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Consumer Devices

Address Resolution Protocol ARP Stuffing

This is a solution to an issue in network management of consumer devices, specifically the allocation of IP addresses of ethernet devices where 1) the user doesn’t have the ability to control DHCP or similar address allocation protocols, 2) the device doesn’t have a user interface to configure it, and 3) the user’s computer can’t communicate with it because it has no suitable IP address.

Communications protocol Standards organizations

The IEEE controls many software and hardware protocols in the electronics industry for commercial and consumer devices

Broadcom Consumer design components

Broadcom also provides components for a number of high-profile consumer devices:

Integrated Services Digital Network Basic Rate Interface

The S interface is a four-wire bus that ISDN consumer devices plug into; the S & T reference points are commonly implemented as a single interface labeled ‘S/T’ on an Network termination 1 (NT1).

Coaxial cable Uses

Micro coaxial cables are used in a range of consumer devices, military equipment, and also in ultra-sound scanning equipment.

Bluetooth Overview

Bluetooth v2.1 – finalized in 2007 with consumer devices first appearing in 2009 – makes significant changes to Bluetooth’s security, including pairing. See the pairing mechanisms section for more about these changes.

Galaxy Nexus

It is the third smartphone in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices built by an original equipment manufacturer partner

Linux for embedded systems – Devices coverage

Due to its low cost and ease of customization, Linux has been shipped in many consumer devices

Microprocessor – Embedded applications

Such products as cellular telephones, DVD video system and HDTV broadcast systems fundamentally require consumer devices with powerful, low-cost, microprocessors

Microprocessor – 8-bit designs

The Western Design Center, Inc (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several firms. It was used as the CPU in the Apple IIe and IIc personal computers as well as in medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrillators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices. WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor designs, later followed by ARM and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in the 1990s.

Crystal oscillator

Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cellphones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes.

Smart grid – Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing

It is thought that consumers and businesses will tend to consume less during high demand periods if it is possible for consumers and consumer devices to be aware of the high price premium for using electricity at peak periods

Sony – Audio encoding

Sony and Philips jointly developed the Sony-Philips digital interface format (S/PDIF) and the high-fidelity audio system SACD. The later has since been entrenched in a format war with DVD-Audio. At present, neither has gained a major foothold with the general public. CDs are preferred by consumers because of ubiquitous presence of CD drives in consumer devices.

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum – Civilian use

In the US, since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) amended rules to allow frequency hopping spread spectrum systems in the unregulated 2.4 GHz band, many consumer devices in that band have employed various spread-spectrum modes.

IEEE 1394 – Improvements (IEEE 1394a-2000)

1394a also standardized the 4-conductor alpha connector developed by Sony and trademarked as “i.LINK”, already widely in use on consumer devices such as camcorders, most PC laptops, a number of PC desktops, and other small FireWire devices. The 4-conductor connector is fully data-compatible with 6-conductor alpha interfaces but lacks power connectors.

Liquid-crystal display

They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones, and have replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications

Electrical engineering – Electronics

Prior to the second world war, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar, commercial radio and early television. Later, in post war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field grew to include modern television, audio systems, computers and microprocessors. In the mid-to-late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering.

Open Mobile Terminal Platform – Activities

OMTP is perhaps best known for its work in the field of mobile security, but its work encompassed the full range of mobile device capabilities. OMTP published recommendations in 2007 and early 2008 on areas such as Positioning Enablers, Advanced Device Management, IMS and Mobile VoIP. Later, the Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1 and its supporting document, ‘Security Threats on Embedded Consumer Devices’ were released, with the endorsement of the UK Home Secretary, Jacqui Smith.

Telenor – Operations

Telenor Comoyo offers video rental over internet, and is (in November 2012) working on their new service, View. Like Netflix, Comoyo View will be paid by monthly fee and supported on all major consumer devices except desktop Linux. Currently in closed beta testing, Comoyo hopes to launch View in late 2012, starting with Norway, Sweden and Denmark.

Tablet computer – Touchscreen hardware

Capacitive touchscreens tend to be less accurate, but more responsive than resistive devices. Because they require a conductive material, such as a finger tip, for input, they are not common among stylus-oriented devices, but are prominent on consumer devices.

History of Apple Inc. – Early-mid-1990s

In addition to computers, Apple has also produced consumer devices. In 1993, Apple released the Newton, an early personal digital assistant (PDA). It defined and launched the PDA category and was a forerunner and inspiration of devices such as Palm Pilot and Pocket PC.

Information Security Forum – The Standard of Good Practice for Information Security

The 2012 Standard covers current information security ‘hot topics’ such as consumer devices, critical infrastructure, cybercrime attacks, office equipment, spreadsheets and databases and cloud computing

AIBO – Aperios and Open-R

Aperios is Sony’s Proprietary Real-Time Operating System, used in all AIBOs, QRIO and some other consumer devices. Aperios OS was intended to be widely deployed using revolutionary real-time capabilities to handle multiple audio and visual data streams concurrently The Operating System was not widely adopted, and by 2003 Sony had stopped active development with COO Kunitake Ando commenting Aperios was an Operating System of a pre-Internet age and we decided that it isn’t adequate for the future.

Contour Crafting

Using a quick-setting, concrete-like material, contour crafting forms the house’s walls layer by layer until topped off by floors and ceilings set in place by the crane. The notional concept calls for the insertion of structural components, plumbing, wiring, utilities, and even consumer devices like audiovisual systems as the layers are built.

MSN TV – Microsoft takes notice

Gates called Perlman at his home on Easter Sunday in March 1997, and Perlman described to Gates WebTV’s next generation products in development, which would be the first consumer devices to incorporate hard disks, including the WebTV Plus, and the WebTV Digital Video Recorders

HTC Desire – Hardware

The phone uses a 1GHz Snapdragon (processor)|ARMv7 Snapdragon processor, includes a 5 megapixel auto-focus camera and an optical trackpad, and was among the first consumer devices to feature a large, full-color active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) display.

Apple system on a chip

Apple Inc. has developed a range of system on a chip|Systems on Chip (SoC) to power their mobile device|mobile consumer devices. In order to meet the stringent power and space constraints common to mobile devices, these SoCs combine a central processing unit (CPU) with other components into a single compact physical package.

Digital media player – History

Networked audio and DVD players were among the first consumer devices to integrate digital media player functionality

Android Open Accessory Development Kit – History

The Android Dev Phone is a Subscriber Identity Module|SIM-unlocked and hardware-unlocked device that is designed for advanced developers. While developers can use regular consumer devices purchased at retail to test and use their applications, some developers may choose not to use a retail device, preferring an unlocked or no-contract device.

3DO Interactive Multiplayer – Games

Also, digital video was of very low quality at the time, especially on low-cost consumer devices.

Android Dev Phone

The ‘Android Dev Phone’ (ADP) is a Subscriber Identity Module|SIM-unlocked and bootloader unlocked Android (Operating System)|Android device that is designed for advanced developers. While developers can use regular consumer devices purchased at retail to test and use their apps, some developers may choose not to use a retail device, preferring an unlocked or no-contract device. The Google Nexus series has now taken the role of development phones.

Phone connector (audio) – Recording equipment

Many small video cameras, laptops,recorders and other consumer devices use a 3.5mm microphone connector for attaching a (mono/stereo) microphone to the system.

Google TV – First generation

The first generation of consumer devices were produced by the following companies:

Google TV – Second generation

The second generation of consumer devices are being produced by the following companies:

Google TV – Third generation

The third generation of consumer devices are being produced by the following companies:

Interlaced – Interlace and computers

While consumer devices were permitted to create such signals, broadcast regulations prohibited TV stations from transmitting video like this

Nexus 10

It is the second tablet in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner

Nexus 7 (2012 version)

It is the first tablet in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner

Nexus 7 (2013 version)

It is the third tablet in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner

Samsung Galaxy Nexus

It is the third smartphone in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices built by an original equipment manufacturer partner

Magnetometer – Gaussmeters or Survey magnetometers

In recent years magnetometers have been miniaturized to the extent that they can be incorporated in integrated circuits at very low cost and are finding increasing use as compasses in consumer devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers.

Nexus 7 (2012 version) – Development phase

While he did not refer to it as such, the device was inferred to be part of the Google Nexus series of consumer devices using the Android (Operating System)|Android Operating System and built by an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) partner.

LCD

LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors, televisions, instrument panels, flight instruments|aircraft cockpit displays, and signage. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones, and have replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications.

Glass cockpit – In consumer, research, hobby recreational aviation

They demonstrate how the glass cockpit idea is being applied to consumer devices

Laser

They are used in common consumer devices such as DVD players, laser printers, and barcode scanners

CD+G – Players

Along with dedicated Karaoke machines, other consumer devices that play CD+G format CDs include the NEC TurboGrafx-16#TurboGrafx-CD|TurboGrafx-CD (a CD-ROM peripheral for the TurboGrafx-16|PC Engine/TurboGrafx-16) and Turbo Duo, the Philips CD-i, the Sega Saturn, Mega-CD, the JVC X’Eye, the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, the Amiga CD32 and Commodore CDTV, and the Atari Jaguar CD (which was an attachment for the Atari Jaguar). Some CD-ROM drives can also read this data.

Potential applications of carbon nanotubes – Coatings and Films

CNTs provide a less expensive alternative to ITO for a range of consumer devices. Besides cost, CNT’s flexible, transparent conductors offer an advantage over brittle ITO coatings for flexible displays. CNT conductors can be deposited from solution and patterned by methods such as screen printing. SWNT films offer 90% transparency and a sheet resistivity of 100 ohm per square. Such films are under development for thin-film heaters, such as for defrosting windows or sidewalks.

Polarizing organic photovoltaics – Background

A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, video display that uses the light modulating properties of Liquid Crystals|liquid crystals (LCs). LCs do not emit light directly. They are used in a wide range of applications, including computer monitors, television, instrument panels, laptops tablet computers etc. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones.

Power quality

‘Power quality’ determines the fitness of electrical power to consumer devices

Electrical engineer – Electronics

Prior to the second world war, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar, radio|commercial radio and television|early television. Later, in post war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field grew to include modern television, audio systems, computers and microprocessors. In the mid-to-late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering.

Ground (electricity) – Isolation

It is frequently used with low-power consumer devices, and when electronics engineers, hobbyists, or repairmen are working on circuits that would normally be operated using the power line voltage

Text display – Liquid crystal display

They are used in a wide range of applications, including computer monitors, television, instrument panels, flight instruments|aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones.

Rechargeable battery – Usage and applications

Rechargeable batteries are used for Car battery|automobile starters, portable consumer devices, light vehicles (such as wheelchair#Electric-powered wheelchairs|motorized wheelchairs, golf carts, electric bicycles, and electric forklifts), tools, and uninterruptible power supply|uninterruptible power supplies

Consumerization – Business implications

In a recent CSOOnline article by Joan Goodchild she reported a survey that found when asked what are the greatest barriers to enabling employees to use personal devices at work, 83 percent of IT respondents cited security concernsJoan Goodchild, Consumer device use is growing, but IT and security can’t keep up, www.csoonline.com/article/686087/consumer-device-use-is-growing-but-it-and-security-can-t-keep-up?page=1, 2011, Accessed 27/02/2012 This shortcoming may soon be remedied by the chip manufacturers with technologies such as Intel’s Trusted Execution Technology James Green Sham Datta, White Paper, Intel® Trusted Execution Technology, www.intel.com/technology/security/downloads/arch-overview.pdf, Intel, Accessed 27/02/2012 and ARM architecture|ARM’s Trust Zone White Paper, Building a Secure System using TrustZone® Technology, infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.prd29-genc-009492c/PRD29-GENC-009492C_trustzone_security_whitepaper.pdf, ARM, Accessed 27/02/2012—these technologies being designed to increase the trustworthiness of both enterprise and consumer devices.

Network-attached storage – Uses

Many of these home consumer devices are built around ARM architecture|ARM, PowerPC or MIPS architecture|MIPS processors running an embedded Linux Operating System.

Advanced Digital Broadcast – Products

The company’s solutions portfolio includes pay-TV set-top devices with the award-winning Carbo user interface; software for advanced pay-TV services, such as video on demand, multi-room video recording, interactive TV and internet applications; ready-to-deploy pay-TV solutions, including consumer devices, middleware, applications, services and scalable Cable television headend|head ends; broadband access gateway (telecommunications)|gateways and home networking devices; remote management software; and life-cycle and integration services.

ISDN – Basic Rate Interface

* The S interface is a four-wire bus that ISDN consumer devices plug into; the S T reference points are commonly implemented as a single interface labeled ‘S/T’ on an Network termination 1 (NT1).

LG Nexus 5

The successor to the Nexus 4, the device is the fifth smartphone in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner

Consumer IR – Standards

Sony manufactured a number of consumer devices of different types that share a common proprietary protocol, called S-link

Acorn Computers – NewsPad

In 1994 the EU initiated the NewsPad[http://cordis.europa.eu/esprit/src/omi09252.htm NEWSPAD (9252 )] program, with the aim of developing a common mechanism to author and deliver News electronically to consumer devices

USB memory stick – Third generation

It was announced in late 2008, but consumer devices were not available until the beginning of 2010

USB memory stick – Flash memory cards

Flash memory cards, e.g., Secure Digital cards, are available in various formats and capacities, and are used by many consumer devices. However, while virtually all PCs have USB ports, allowing the use of USB flash drives, memory card readers are not commonly supplied as standard equipment (particularly with desktop computers). Although inexpensive card readers are available that read many common formats, this results in two pieces of portable equipment (card plus reader) rather than one.

USB memory stick – Flash memory cards

An additional advantage of memory cards is that many consumer devices (e.g., digital cameras, portable music players) cannot make use of USB flash drives (even if the device has a USB port), whereas the memory cards used by the devices can be read by PCs with a card reader.

Inverter (electrical)

* Portable consumer devices that allow the user to connect a battery (electrical)|battery, or set of batteries, to the device to produce AC power to run various electrical items such as lights, televisions, kitchen appliances, and power tools.

Inverter (electrical) – Other notes

This design is also quite popular with smaller-scale consumer devices.web.eecs.utk.edu/~tolbert/publications/ecce_2011_bailu.pdfhttp://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot271.nsf/veritydisplay/369669d5dd6e8e6ec1257ba500293166/$file/70-78%202m315_EN_72dpi.pdf

Compact Flash

CompactFlash remains popular and is supported not only in many high end consumer devices, but in some professional applications as well

Compact Flash – File systems

CompactFlash cards for use in consumer devices are typically formatted as FAT12 (for media up to 16 MiB), FAT16 (for media up to 2 GiB, sometimes up to 4 GiB) and FAT32 (for media larger than 2 GiB). This lets the devices be read by personal computers but also suits the limited processing ability of some consumer devices such as digital camera|cameras.

Compact Flash – Compared to other portable storage

*CompactFlash is physically larger than other card formats. This limits its use, especially in miniature consumer devices where internal space is limited, such as point and shoot camera|point-and-shoot digital cameras. (An offsetting benefit of larger size is that the card is easier to insert and remove, and harder to misplace.)

HomeRF – Description

Initially called Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) and later just HomeRF, this open specification allowed PCs, peripherals, cordless phones and other consumer devices to share and communicate voice and data in and around the home without the complication and expense of running new wires

TV aerial plug – Belling-Lee

The ‘Belling-Lee connector’ or ‘IEC 169-2 connector’, known colloquially as ‘TV aerial plug’, ‘TV antenna connector’ or simply an ‘antenna plug’, is the traditional RF connector for European TV sets and FM broadcasting|FM / Digital Audio Broadcasting|DAB-radio receivers that connects them to a terrestrial VHF/UHF roof antenna (radio)|antenna, antenna amplifier, or CATV network via a coaxial cable. It is the oldest coaxial connector still commonly used in consumer devices.

Silicon Image – Products

The company sells semiconductor hardware and intellectual property (IP) products. Silicon Image’s products are deployed by electronics manufacturers in consumer devices like PCs, mobile phones, tablets and digital cameras.

Electricity market – Retail electricity market

On one side, consumer devices can bid for power based on how much the owner of the device were willing to pay, set ahead of time by the consumer

RCA connector – Disadvantages

For a time the 5-pin DIN connector was popular for bi-directional stereo connection between A/V equipment, but it has been entirely displaced on modern consumer devices

Smart power grid – Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing

It is thought that consumers and businesses will tend to consume less during high demand periods if it is possible for consumers and consumer devices to be aware of the high price premium for using electricity at peak periods

Low frequency – Standard time signals

In Europe and Japan, many low-cost consumer devices have since the late 1980s contained radio clocks with an LF receiver for these signals. Since these frequencies propagate by ground wave only, the precision of time signals is not affected by varying propagation paths between the transmitter, the ionosphere, and the receiver. In the United States, such devices became feasible for the mass market only after the output power of WWVB was increased in 1997 and 1999.

Optical coating – Types of coating

The versatility of dielectric coatings leads to their use in many scientific optical instruments (such as lasers, Microscope|optical microscopes, refracting telescopes, and interferometry|interferometers) as well as consumer devices such as binoculars, spectacles, and photographic lenses.

Digital Airways

Since early 2009, the founders decided to widen the market of Kaleido to move into all the domains using User Interfaces: automotive, consumer devices, industrial products.

UHF – United States

*433MHz: Short range consumer devices including automotive, alarm systems, home automation, temperature sensors

Serial port – Common applications for serial ports

* Updating Firmware on various consumer devices.

GPS navigation device – Military

Consumer devices were restricted by Error analysis for the Global Positioning System#Selective availability|selective availability (SA), which was scheduled to be phased out but was removed abruptly by President Clinton.[http://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/modernization/sa/ Selective Availability] Differential GPS is a method of cancelling out the error of SA and improving GPS accuracy, and has been routinely available in commercial applications such as for golf carts.[http://www.leaderboard.com/ABOUTGPS.htm GPS and Golf] GPS is limited to about 15 meter accuracy even without SA

Portable Media Center

The platform was conceived in line with Microsoft’s Windows Media Center strategy, where the idea was to have a single media management interface that would be used on both PCs and in consumer devices, including televisions and handhelds

Wind River Systems – Wind River Linux

They added other platforms in subsequent releases, General Purpose Platform – Linux Edition (GPP-LE) and Platform for Consumer Devices – Linux Edition PCD-LE) starting in version 1.4.

CppCMS

It may also be used for Embedded system|embedded web applications for consumer devices (such as administration consoles for Router (computing)|routers, smart devices, etc.) The library is available under

ExFAT – Licensing

Companies can integrate exFAT into a specific group of consumer devices, including cameras, camcorders, and digital photo frames for a flat fee. Mobile phones, PCs, and networks have a different volume pricing model.

FireWire – Improvements (IEEE 1394a-2000)

1394a also standardized the 4-conductor alpha connector developed by Sony and trademarked as ‘i.LINK’, already widely in use on consumer devices such as camcorders, most PC laptops, a number of PC desktops, and other small FireWire devices. The 4-conductor connector is fully data-compatible with 6-conductor alpha interfaces but lacks power connectors.

Standard of Good Practice

The recently published 2011 Standard is the most significant update of the standard for four years. It includes information security ‘hot topics’ such as consumer devices, critical infrastructure, cybercrime attacks, office equipment, spreadsheets and databases and cloud computing.

Standard of Good Practice

The 2011 Standard is aligned with the requirements for an Information Security Management System (ISMS) set out in ISO/IEC 27000-series standards, and provides wider and deeper coverage of ISO/IEC 27002 control topics, as well as cloud computing, information leakage, consumer devices and security governance.

IMac – Influence

Apple’s use of translucent candy-colored plastics inspired similar designs in other consumer devices

Tablet computers – Touchscreen hardware

* capacitive sensing|Capacitive touchscreens tend to be less accurate, but more responsive than resistive devices. Because they require a conductive material, such as a finger tip, for input, they are not common among stylus-oriented devices, but are prominent on consumer devices.

Content Reference Identifier – In web casting

To make the CRID even more globally available the IETF will publish a request for comments specifying the use of the CRID over the web. This will allow consumer devices to hook up to content provider servers, much like current browsers look up webservers, requesting content by CRID.

Content Reference Identifier – In web casting

The long-term goal is that CRIDs should be available for use by cell phones, Personal digital assistant|PDAs, Digital television|digital TV Set-top box|receivers and other Consumer electronics|consumer devices for fetching content, either from a broadcast stream or over Internet Protocol|IP-based computer network|networks.

Power electronics – Grid voltage regulation

Smart grid-based regulators are more controllable than far more numerous consumer devices.

Microprocessors – Embedded applications

Such products as cellular telephones, DVD video system and HDTV broadcast systems fundamentally require consumer devices with powerful, low-cost, microprocessors

Microprocessors – 8-bit designs

Western Design Center|The Western Design Center, Inc (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several firms. It was used as the CPU in the Apple IIe and Apple IIc|IIc personal computers as well as in medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrillators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices. WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor designs, later followed by ARM architecture|ARM and other microprocessor intellectual property (IP) providers in the 1990s.

Psion

Formed in 1980, Psion achieved its first successes as a consumer hardware company that developed the revolutionary Psion Organiser as well as a whole range of more advanced, clamshell-design Personal Digital Assistants. Psion closed, or disposed of, all its previous operations and is now focused on rugged mobile computing solutions. It withdrew from the consumer devices marketplace in 2001. It was announced on 15 June 2012 that Motorola Solutions had agreed to buy the company for $200 million.

ARM Cortex-A8

Compared to the ARM11 core, the Cortex-A8 is a dual-issue superscalar design, achieving roughly twice the instructions per cycle|instructions executed per clock cycle. The Cortex-A8 was the first Cortex design to be adopted on a large scale for use in consumer devices.

Apparent Networks – Technology

[http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9228775/With_explosion_of_consumer_devices_IT_finds_greater_need_for_network_management_tools_ With explosion of consumer devices, IT finds greater need for network management tools]

Headphone jack – Recording equipment

Many small video cameras, laptops, recorders and other consumer devices use a 3.5mm microphone connector for attaching a (mono/stereo) microphone to the system.

Motion JPEG – Digital cameras

Prior to the recent rise in MPEG-4 encoding in consumer devices, a progressive scan form of M-JPEG saw widespread use in the “movie” modes of digital still cameras, allowing video encoding and playback through the integrated JPEG compression hardware with only a software modification

Flash drives – Third generation

Like USB2.0 before it, USB3.0 offers dramatically improved data transfer rates compared to its predecessor. It was announced in late 2008, but consumer devices were not available until the beginning of 2010. The USB3.0 interface specifies transfer rates up to 5Gbit/s (625MB/s), compared to USB2.0’s 480Mbit/s (60MB/s).

Northeast – Satellite navigation

GPSR functionality is becoming more commonly added to other consumer devices such as mobile phones

CompactFlash

CompactFlash remains popular and is supported by many professional devices and high end consumer devices

CompactFlash – File systems

CompactFlash cards for use in consumer devices are typically formatted as FAT12 (for media up to 16 MB), FAT16 (for media up to 2 GB, sometimes up to 4 GB) and FAT32 (for media larger than 2 GB). This lets the devices be read by personal computers but also suits the limited processing ability of some consumer devices such as digital camera|cameras.

Sony EMCS – Audio encoding

Sony and Philips jointly developed the Sony-Philips digital interface format (S/PDIF) and the high-fidelity audio system Super Audio CD|SACD. The later has since been entrenched in a format war with DVD-Audio. At present, neither has gained a major foothold with the general public. CDs are preferred by consumers because of ubiquitous presence of CD drives in consumer devices.

Professional video camera – ENG cameras

* Recording is to a professional medium like some variant of Betacam or DVCPRO or Direct to disk recording or flash memory. If as in the latter two, it’s a data recording, much higher data rates (or less video compression) are used than in consumer devices.

Antenna socket – Belling-Lee

It is the oldest coaxial connector still commonly used in consumer devices.

Burned-in address – Address details

Every device that connects to an IEEE 802 network (such as Ethernet and WiFi) has a MAC-48 address. Common consumer devices to use MAC-48 include every PC, smartphone or tablet computer.

CIPURSE – Specification

With its modular “onion-layered” design, the CIPURSE standard can be easily enhanced in the future with additional functionality and new profiles created to address changes in technology and business.The CIPURSE V2 specification enables technology suppliers to develop and deliver innovative, more secure and interoperable transit fare collection solutions for cards, stickers, fobs, mobile phones and other consumer devices, as well as infrastructure components.

Rotary encoder – Incremental rotary encoder

The mechanical type requires debouncing and is typically used as digital potentiometers on equipment including consumer devices

LCD displays

LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors, televisions, Dashboard|instrument panels, flight instruments|aircraft cockpit displays, and signage. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones, and have replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications.

OASIS SOA Reference Model – SOA Example

* In order to use the electricity, a consumer needs to understand what type of plug to use, what is the voltage of the supply, and possible limits to the load; the utility presumes that the customer will only connect devices that are compatible with the voltage provided and load supported; and the consumer in turn assumes that compatible consumer devices can be connected without damage or harm (service technical assumptions).

High-Definition Audio-Video Network Alliance – Benefits of HANA

:By creating a secure home network environment that respects the rights of content owners, multichannel video service providers and broadcasters, HANA can give consumers flexible and convenient access to more high-value HD content. In particular, the incorporation of digital rights management (DRM) and watermark verification of copyrighted content in the HANA architecture are key to ensuring that HD content can flow seamlessly across a wide range of consumer devices.

Electronic packaging

Mass-market consumer devices may have highly specialized packaging to increase consumer appeal

Online distribution – Challenges

Streaming media|Streaming services can have several drawbacks: requiring a constant Internet connection to use content; the restriction of some content to never be stored locally; the restriction of content from being transferred to physical media; and the enabling of greater censorship at the discretion of owners of content, infrastructure, and consumer devices.

Band IV – United Kingdom

However, in the mid-1990s the squeezing of analogue Five (TV channel)|Channel 5 broadcasts into the existing national terrestrial TV transmitter network effectively closed a gap between bands IV and V, which was previously reserved for radar applications and home consumer devices

Downloadable Conditional Access System

The basic purpose of DCAS was to implement DRM protection in software, supported by future OCAP-compliant consumer devices such as digital televisions, digital video recorder|DVRs, and set-top boxes (still required to support legacy non-OCAP-compliant devices)

Cable-ready – Digital cable

‘Interactive digital cable ready’ or ‘iDCR’ extends DCR. Unlike the DCR standard, iDCR supports interactive television|interactive customer features such as electronic program guides, pay-per-view and video on demand. Consumer devices which support iDCR also support the new OpenCable Application Platform (OCAP) standard developed by CableLabs.

LightWave 3D – History

The virtual studio system was also enhanced to support a LightWave 3D group-authored add-on called NevronMotion, enabling direct motion capture (full body and facial) using consumer devices such as the Kinect (on Windows only) and retargeting via a simplified user interface

Laser beam

They are used in common consumer devices such as optical disk drives, laser printers, and barcode scanners

Nexus 6

The ‘Nexus6’ (codenamed ‘Shamu’) is a phablet co-developed by Google and Motorola that runs the Android (operating system)|Android operating system. The successor to the Nexus 5, the device is the sixth smartphone in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner.

Gary Crittenden – Career

Petersburg, Florida, Jabil Aftermarket Services stands as the top aftermarket services provider in industries such as consumer devices, mobility, telecommunications, medical devices, and computing

Nexus 9

It is the fourth tablet in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner

Nexus Player

The ‘Nexus Player’ is a digital media player co-developed by Google and Asus. It is the second media player in the Google Nexus family of consumer devices. Running the Android Lollipop|Android 5.0 (Lollipop) operating system, it will be the first device to employ the Android TV platform. The Nexus player supports Google Cast, the feature for selecting and controlling media playback on a television that was first introduced by Chromecast.

Beghilos – Programmable devices

Many consumer devices including digital cameras resort to variants of calculator spelling in order to display diagnostic or status information in non-alphanumeric displays

Television in Japan – Satellite television

Later, NHK started regular service (NTSC) and experimental HDTV broadcasting using BS-2b in June 1989. Some Japanese producers of home electronic consumer devices began to deliver Television|TV sets, VCRs and even home acoustic systems equipped by built-in satellite Antenna tuner|tuners or Receiver (radio)|receivers. Such electronic goods had a specific Broadcasting Satellite (Japanese)|BS logo.

History of Apple – Early-mid-1990s

In addition to computers, Apple has also produced consumer devices. In 1993, Apple released the Newton (platform)|Newton, an early personal digital assistant (PDA). It defined and launched the PDA category and was a forerunner and inspiration of devices such as Palm Pilot and Pocket PC.

Laser construction – Gain medium / Laser medium

*Semiconductors, a type of solid, crystal with uniform dopant distribution or material with differing dopant levels in which the movement of electrons can cause laser action. Semiconductor lasers are typically very small, and can be pumped with a simple electric current, enabling them to be used in consumer devices such as compact disc players. See laser diode.

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