ITIL® problem management was designed so decision makers can know why incidents occur. Incidents that are considered would be those that pose a minor threat, a great risk or may create a highly negative situation. The ITIL® problem management process focuses on heavy hitters which may reoccur often and have significant impact on the organization. However, it is not guaranteed that the organization members will find the origin of incidents all the time or that they can permanently restore systems back to normal every incident.
 
Success is measured in terms of how frequently problems have been recognized and removed from the existing IT environment, as well as categorization of resolved cases which are considered closed files.
 
Incidents can be accidental outcomes of an operation in a sequential system. These incidents can interrupt the services which the customer is expecting to receive. Incidents are usually reported to the service desk first, which follows up with a report about the incident. This first step is dubbed incident occurrence.
 
The second step would be assessment of the incident. An incident that was never explained, and that later escalates into a far bigger problem is of special concern. If the cause is unknown, the incident is then called a problem.
 
Third is the review of the features of the problem  here it is important to determine the origin of the problem. As soon as the problem is conclusively proven to exist, it is then renamed as a known error.
 
The whole process involves assessment of the known error and determining the indicators of this incident, matching it with existing documented problems, and  if there is a match – reference to a previously-solved known error for application of the previously-used solution. On the other hand, if the known error was not solved in the past then a new record must then be created to prevent the error from cropping up again once a similar incident happens. This is dubbed addressing the error, which is the fourth and last step.
 

The incidents, problems and known errors may show where problems that were unexpected were encountered during operation of the information system. We thus see that minimizing a debilitating crash is the most important aim of problem management.

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