First of all, a project is defined as a one-shot program of action
whose existence is temporary in nature and whose main purpose for
existing is to produce a product and/or service. Project management
involves trying to work within the specific limitations of cost,
time, quality and scope when project resources have to be organized
and managed to meet the goals of the project. The product and/or
service should be unique and be able to create heightened value or
benefits for the organization implementing the project.

A project is different from organizational processes in that the
latter may have semi-permanent or permanent status in the priorities
of the organization, and may need to be implemented over and over
again (perhaps on a daily or weekly basis, for instance.)

Project management can trace its roots from different fields, namely,
defense, engineering and construction. Henry Gantt is considered the
main proponent of project management, with much of his reputation
brought about by his reliance on his unique project management tool
dubbed the Gantt chart. Various contemporary project management tools
have their basis on the past accomplishments of Henry Gantt.

Contemporary project management can be said to have started only in
the 1950s, though Gantt charts were already being widely employed
even before then in the US alone. Two mathematical techniques were
eventually developed and disseminated for use in this field, namely,
the PERT system which stands for the Program Evaluation and Review
Technique created by Booz-Allen & Hamilton and the joint venture
system dubbed the Critical Path Method (or CPM) which was produced by
the collaboration of DuPont Corporation with Remington Rand
Corporation.

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