ITIL Change management is a core part of ITIL v3

In summary, as companies seek to streamline the cumbersome transition between development and operations, they typically confront 3 different types of problems: Release Management Problems Companies with release management problems are looking for better release planning than spreadsheets.

They want an easy way to understand release risks, dependencies, stage gates adherence and an ensure compliance.

Release/Deployment Coordination Problems Teams with release/deployment coordination problems are focused on better execution of release/deployment events.

They want better tracking of discrete activities, faster escalation of issues, documented process control and granular reporting.

Release/Deployment Automation Problems Companies with release/deployment automation problems usually have existing automation but want to more flexibly manage and drive this automation – without needing to enter everything manually at the command-line.

Ideally, this automation can be invoked by non-operations resources in specific non-production environments.

One way to start streamlining release process is to identify which of the above problems is the overall team’s highest priority.

DevOps 36 Release coordinator A relatively new role in enterprise IT which is primarily tasked with coordinating deployments of enterprise software to pre-production environments.

The need for the release coordinator has been driven by: 1.




The need to fill the Devops “gap” Increased infrastructure complexity – multiple layers and platforms which form web applications Growth in rate of releases – due to agile and iterative development Distributed teams – globally deployed, outsourced and hybrid development, testing and infrastructure teams The release co-ordinator role (also referred to as a deployment or integration co-ordinator) has emerged from the release management or release engineering teams.

This role is similar to an air traffic controller—performing real time co-ordination activities across diverse teams to achieve a group goal (safe landing and take-off) using shared resources (airspace, flight paths, airport runways, and terminal gates).

Release co-ordination contrasts with release management, which is often focused on planning and reporting on software changes, in order to control the release of specific application changes into production.

Release engineering is concerned with the systematic and technical work related to building and deploying code into environments.

Change management is the infrastructure discipline for tracking all types of changes in the enterprise IT environment—including both application and infrastructure changes.

Change management is a core part of ITIL v3.

Criticisms of Devops Some in the IT blogging field have cited criticisms of the “Devops” label as just a primarily elitist sysadmin club to rebrand an existing problem[23] or a marketing scheme to sell already well-understood methodologies.

[24] References [1] Pant, Rajiv (2009-03-17).

“devops” (http:/ / www.


com/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ 17/ technology-department/ ).

Organizing a Technology Department.


[2] Samovskiy, Dmitriy (2010-03-02).

“The Rise of devops” (http:/ / somic.

org/ 2010/ 03/ 02/ the-rise-of-devops/ ).

Fubaredness Is Contagious.


[3] Edwards, Damon.

“What is devops?” (http:/ / dev2ops.

org/ blog/ 2010/ 2/ 22/ what-is-devops.



[4] Vambenepe, William.

“Steve Ballmer gets Cloud” (http:/ / stage.


com/ archives/ 1393).


[5] Lyman, Jay.

“devops mixing dev, ops, agile, cloud, open source and business” (http:/ / blogs.


com/ opensource/ 2010/ 03/ 03/ devops-mixing-dev-ops-agile-cloud-open-source-and-business/ ).

451 CAOS Theory.


[6] Nasrat, Paul.

“Agile Infrastructure” (http:/ / www.


com/ presentations/ agile-infrastructure).



Retrieved 31 March 2011.

[7] http:/ / agileoperations.

net/ [8] Debois, Patrick.

“devops Cafe Episode 12” (http:/ / devopscafe.

org/ show/ 2010/ 9/ 15/ episode-12.


devops Cafe.


Retrieved 31 March 2011.

[9] Debois, Patrick.

“Devops Days Ghent 2009” (http:/ / www.


org/ events/ 2009-ghent/ ).



Retrieved 31 March 2011.

[10] Debois, Patrick.

“Devops Days” (http:/ / www.


org/ ).

Devops Days.


Retrieved 31 March 2011.

[11] Turnbull, James.

“What Devops means to me…” (http:/ / www.


net/ 2010/ 02/ what-devops-means-to-me/ ).


[12] “10+ Deploys Per Day: Dev and Ops Cooperation at Flickr” (http:/ / www.


net/ jallspaw/ 10-deploys-per-day-dev-and-ops-cooperation-at-flickr).


[13] “SAM SIG: Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing” (http:/ / www.


org/ index.


eventDetail& eventID=13703).



[14] “Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing” (http:/ / www.


net/ pascallouis/ applied-lean-startup-ideas-continuous-deployment-at-kaching).


[15] “Devops Group” (http:/ / www.


com/ groups?mostPopular=& gid=2825397).



[16] “Devops Days 2009 Conference” (http:/ / www.


org/ ghent09/ programme/ ).


[17] Edwards, Damon.

“Devops Meetup Recap” (http:/ / dev2ops.

org/ blog/ 2010/ 4/ 26/ devops-meetup-recap.



[18] Lyman, Jay.

“Devops mixing dev, ops, agile, cloud, open source and business” (http:/ / blogs.


com/ opensource/ 2010/ 03/ 03/ devops-mixing-dev-ops-agile-cloud-open-source-and-business/ ).

451 CAOS Theory.


[19] “Virtual Infrastructure products: features comparison” (http:/ / www.


info/ misc/ virtualizationscomparison.


Welcome to IT 2.0: Next Generation IT infrastructures.


DevOps [20] Ellard, Jennifer.

“Bringing Order to Chaos through Data Center Automation” (http:/ / www.


com/ infodirect/ 20071026/ 10000120-1.


Information Management.

SourceMedia, Inc..


[21] Debois, Patrick.

“The leaning of life – History of the Silos” (http:/ / www.


be/ blog/ 2010/ 06/ 07/ the-leaning-of-life/ ).


[22] Booth, David.

“How to Measure the Effects of Development + Operations improvements, an OpenSpace conversation” (http:/ / www.


com/ blog/ how-to-measure-the-effectiveness-of-implementing-devops).


[23] Nelson-Smith, Stephen.

“What Is This Devops Thing, Anyway?” (http:/ / www.


be/ blog/ 2010/ 02/ 12/ what-is-this-devops-thing-anyway/ ).


[24] Dziuba, Ted.

“Devops Is a Poorly Executed Scam” (http:/ / teddziuba.

com/ 2011/ 03/ devops-scam.



37 Dynamic Systems Development Method Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) is primarily a software development methodology originally based upon the Rapid Application Development methodology.

In 2007 DSDM became a generic approach to project management and solution delivery.

DSDM is an iterative and incremental approach that emphasizes continuous user/customer involvement.

Its goal is to deliver projects on time and on budget while adjusting for changing requirements along the way.

DSDM is one of a number of Agile Model of the DSDM software development process.

methods for developing software and non-I.T.

solutions, and it forms a part of the Agile Alliance.

The most recent version of DSDM is called DSDM Atern.

The name Atern is a shortening of Arctic Tern – a collaborative bird that can travel vast distances and epitomises many facets of the method which are natural ways of working e.g.

prioritisation and collaboration.

The previous version of DSDM (released in May 2003) which is still widely used and is still valid is DSDM 4.2 which is a slightly extended version of DSDM version 4.

The extended version contains guidance on how to use DSDM with Extreme Programming.

— zentao ALM base on [6] SCRUM References [1] deJong, Jennifer (2008-04-15).

“Mea culpa, ALM toolmakers say” (http:/ / www.


com/ SearchResult/ 31952).



Retrieved 2008-11-22.

[2] http:/ / www.


com/ viewArticle.

action?articleId=281474978848396 [3] http:/ / endeavour-mgmt.


net/ [4] http:/ / sourceforge.

net/ projects/ endeavour-mgmt/ [5] http:/ / www.


org/ [6] http:/ / www.


net/ Further Literature • Application Management: Challenges – Service Creation – Strategies; Frank Keuper, Christian Oecking, Andreas Degenhardt; Gabler Verlag 2011; ISBN 978-3-8349-1667-9 • Walter Linnartz, Barbara Kohlhoff, Gertrud Heck, Benedikt Schmidt: Application Management Services und Support, Publicis Corporate Publishing 2004, ISBN 3-89578-224-6 Electronic sources • ASL-Library ( • IT Infrastructure Library ( • Expert group “Application Management Experts” on Linkedin ( groups?mostPopular=&gid=2865118&trk=myg_ugrp_ovr) AspectJ 141 AspectJ AspectJ Paradigm Appeared in Developer Stable release Major implementations aspect-oriented 2001 Eclipse Foundation 1.6.11 (March 15, 2011) The AspectJ Development Tools for Eclipse Implementation language Java OS License Usual file extensions Website Cross-platform Eclipse Public License aj [1] AspectJ is an aspect-oriented extension created at PARC for the Java programming language.

It is available in Eclipse Foundation open-source projects, both stand-alone and integrated into Eclipse.

AspectJ has become the widely-used de-facto standard for AOP by emphasizing simplicity and usability for end users.

It uses Java-like syntax and has included IDE integrations for displaying crosscutting structure since its initial public release in 2001.

Simple language description All valid Java programs are also valid AspectJ programs, but AspectJ also allows programmers to define special constructs called aspects.

Aspects can contain several entities unavailable to standard classes.

These are: • inter-type declarations—allow a programmer to add methods, fields, or interfaces to existing classes from within the aspect.

This example adds an acceptVisitor (see visitor pattern) method to the Point class: aspect VisitAspect { void Point.acceptVisitor(Visitor v) { v.visit(this); } } • pointcuts — allow a programmer to specify join points (well-defined moments in the execution of a program, like method call, object instantiation, or variable access).

All pointcuts are expressions (quantifications) that determine whether a given join point matches.

For example, this point-cut matches the execution of any instance method in an object of type Point whose name begins with set: pointcut set() : execution(* set*(..) ) && this(Point); • advice — allows a programmer to specify code to run at a join point matched by a pointcut.

The actions can be performed before, after, or around the specified join point.

Here, the advice refreshes the display every time something on Point is set, using the pointcut declared above: after () : set() { Display.update(); } — 228 Further reading • Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch, and James Rumbaugh (1999).

The Unified Software Development Process • Per Kroll, Philippe Kruchten (2003).

Rational Unified Process Made Easy, The: A Practitioner’s Guide to the RUP • Per Kroll, Bruce Mac Isaac (2006).

Agility and Discipline Made Easy: Practices from OpenUP and RUP • Philippe Kruchten (1998).

The Rational Unified Process: An Introduction • Ahmad Shuja, Jochen Krebs (2007).

RUP Reference and Certification Guide • Walker Royce, Software Project Management, A Unified Framework External links • IBM Rational Unified Process Web Site ( • Rational Software at IBM ( • Global Rational User Group Community ( IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) is a knowledge base of widely accepted industry best practices and the accumulated experience from IBM’s client engagements.

The knowledge base comprises detailed, industry-wide IT service management processes, and is an integral part of the IBM Service Management solution family.[1] The knowledge base is structured on the IBM Process Reference Model for IT[2] (PRM-IT).

PRM-IT[3] describes the processes for exploiting IT in support of a business or enterprise.

ITUP is a free offering from IBM.[4] Its purpose is to make the benefits of service management best practice frameworks, like Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), more attainable for organizations through integrated process modeling.

Thus ITUP is closely aligned with ITIL (a series of books outlining a set of concepts for managing IT) and provides the guidance on how to implement IT service management using proven, predefined solutions.

Detailed process diagrams and descriptions provide further explanations of IT processes, the relationships between processes, and the roles and tools involved in an efficient process implementation.

ITUP is also mapped to other leading process models.[5] Context IT service management represents an evolution from managing IT as a technology to managing IT as a business.[6] As businesses move toward on-demand environments, IT organizations are faced with the challenge of increasing the quality of services provided to business, while simultaneously addressing faster rates of change, rising technical complexity, cost pressures, and compliance issues.

With traditional resource and system management approaches, providing effective support for business and efficient use of IT resources is proving impossible.

IT service management provides for the effective and efficient delivery of IT services in support of changing business needs.

Implementing IT service management requires the optimal intersection of people, process, information and technology.

When all of these components come together, they can make IT more efficient and effective.

IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) 229 Tivoli Unified Process tooling IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) Composer is the tool used to create tailored method libraries* using the ITUP knowledge base content.[7] Customization includes creating or modifying process definitions to extend and publish content to document an organization’s operational processes.

The Composer tool provides the option to select and deploy a comprehensive project, or only the process components needed for each stage of a project, so that those processes are consistently applied by all IT staff.

(See ITUP Composer for development, this article.) • A method library is a container for method plug-ins and method configuration definitions.

A method library has one or more method configurations that filter the library and provide smaller working sets of library content.

All method elements are stored in a method library.

Structure of the ITUP content knowledge database The knowledge base includes descriptions of and relationships between five significant elements: 1.

Process descriptions – detailed process diagrams and explicates to better understand processes and their relationships, making ITIL best-practice recommendations easier to implement.

This category also maps processes to other leading process models, such as Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) and the enhanced Telecom Operations Map (eTOM).


Work products – artifacts produced as outputs or required as inputs by processes.

Includes information such as definitions for key terms and concepts.


Roles – as associated with the execution of specific tasks by IT staff typically responsible for one or more roles.

Roles and job responsibilities are described in detail and cross-referenced to guidance on how staff can use tools to perform their roles more efficiently and effectively.


Tools – in the form of tool mentors.

This category identifies products and solutions from IBM that can be used to automate or complete specific process activities.


Scenarios, or real-life examples – are provided as catalysts to make process content more comprehendible.

A scenario can relate to specific issues, such as deploying a new server or responding to an outage.

Scenarios describe, in a step-by-step format, the process workflow, roles, work products and tools involved in solving a specific problem.

The ITUP framework of process categories Governance and Management System The Governance and Management System process category ensures that a framework is in place to integrate processes, technologies, people, and data in a manner consistent with the IT goals.

This category also monitors the framework against the broader enterprise goals and quality metrics.

When specific goals and quality metrics are consistently unmet, decisions are made regarding the overall framework: whether it will be modified or restructured to ensure future success.

Governance considers and sets the fundamental direction for the management framework.

Governance is a decision rights and accountability framework for directing, controlling, and executing IT endeavors in order to determine and achieve desired behaviors and results.

Governance involves defining the management model and creating the governing or guiding principles.

Processes: • • • • IT Governance and Management System Framework IT Governance and Management System Capabilities IT Governance and Management Operation IT Governance and Management Evaluation Customer Relationships The Customer Relationships process category gives IT service providers a mechanism to understand, monitor, perform and compete effectively in the marketplace they serve.

Through active communication IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) and interaction with customers, this process category provides the IT enterprise with valuable, current information concerning customer wants, needs, and requirements.

Once these requirements are captured and understood, the process category ensures that an effective market plan is created to bring the various IT services and capabilities to the marketplace.

Further, customer satisfaction data is gathered and reported in order to find areas of the IT services that require improvement.

Overall, this process provides a means for the IT enterprise to understand customer requirements, market IT services to customers, ensure and monitor the quality of the delivered IT services, and contribute to the maximization of business value from technology usage.

Processes: • • • • • • • Stakeholder Requirements Management Service Marketing and Sales Service Catalog Management Service Level Management Demand Management IT Customer Transformation Management Customer Satisfaction Management 230 Direction The Direction process category provides guidance on the external technology marketplace, aligns the IT outcomes to support the business strategy, minimizes risk exposures, and manages the IT Architecture and IT Portfolio.

Using the business strategy, related business requirements, and overall technology trends as key inputs, this process category creates an IT Strategy within the manageable constraints of the existing architecture and portfolio.

In addition to the IT strategy, the IT Portfolio and IT Architecture are planned, created, implemented, monitored, and continuously improved within this process category.

Items put forward for inclusion in the IT Portfolio are managed throughout their life cycle using product management approaches well established in many industries.

Processes: • • • • • • • IT Strategy IT Research and Innovation Architecture Management Risk Management Product Management Portfolio Management Program and Project Management Realization In the Realization process category solutions are created to satisfy the requirements of IT customers and stakeholders, including both the development of new solutions and the enhancements or maintenance of existing ones.

Development includes options to build or buy the components of solutions, and the integration of them for functional capability.

This process category encompasses the engineering and manufacturing of information technology products and services, and includes the making or buying of solutions, systems, integration, and extensions to existing solutions.

Maintenance and end-of-life shutdown activities (requiring solution adjustment) are also addressed in this category.

Processes: • • • • • Solution Requirements Solution Analysis and Design Solution Development and Integration Solution Test Solution Acceptance IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) Transition The Transition category of processes supports any aspect related to a life cycle status change in solutions and services.

The processes provide defined and repeatable approaches to planning, effecting and recording these transitions, and can be applied to all stages of the life cycle.

They also serve to maintain control over the information technology (IT) resources that are subject to such status changes.

Further, the processes in this category provide vital enabling information to other process areas related to the management of IT.

Using these processes, developments in IT capabilities supporting the stake holding businesses and customers achieve their desired operational status from which value can be derived.

Processes: • • • • • Change Management Release Management Deployment Management Configuration Management Asset Management — Uses of ISO/IEC 15504 ISO/IEC 15504 can be used in two contexts: • Process improvement, and • Capability determination (= evaluation of supplier’s process capability).

Process improvement ISO/IEC 15504 can be used to perform process improvement within a technology organization.[13] Process improvement is always difficult, and initiatives often fail, so it is important to understand the initial baseline level (process capability level), and to assess the situation after an improvement project.

ISO 15504 provides a standard for assessing the organization’s capacity to deliver at each of these stages.

ISO/IEC 15504 In particular, the reference framework of ISO/IEC 15504 provides a structure for defining objectives, which facilitates specific programs to achieve these objectives.

Process improvement is the subject of part 4 of ISO/IEC 15504.

It specifies requirements for improvement programmes and provides guidance on planning and executing improvements, including a description of an eight step improvement programme.

Following this improvement programme is not mandatory and several alternative improvement programmes exist.[9] Capability determination An organization considering outsourcing software development needs to have a good understanding of the capability of potential suppliers to deliver.

ISO/IEC 15504 (Part 4) can also be used to inform supplier selection decisions.

The ISO/IEC 15504 framework provides a framework for assessing proposed suppliers, as assessed either by the organization itself, or by an independent assessor.[14] The organization can determine a target capability for suppliers, based on the organization’s needs, and then assess suppliers against a set of target process profiles that specify this target capability.

Part 4 of the ISO/IEC 15504 specifies the high level requirements and an initiative has been started to create an extended part of the standard covering target process profiles.

Target process profiles are particularly important in contexts where the organization (for example, a government department) is required to accept the cheapest qualifying vendor.

This also enables suppliers to identify gaps between their current capability and the level required by a potential customer, and to undertake improvement to achieve the contract requirements (i.e.

become qualified).

Work on extending the value of capability determination includes a method called Practical Process Profiles – which uses risk as the determining factor in setting target process profiles.[9] Combining risk and processes promotes improvement with active risk reduction, hence reducing the likelihood of problems occurring.

248 Acceptance of ISO/IEC 15504 ISO/IEC 15504 has been successful as: • • • • • • ISO/IEC 15504 is publicly available through National Standards Bodies.

It has the support of the international community.

Over 4000 assessments have been performed to date.

Major sectors are leading the pace such as automotive, space and medical systems with industry relevant variants.

Domain-specific models like Automotive SPICE and SPICE 4 SPACE can be derived from it.

There have been many international initiatives to support take-up such as SPICE for small companies.

On the other hand, ISO/IEC 15504 has not yet been as successful as the CMMI.

This has been for several reasons: • ISO/IEC 15504 is not available as free download but must be purchased from the ISO (Automotive SPICE on the other hand can be freely downloaded from the link supplied below.) CMM and CMMI are available as free downloads from the SEI website.

• The CMMI is actively sponsored (by the US Department of Defense).

• The CMM was created first, and reached critical ‘market’ share before ISO 15504 became available.

• The CMM has subsequently been replaced by the CMMI, which incorporates many of the ideas of ISO/IEC 15504, but also retains the benefits of the CMM.

Like the CMM, ISO/IEC 15504 was created in a development context, making it difficult to apply in a service management context.

But work has started to develop an ITIL-based process reference model that can serve as a basis for a process assessment model.

This is planned to become part 8 to the standard.

In addition there are methods available that adapt its use to various contexts.

ISO/IEC 15504 249 References [1] ISO/IEC 15504-2 Clause 5 [2] DTR, meaning Draft Technical Report [3] ISO/IEC 15504-2 Clause 6 [4] ISO/IEC 15504-2 Clause 7 [5] ISO/IEC 15504 part 3 [6] ISO/IEC 15504 parts 2 and 3 [7] ISO/IEC 15504-2 Clause 4 and ISO/IEC 15504-3 [8] van Loon, 2007a [9] van Loon, 2007b [10] ISO 15504-2 Clause 6.2 [11] ISO/IEC 15504-2 Clause 6.3 and ISO/IEC 15504-5 [12] ISO/IEC 15504-6 [13] ISO/IEC 15504-4 Clause 6 [14] ISO/IEC 15504-4 Clause 7 Further reading • ISO/IEC 15504-1:2004 Information technology Process assessment Part 1: Concepts and vocabulary • ISO/IEC 15504-2:2003 Information technology Process assessment Part 2: Performing an Assessment • ISO/IEC 15504-3:2004 Information technology Process assessment Part 3: Guidance on performing an assessment • ISO/IEC 15504-4:2004 Information technology Process assessment Part 4: Guidance on use for process improvement and process capability determination • ISO/IEC 15504-5:2006 Information technology Process Assessment Part 5: An exemplar Process Assessment Model • ISO/IEC PRF TR 15504-6 Information technology Process assessment Part 6: An exemplar system life cycle Process Assessment Model • ISO/IEC DTR 15504-7 Information technology Process assessment Part 7: Assessment of Organizational Maturity • van Loon, H.

(2007a) Process Assessment and ISO 15504 Springer ISBN 9780387300481 • van Loon, H.

(2007b) Process Assessment and Improvement Springer ISBN 9780387300443 External links • ISO 15504 News (isospice) ( • Página de la ISO/IEC 15504 SPICE en Castellano ( • Foro en Castellano de la ISO/IEC 15504 ( Itemid=81) • Automotive SPICE ( • Enterprise SPICE ( Iterative and incremental development

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ITIL and Accredited ITIL Foundation, Intermediate and Expert Certifications

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