytics, search, and unstructured visualization technologies. (Inxight was bought by Business Objects (company)|Business Objects that was bought by SAP AG in 2008).

Text mining – Commercial

* Lexalytics – provider of a text analytics engine used in Social Media Monitoring, Voice of Customer, Survey Analysis, and other applications.

Text mining – Commercial

* SAS System|SAS – SAS Text Miner and Teragram; commercial text analytics, natural language processing, and taxonomy software used for Information Management.

Text mining – Commercial

* Smartlogic – Semaphore; Content Intelligence platform containing commercial text analytics, natural language processing, rule-based classification, ontology/taxonomy modelling and information vizualization software used for Information Management.

Text mining – Commercial

* Sysomos – provider Social Media analytics software platform, including text analytics and sentiment analysis on online consumer conversations.

Unstructured information – Dealing with unstructured data

Techniques such as data mining and text analytics and noisy text analytics | noisy-text analytics provide different methods to find patterns in, or otherwise interpret, this information

Analytics – Analytics vs. analysis

text analytics vs

Intelligent text analysis – Text mining and text analytics

The term ‘text analytics’ describes a set of Linguistics|linguistic, statistical, and machine learning techniques that model and structure the information content of textual sources for business intelligence, exploratory data analysis, research, or investigation.[ http://intelligent-enterprise.informationweek.com/blog/archives/2007/02/defining_text_a.html Defining Text Analytics] The term is roughly synonymous with text mining; indeed, Ronen Feldman modified a 2000 description of text mining[ http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dunja/CFPWshKDD2000.html KDD-2000 Workshop on Text Mining] in 2004 to describe text analytics.[ http://www.ir.iit.edu/cikm2004/tutorials.html#T2 Text Analytics: Theory and Practice] The latter term is now used more frequently in business settings while text mining is used in some of the earliest application areas, dating to the 1980s, notably life-sciences research and government intelligence.

Semantic analytics

‘Semantic analytics’ is the use of Ontology (computer science)|ontologies to analyze content in web resources. This field of research combines text analytics and Semantic Web technologies like Resource Description Framework|RDF.

Sentiment analysis

‘Sentiment analysis’ (also known as ‘opinion mining’) refers to the use of natural language processing, Text analytics|text analysis and computational linguistics to identify and extract subjective information in source materials.

SPSS Modeler

‘IBM SPSS Modeler’ is a data mining software application from IBM. It is a data mining and text analytics workbench used to build Predictive Models|predictive models. It has a visual interface which allows users to leverage statistical and data mining algorithms without programming. SPSS Modeler has been used in these and other industries:

Angoss – Services

* Cloud on demand Software is offered for KnowledgeSEEKER, KnowledgeSTUDIO and its text analytics module.

Attensity

‘Attensity’ provides social analytics and engagement applications for social customer relationship management (social CRM). Attensity’s text analytics software applications extract facts, relationships and sentiment analysis|sentiment from unstructured data, which comprise approximately 85% of the information companies store electronically.

Medallia – Capabilities

In addition to Social Media feedback and analysis, as well as Mobile_phone|mobile feedback and engagement, capabilities of the Medallia product include survey creation and management, text analytics and dashboarding, and direct goals and action management.

Reuters Group – Acquisitions and investments

* ClearForest – In June 2007, Reuters acquired ClearForest, a provider of Text Analytics solutions, whose tagging platform and analytical products allow clients to derive business information from textual content.

SAS Institute Inc. – Software

SAS draws from statistics, predictive analytics, data mining, data visualization, operations research, quality improvement, graph theory and text analytics to help organizations predict, measure, analyze and decide based on data

SPSS

‘SPSS Statistics’ is a computer program|software package used for statistical analysis. Long produced by SPSS Inc., it was acquired by IBM in 2009. The current versions (2014) are officially named ‘IBM SPSS Statistics’. Companion products in the same family are used for survey authoring and deployment (IBM SPSS Data Collection), data mining (SPSS Modeler|IBM SPSS Modeler), text mining|text analytics, and collaboration and deployment (batch and automated scoring services).

Data analytics

Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical or structural models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data

Voice of customer

They are generally conducted at the start of any new product, process, or service design initiative in order to better understand the customer’s wants and needs, and as the key input for new product definition, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), and the setting of detailed design specifications.[http://provalisresearch.com/solutions/applications/voice-of-the-customer Application of Text Analytics tools to analyze Voice of the Customer data]

Clarabridge

Clarabridge offers its Clarabridge Enterprise and Clarabridge Professional products as SaaS and on premise software solutions that utilize sentiment analysis|sentiment and text analytics to automatically collect, categorize and report on Structured data|structured and unstructured data

Northern Light Group

‘Northern Light Group, LLC’ is a company specializing in strategic research portals, enterprise search technology, and text analytics solutions

Sematext

‘Sematext’ runs Performance Monitoring, Log Analytics, and Site Search Analytics services to derive real-time insight from metrics, logs, search, and clickstream data; Sematext also provides commercial support, consulting, development and products around ElasticSearch, Solr, Search, Big Data, Natural Language Processing, Recommendation Engines, and Text Analytics

General Architecture for Text Engineering

GATE has been compared to NLTK, R (programming_language)|R and RapidMiner.[http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/9516 Open Source Text Analytics web article by Seth Grimes] As well as being widely used in its own right, it forms the basis of the KIM semantic platform.[http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=onlineaid=252243 KIM – a semantic platform for information extraction and retrieval, by Popov et al (Natural Language Engineering (2004), 10:375-392)]

General Architecture for Text Engineering

and Introduction to Linguistic Annotation and Text Analytics, by Graham Wilcock.[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TDQJb1UgVywCdq=Introduction+to+Linguistic+Annotation+and+Text+Analyticsprintsec=frontcoversource=blots=bAF26ZQSTxsig=TbxZ_-3tRy3IeDBKFofeVN6bAIchl=enei=vc0gS7PlLo-64QaSgqnfCQsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=2ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepageq=f=false Introduction to Linguistic Annotation and Text Analytics, by Graham Wilcock]

Predictive classification – Technology and big data influences

Thanks to technological advances in computer hardware — faster CPUs, cheaper memory, and Massive parallel processing|MPP architectures — and new technologies such as Hadoop, MapReduce, and In-database processing|in-database and text analytics for processing big data, it is now feasible to collect, analyze, and mine massive amounts of structured and unstructured data for new insights

List of text mining software – Commercial

* Averbis – provides text analytics, clustering and categorization software, as well as terminology management and enterprise search

List of text mining software – Commercial

* Daedalus, S.A. – provides a text analytics software engine to automaticlly extract meaning from all types of multimedia content.

List of text mining software – Commercial

* FICO – leading provider of decision management solutions powered by advanced analytics (includes text analytics).

List of text mining software – Commercial

* intelligentCAPTURE – from AGI-Information Management Consultants integrates data capturing of paper and digital text, translation, linguistic text analytics, search for libraries and documentation centers.dandelon.com

List of text mining software – Commercial

* Textalytics – Meaning as a Service: a set of text analytics APIs that offer vertical, high-level functionality targeted at specific usage scenarios: Semantic Publishing, Media Analysis, Voice of the Customer.

Noisy text analytics

While Text analytics is a growing and mature field that has great value because of the huge amounts of data being produced, processing of noisy text is gaining in importance because a lot of common applications produce noisy text data

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