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Chip

Advanced Micro Devices ARM architecture-based chip

AMD intends to release ARM System on Chips (SoC) that will begin sampling in early 2014 and release later in the year. They will be for use in servers as a low-power alternative to current x86 chips. The ARM architecture is codenamed “Seattle” and will be 64 bit ARM processors, based on the Cortex A57 core design (ARM v8), and will contain 8 and 16 cores each. They will include the proprietary SeaMicro “Freedom Fabric”, as well as support for 128 GB RAM, and ten gigabit Ethernet.

Advanced Micro Devices AMD chipsets

This was the “Open Platform Management Architecture” with ATI, VIA and SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon 64 processors and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including the Quad FX platform chipset from Nvidia.

Advanced Micro Devices AMD chipsets

The initiative went further with the release of Opteron server processors as AMD stopped the design of server chipsets in 2004 after releasing the AMD-8111 chipset, and again opened the server platform for firms to develop chipsets for Opteron processors. As of today, Nvidia and Broadcom are the sole designing firms of server chipsets for Opteron processors.

Advanced Micro Devices AMD chipsets

Although AMD states the firm will still produce Intel chipsets, Intel had not granted the license of 1333 MHz FSB to ATI.

Advanced Micro Devices AMD chipsets

Discrete graphics chipsets were launched on November 15, 2007 as part of the codenamed Spider desktop platform, and IGP chipsets were launched at a later time in Spring 2008 as part of the codenamed Cartwheel platform.

Advanced Micro Devices AMD chipsets

AMD returned to the server chipsets market with the AMD 800S series server chipsets. It includes support for up to six SATA 6.0 Gbit/s ports, the C6 power state, which is featured in Fusion processors and AHCI 1.2 with SATA FIS–based switching support. This is a chipset family supporting Phenom processors and Quad FX enthusiast platform (890FX), IGP(890GX).

Chipset

A chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit that manage the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals. It is usually found in the motherboard of a computer. Chipsets are usually designed to work with a specific family of microprocessors. Because it controls communications between the processor and external devices, the chipset plays a crucial role in determining system performance.

Chipset

In computing, the term chipset is commonly used to refer to a set of specialized chips on a computer’s motherboard or an expansion card. In personal computers, the first chipset for the IBM PC AT was the NEAT chipset by Chips and Technologies for the Intel 80286 CPU.

Chipset

In home computers, game consoles and arcade game hardware of the 1980s and 1990s, the term chipset was used for the custom audio and graphics chips. Examples include the Commodore Amiga’s Original Chip Set or SEGA’s System 16 chipset.

Chipset

Based on Intel Pentium-class microprocessors, the term chipset often refers to a specific pair of chips on the motherboard: the northbridge and the southbridge. The northbridge links the CPU to very high-speed devices, especially RAM and graphics controllers, and the southbridge connects to lower-speed peripheral buses (such as PCI or ISA). In many modern chipsets, the southbridge contains some on-chip integrated peripherals, such as Ethernet, USB, and audio devices.

Chipset

The manufacturer of a chipset often is independent from the manufacturer of the motherboard. Current manufacturers of chipsets for x86 motherboards include AMD, Broadcom, Intel, NVIDIA, SiS and VIA Technologies. Apple computers and Unix workstations have traditionally used custom-designed chipsets. Some server manufacturers also develop custom chipsets for their products.

Chipset

In the 1980s, Chips and Technologies pioneered the manufacturing of chipsets for PC-compatible computers. Computer systems produced since then often share commonly used chipsets, even across widely disparate computing specialties. For example, the NCR 53C9x, a low-cost chipset implementing a SCSI interface to storage devices, could be found in Unix machines such as the MIPS Magnum, embedded devices, and personal computers.

Chipset Move toward processor integration in PCs

This made processor performance highly dependent on the system chipset – especially the northbridge’s memory performance and ability to shuttle this information back to the processor.

Chipset Move toward processor integration in PCs

As fewer functions are left un-handled by the processor itself, chipset venders have condensed the remaining north and southbridge functions into a single chip

Amiga Custom chipset

In addition, some models featured auxiliary custom chips which performed tasks such as SCSI control and display de-interlacing.

BIOS – Chips

Flash chips are programmed (and re-programmed) in-circuit, while EPROM chips need to be removed from the motherboard for re-programming

BIOS – Chips

Beginning with the IBM AT, PCs supported a hardware clock settable through BIOS. It had a century bit which allowed for manually changing the century when the year 2000 happened. Most BIOS revisions created in 1995 and nearly all BIOS revisions in 1997 supported the year 2000 by setting the century bit automatically when the clock rolled past midnight, December 31, 1999.

BIOS – Chips

The first flash chips were attached to the ISA bus. Starting in 1997, the BIOS flash moved to the LPC bus, a functional replacement for ISA, following a new standard implementation known as “firmware hub” (FWH). In 2006, the first systems supporting a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) appeared, and the BIOS flash memory moved again.

BIOS – Chips

The size of the BIOS, and the capacities of the ROM, EEPROM and other media it may be stored on, has increased over time as new features have been added to the code; BIOS versions now exist with sizes up to 16 megabytes

BIOS – Chips

Some manufacturers used an EPROM version of this chip which resembled an EPROM

BIOS – BIOS chip vulnerabilities

EEPROM chips are advantageous because they could be easily updated by the user; hardware manufacturers frequently issue BIOS updates to upgrade their products, improve compatibility and remove bugs

Intel 8086 – Chip versions

The clock frequency was originally limited to 5 MHz (IBM PC used 4.77 MHz, 4/3 the standard NTSC color burst frequency), but the last versions in HMOS were specified for 10 MHz. HMOS-III and CMOS versions were manufactured for a long time (at least a while into the 1990s) for embedded systems, although its successor, the 80186/80188 (which includes some on-chip peripherals), has been more popular for embedded use.

Intel 8086 – Chip versions

The 80C86, the CMOS version of the 8086, was used in the GRiDPad, Toshiba T1200, HP 110, and finally the 1998-1999 Lunar Prospector.

Intel – Server chips

In July 2011, Intel announced that its server chips, the Xeon series, will use new sensors that can improve data center cooling efficiency.

ETRAX CRIS – Types of chips

The TGA-1, developed in 1986, was a communications transceiver for the AS/400 architecture.

ETRAX CRIS – Types of chips

The CGA-1 was just a performance improvement over the TGA-1.

Three-dimensional integrated circuit – Notable 3D chips

The chip was manufactured with two dies using face-to-face stacking, which allowed a dense via structure

Three-dimensional integrated circuit – Notable 3D chips

The Teraflops Research Chip introduced in 2007 by Intel is an experimental 80-core design with stacked memory. Due to the high demand for memory bandwidth, a traditional I/O approach would consume 10 to 25 W. To improve upon that, Intel designers implemented a TSV-based memory bus. Each core is connected to one memory tile in the SRAM die with a link that provides 12 GB/s bandwidth, resulting in a total bandwidth of 1 TB/s while consuming only 2.2 W.

Three-dimensional integrated circuit – Notable 3D chips

One challenge in manufacturing of the three-dimensional chip was to make all of the layers work in harmony without any obstacles that would interfere with a piece of information traveling from one layer to another.

Three-dimensional integrated circuit – Notable 3D chips

In ISSCC 2012, two 3D-IC-based multi-core designs using GlobalFoundries’ 130 nm process and Tezzazon’s FaStack technology were presented and demonstrated

Integrated circuit – Chip labeling and manufacture date

Most integrated circuits large enough to include identifying information include four common sections: the manufacturer’s name or logo, the part number, a part production batch number and/or serial number, and a four-digit code that identifies when the chip was manufactured. Extremely small surface mount technology parts often bear only a number used in a manufacturer’s lookup table to find the chip characteristics.

Integrated circuit – Chip labeling and manufacture date

The manufacturing date is commonly represented as a two-digit year followed by a two-digit week code, such that a part bearing the code 8341 was manufactured in week 41 of 1983, or approximately in October 1983.

Integrated circuit – Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts

Integrated circuit layout design protection

Integrated circuit – Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts

Like most of the other forms of intellectual property, IC layout designs are creations of the human mind

Integrated circuit – Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts

The possibility of copying by photographing each layer of an integrated circuit and preparing photomasks for its production on the basis of the photographs obtained is the main reason for the introduction of legislation for the protection of layout-designs.

Integrated circuit – Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts

A diplomatic conference was held at Washington, D.C., in 1989, which adopted a Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits (IPIC Treaty).

Integrated circuit – Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts

The Treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of Integrated Circuits, also called Washington Treaty or IPIC Treaty (signed at Washington on 26 May 1989) is currently not in force, but was partially integrated into the TRIPS agreement.

Integrated circuit – Legal protection of semiconductor chip layouts

National laws protecting IC layout designs have been adopted in a number of countries.

Chip (CDMA)

In digital communications, a chip is a pulse of a direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code, such as a pseudo-noise code sequence used in direct-sequence code division multiple access (CDMA) channel access techniques.

Chip (CDMA)

In a binary direct-sequence system, each chip is typically a rectangular pulse of +1 or –1 amplitude, which is multiplied by a data sequence (similarly +1 or –1 representing the message bits) and by a carrier waveform to make the transmitted signal. The chips are therefore just the bit sequence out of the code generator; they are called chips to avoid confusing them with message bits.

Chip (CDMA)

The chip rate of a code is the number of pulses per second (chips per second) at which the code is transmitted (or received). The chip rate is larger than the symbol rate, meaning that one symbol is represented by multiple chips. The ratio is known as the spreading factor (SF) or processing gain:

Chip (CDMA) – Orthogonal variable spreading factor

Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) is an implementation of Code division multiple access (CDMA) where before each signal is transmitted, the signal is spread over a wide spectrum range through the use of a user’s code. Users’ codes are carefully chosen to be mutually orthogonal to each other.

Chip (CDMA) – Orthogonal variable spreading factor

These codes are derived from an OVSF code tree, and each user is given a different, unique code. An OVSF code tree is a complete binary tree that reflects the construction of Hadamard matrices.

Thermal copper pillar bump – A brief history of solder and flip chip/chip scale packaging

This system became known as the controlled collapse chip connection (C3 or C4).

Thermal copper pillar bump – A brief history of solder and flip chip/chip scale packaging

Around this time, Delco sought to commercialize its technology and formed Flip Chip Technologies with Kulicke & Soffa as a partner

Thermal copper pillar bump – A brief history of solder and flip chip/chip scale packaging

(where the package wiring had been transferred to the chip, and after bumping, they were ready to be placed).

Thermal copper pillar bump – A brief history of solder and flip chip/chip scale packaging

One of the issues with the CSP type of package (which was intended to be soldered directly to an FR4 or flex circuit) was that for high-density interconnects, the soft solder bump provided less of a stand-off as the solder bump diameter and pitch were decreased

Thermal copper pillar bump – A brief history of solder and flip chip/chip scale packaging

Today, flip chip is a well established technology and collapsed soft solder connections are used in the vast majority of assemblies. Interestingly, the copper post stand-off developed for the CSP market has found a home in high-density interconnects for advanced micro-processors and is used today by IBM for its CPU packaging.

Infineon Technologies – Chip Card & Security (CCS)

The CCS business provides microcontrollers for mobile phone SIM cards, payment cards, security chips and chip-based solutions for passports, identity cards and other official documents. Infineon delivers a significant number of chips for the new German identity card. In addition, CCS provides solutions for applications with high security requirements such as pay television and Trusted Computing. CSS achieved € 457 million in fiscal year 2010.

Digital Light Processing – Single-chip projectors

In a projector with a single DLP chip, colors are produced either by placing a color wheel between a white lamp and the DLP chip or by using individual light sources to produce the primary colors, LEDs or lasers for example

Digital Light Processing – Single-chip projectors

The DLP chip is synchronized with the rotating motion of the color wheel so that the green component is displayed on the DMD when the green section of the color wheel is in front of the lamp. The same is true for the red, blue and other sections. The colors are thus displayed sequentially at a sufficiently high rate that the observer sees a composite “full color” image. In early models, this was one rotation per frame. Now, most systems operate at up to 10x the frame rate.

Digital Light Processing – Three-chip projectors

A three-chip DLP projector uses a prism to split light from the lamp, and each primary color of light is then routed to its own DLP chip, then recombined and routed out through the lens. Three chip systems are found in higher-end home theater projectors, large venue projectors and DLP Cinema projection systems found in digital movie theaters.

Digital Light Processing – Three-chip projectors

In contrast, it is the one-chip DLP projectors that have the advantage of allowing any number of primary colors in a sufficiently fast color filter wheel, and so the possibility of improved color gamuts is available.

Nanorobotics – Biochip

The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials provides a possible approach to manufacturing nanorobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery. This method for manufacturing on nanotechnology scale is currently in use in the electronics industry. So, practical nanorobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation.

Organ-on-a-chip

The convergence of Lab-on-Chips (LOCs) and cell biology has permitted the study of human physiology in an organ-specific context, introducing a novel model of in vitro multicellular human organisms

Organ-on-a-chip

Although multiple publications claim to have translated organ functions onto this interface, the movement towards this microfluidic application is still in its infancy. Organs-on-chips will vary in design and approach between different researchers. As such, validation and optimization of these systems will likely be a long process. Organs that have been simulated by microfluidic devices include the heart, the lung, kidney, artery, bone, cartilage, skin and more.

Organ-on-a-chip

A common concern with Organs-on-Chips lies in the isolation of organs during testing

Organ-on-a-chip – Brief Overview of Lab-on-Chips (LOCs)

A Lab-on-a-Chip is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip that deals with handling particles in hollow microfluidic channels

Organ-on-a-chip – Transitioning from 3D Cell-Culture Models to Organs-on-Chips

Organs-on-Chips are referred to as the next wave of 3D cell-culture models that mimic whole living organs’ biological activities, dynamic mechanical properties and biochemical functionalities.

Organ-on-a-chip – Lung-on-a-Chip

Lung-on-a-chips are being designed in an effort to improve the physiological relevance of existing in vitro alveolar-capillary interface models. Such a multifunctional microdevice can reproduce key structural, functional and mechanical properties of the human alveolar-capillary interface (i.e., the fundamental functional unit of the living lung).

Organ-on-a-chip – Lung-on-a-Chip

Dongeun Huh from Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard describes their fabrication of a system containing two closely apposed microchannels separated by a thin (10µm) porous flexible membrane made of PDMS

Organ-on-a-chip – Lung-on-a-Chip

The compartmentalization of the channels facilitates not only the flow of air as a fluid which delivers cells and nutrients to the apical surface of the epithelium, but also allows for pressure differences to exist between the middle and side channels

Organ-on-a-chip – Lung-on-a-Chip

In order to fully validate the biological accuracy of a device, its whole-organ responses must be evaluated. In this instance, researchers inflicted injuries to the cells:

Organ-on-a-chip – Lung-on-a-Chip

Pulmonary inflammatory responses entail a multistep strategy, but alongside an increased production of epithelial cells and an early response release of cytokines, the interface should undergo an increased number of leukocyte adhesion molecules

Organ-on-a-chip – Lung-on-a-Chip

Living E-coli bacteria was used to demonstrate how the system can even mimic the innate cellular response to a bacterial pulmonary infection. The bacteria were introduced onto the apical surface of the alveolar epithelium. Within hours, neutrophils were detected in the alveolar compartment, meaning they had transmigrated from the vascular microchannel where the porous membrane had phagocytized the bacteria.

Organ-on-a-chip – Lung-on-a-Chip

Nevertheless, published studies admit that responses of a lung-on-a-chip don’t yet fully reproduce the responses of native alveolar epithelial cells.

Organ-on-a-chip – Heart-on-a-Chip

Past efforts to replicate in vivo cardiac tissue environments have proven to be challenging due to difficulties when mimicking contractility and electrophysiological responses. Such features would greatly increase the accuracy of in vitro experiments.

Organ-on-a-chip – Heart-on-a-Chip

Another lab-on-a-chip similarly combined a microfluidic network in PDMS with planar microelectrodes, this time to measure extracellular potentials from single adult murine cardiomyocytes.

Organ-on-a-chip – Heart-on-a-Chip

This heart-on-a-chip is a biohybrid construct: an engineered anisotropic ventricular myocardium is an elastomeric thin film.

Organ-on-a-chip – Heart-on-a-Chip

The design and fabrication process of this particular microfluidic device entails first covering the edges of a glass surface with tape (or any protective film) such as to contour the substrate’s desired shape

Organ-on-a-chip – Heart-on-a-Chip

Researchers have developed a correlation between tissue stress and the radius of curvature of the MTF strips during the contractile cycle, validating the demonstrated chip as a “platform for quantification of stress, electrophysiology and cellular architecture.”

Organ-on-a-chip – Kidney-on-a-Chip

A kidney-on-a-chip device has the potential to accelerate research encompassing artificial replacement for lost kidney function

Organ-on-a-chip – Kidney-on-a-Chip

The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is composed of a glomerulus and a tubular component. Researchers at MIT claim to have designed a bioartificial device that replicates the function of the nephron’s glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule and loop of Henle.

Organ-on-a-chip – Kidney-on-a-Chip

Each part of the device has its unique design, generally consisting of two microfabricated layers separated by a membrane

Organ-on-a-chip – Kidney-on-a-Chip

In the tubules, some substances are added to the filtrate as part of the urine formation, and some substances reabsorbed out of the filtrate and back into the blood

Organ-on-a-chip – Kidney-on-a-Chip

One step towards validating the microfluidic device’s simulation of the full filtration and reabsorption behavior of a physiological nephron would include demonstrating that the transport properties between blood and filtrate are identical with regards to where they occur and what is being let in by the membrane

Organ-on-a-chip – Artery-on-a-Chip

Cardiovascular diseases are often caused by changes in structure and function of small blood vessels

Organ-on-a-chip – Artery-on-a-Chip

Conventional methods used to examine intrinsic properties of isolated resistance vessels (arterioles and small arteries with diameters varying between 30 µm and 300 µm) include the pressure myography technique. However, such methods currently require manually skilled personnel and are not scalable. An artery-on-a-chip could overcome several of these limitations by accommodating an artery onto a platform which would be scalable, inexpensive and possibly automated in its manufacturing.

Organ-on-a-chip – Artery-on-a-Chip

An organ-based microfluidic platform has been developed as a lab-on-a-chip onto which a fragile blood vessel can be fixed, allowing for determinants of resistance artery malfunctions to be studied.

Organ-on-a-chip – Artery-on-a-Chip

The artery microenvironment is characterized by surrounding temperature, transmural pressure, and luminal & abluminal drug concentrations

Organ-on-a-chip – Artery-on-a-Chip

A thermoelectric heater and a thermoresistor are connected to the chip and maintain physiological temperatures at the artery inspection area.

Organ-on-a-chip – Artery-on-a-Chip

The protocol of loading and securing the tissue sample into the inspection zone helps understand how this approach acknowledges whole organ functions

Organ-on-a-chip – Human-on-a-Chip

Researchers are working towards building a multi-channel 3D microfluidic cell culture system that compartmentalizes microenvironments in which 3D cellular aggregates are cultured to mimic multiple organs in the body. Most organ-on-a-chip models today only culture one cell type, so even though they may be valid models for studying whole organ functions, the systemic effect of a drug on the human body is not verified.

Organ-on-a-chip – Human-on-a-Chip

Optimized standard media are generally targeted to one specific cell-type, whereas a human-on-a-chip will evidently require a common medium (CM)

Organ-on-a-chip – Human-on-a-Chip

Designing whole body biomimetic devices addresses a major reservation that pharmaceutical companies have towards organs-on-chips, namely the isolation of organs

Organ-on-a-chip – Replacing Animal Testing with Organs-on-Chips

In the early phase of drug development, animal models were the only way of obtaining in vivo data that would predict the human pharmacokinetic responses

Organ-on-a-chip – Replacing Animal Testing with Organs-on-Chips

The development of MEMS-based biochips that reproduce complex organ-level pathological responses could revolutionize many fields, including toxicology and the developmental process of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics that rely on animal testing and clinical trials.

Intel 4004 – Support chips

4001: 256-byte ROM (256 8-bit program instructions), and one built-in 4-bit I/O port. A 4001 ROM+I/O chip cannot be used in a system along with a 4008/4009 pair.

Intel 4004 – Support chips

4002: 40-byte RAM (80 4-bit data words), and one built-in 4-bit output port; the RAM portion of the chip is organized into four “registers” of 20 4-bit words:

Intel 4004 – Support chips

16 data words (used for mantissa digits in the original calculator design)

Intel 4004 – Support chips

4 status words (used for exponent digits and signs in the original calculator design)

Intel 4004 – Support chips

4003: 10-bit parallel output shift register for scanning keyboards, displays, printers, etc.

Intel 4004 – Support chips

4008: 8-bit address latch for access to standard memory chips, and one built-in 4-bit chip select and I/O port

Intel 4004 – Support chips

4289: memory interface (combined functions of 4008 and 4009)

Bluetooth low energy – Chip

Bluetooth LE integrated circuit implementations were announced by a number of manufacturers (Broadcom, Texas Instruments, CSR and Nordic Semiconductor), starting in late 2009. Commonly, these implementations use software radio, so that updates to the specification can be accommodated through a device firmware upgrade.

MediaTek – Closed nature of system-on-chip solutions

A petition was launched on February, 2013, to ask MediaTek to provide support for AOSP and custom ROMs.

Proteomics – Protein Chips

The global ICAT technology has striking advantages over protein chip technologies.

Apple system on a chip

Apple Inc. has developed a range of system on a chip|Systems on Chip (SoC) to power their mobile device|mobile consumer devices. In order to meet the stringent power and space constraints common to mobile devices, these SoCs combine a central processing unit (CPU) with other components into a single compact physical package.

Apple system on a chip – Early series

Prior to the introduction of the Apple A series of SoCs, Apple used several SoCs in early revisions of the iPhone and iPod Touch. They were specified by Apple and manufactured by Samsung. They integrate a single ARM architecture|ARM-based processing core (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU), and other electronics necessary to provide mobile computing functions within a single physical package.

Apple system on a chip – Early series

The ‘APL0098’ (also 8900B or S5L8900) is a package on package (PoP) system on a chip (SoC) that was introduced on June 29, 2007 at the launch of the iPhone (1st generation)|original iPhone. It includes a 412MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU. It is manufactured by Samsung on a 90 nm semiconductor device fabrication|process.

Apple system on a chip – Early series

The ‘APL0278’ (also S5L8720) is a package on package (PoP) system on a chip (SoC) that was introduced on September 9, 2008 at the launch of the iPod touch|second generation iPod touch. It includes a 533MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU. It is manufactured by Samsung on a 65 nm process.

Apple system on a chip – Early series

The ‘APL0298’ (also S5L8920) is a package on package (PoP) system on a chip (SoC) that was introduced on June 8, 2009 at the launch of the iPhone 3GS. It includes a 600MHz single-core ARM Cortex-A8|Cortex-A8 CPU and a PowerVR SGX535 GPU. It is manufactured by Samsung on a 65nm process. A 45 nm die shrink|die shrunk version of this SoC, the ‘APL2298’ (also S5L8922), was introduced on September 9, 2009 at the launch of the iPod touch|third generation iPod touch.

Apple system on a chip – A series

The Apple A series is a family of system on a chip|Systems on Chip (SoC) used in the iPhone, iPad, iPod, and Apple TV

Apple system on a chip – Apple A4

The chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple’s iPad tablet computer|tablet; followed shortly by the iPhone 4 smartphone, the 4th generation iPod Touch and the 2nd generation Apple TV

Apple system on a chip – Apple A4

Apple A4 is based on the ARM processor architecture.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A4

The first version released ran at 1GHz for the iPad and contains an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU core paired with a PowerVR#Series5 (SGX)|PowerVR SGX 535 graphics processing unit|graphics processor (GPU) built on Samsung’s 45-nanometer (nm) silicon chip fabrication process. The clock speed for the units used in the iPhone 4 and the iPod Touch (4th generation) is 800MHz. The clock speed for the unit used in the Apple TV has not been revealed.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A4

The Cortex-A8 core used in the A4 is thought to use performance enhancements developed by chip designer Intrinsity (which was subsequently acquired by Apple) in collaboration with Samsung

Apple system on a chip – Apple A4

Hence, there is a package with two low-power 128MB DDR SDRAM Integrated circuit|chips (totaling 256MB) mounted on top of the A4 used in the first-generation iPad, the fourth-generation iPod Touch, and the second-generation Apple TV

Apple system on a chip – Apple A5

The ‘Apple A5’ is a system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple and manufactured by Samsung that replaced the Apple A4|A4. The chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple’s iPad 2 tablet computer|tablet in March 2011, followed by its release in the iPhone 4S smartphone later that year. Apple claims that compared with its predecessor, the A4, the A5 CPU can do twice the work and the Graphics processing unit|GPU has up to nine times the graphics performance.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A5

The A5 contains a dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore|ARM Cortex-A9 CPU with ARM’s advanced SIMD extension, marketed as ARM NEON|NEON, and a dual core PowerVR|PowerVR SGX543MP2 GPU

Apple system on a chip – Apple A5

An updated 32 nm version of the A5 processor was used in the third generation Apple TV, the iPad Mini, and the new version of iPad 2 (version iPad2,4). The chip in the Apple TV has one core disabled. The markings of the square package indicates that it’s named APL2498, and in software, the chip is called S5L8942. The 32nm variant of the A5 provides around 15% better battery life during web browsing, 30% better when playing 3D games and approximately 20% better battery life during video playback.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A5

Markings tell that it’s named APL7498, and in software, the chip is called S5L8947.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A5X

The ‘Apple A5X’ is a System on a chip|system-on-a-chip (SoC) designed by Apple that was announced on March 7, 2012 at the launch of the iPad (3rd generation)|third generation iPad. It is a high performance variant of the Apple A5; Apple claims it has twice the graphics performance of the A5. It was superseded in the iPad (4th generation)|fourth generation iPad by the Apple A6X processor.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A5X

This SoC has a quad-core graphics unit (PowerVR SGX543MP4) instead of the previous dual-core as well as a quad-channel memory controller that provides a memory bandwidth of 12.8GB/sec, roughly three times more than in the A5

Apple system on a chip – Apple A6

The ‘Apple A6’ is a package on package (PoP) system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple that was introduced on September 12, 2012 at the launch of the iPhone 5. Apple states that it is up to twice as fast and has up to twice the graphics power compared to its predecessor the Apple A5. It is 22% smaller and draws less power than the 45nm A5.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A6

The A6 is said to use a 1.3GHz custom Apple-designed ARM architecture|ARMv7 based Multi-core processor|dual-core CPU, called Swift, rather than a licensed CPU from ARM like in previous designs, and an integrated 266MHz triple-core PowerVR SGX 543MP3 graphics processing unit (GPU)

Apple system on a chip – Apple A6X

‘Apple A6X’ is a system-on-a-chip (SoC) designed by Apple, introduced at the launch of the iPad (4th generation)|fourth generation iPad on October 23, 2012. It is a high performance variant of the Apple A6. Apple claims the A6X has twice the CPU performance and up to twice the graphics performance of its predecessor, the Apple A5X.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A6X

Like the A6, this SoC continues to use the dual-core Swift CPU, but it has a new quad core GPU, quad channel memory and slightly higher 1.4GHz CPU clock rate. It uses an integrated quad-core PowerVR SGX 554MP4 graphics processing unit (GPU) running at 300MHz and a quad-channel Memory controller|memory subsystem. Compared to the A6 the A6X is 30% larger, but it continues to be manufactured by Samsung on a High-k dielectric|high-? metal gate (HKMG) 32nm process.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A7

The ‘Apple A7’ is a package on package (PoP) 64-bit computing|64-bit system-on-a-chip (SoC) designed by Apple. Its first appearance was in the iPhone 5S, which was introduced on September 10, 2013. Apple states that it is up to twice as fast and has up to twice the graphics power compared to its predecessor the Apple A6.

Apple system on a chip – Apple A7

The A7 is manufactured by Samsung on a High-k dielectric|high-? metal gate (HKMG) 28 nanometer|28 nm process and the chip includes over 1 billion transistors on a die 102mm2 in size.

AMD – ARM architecture-based chip

AMD intends to release ARM architecture|ARM System on Chips (SoC) that will begin sampling in early 2014 and release later in the year. They will be for use in servers as a low-power alternative to current x86 chips. The ARM architecture is codenamed Seattle and will be 64 bit ARM processors, based on the Cortex A57 core design (ARM v8), and will contain 8 and 16 cores each. They will include the proprietary SeaMicro Freedom Fabric, as well as support for 128 GB RAM, and ten gigabit Ethernet.

AMD – AMD chipsets

This was the “Open Platform Management Architecture” with ATI Technologies|ATI, VIA Technologies|VIA and Silicon Integrated Systems|SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon 64 processors and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including the AMD Quad FX platform|Quad FX platform chipset from Nvidia.

AMD – AMD chipsets

Although AMD states the firm will still produce Intel chipsets, Intel had not granted the license of FSB to ATI.

AMD – AMD chipsets

Discrete graphics chipsets were launched on November 15, 2007 as part of the codenamed Spider desktop platform, and IGP chipsets were launched at a later time in Spring 2008 as part of the codenamed Cartwheel platform.

AMD – AMD chipsets

This is a chipset family supporting Phenom (processor)|Phenom processors and AMD Quad FX platform|Quad FX enthusiast platform (890FX), Integrated Graphics Processor|IGP(890GX).

History of video game consoles (first generation) – Pong on a chip

The table lists only the most known consoles and relative used chip.

History of video game consoles (first generation) – Pong on a chip

(1) Colors could be obtained adding the AY-3-8515 chip

History of video game consoles (first generation) – Pong on a chip

(2) Colors could be obtained adding the AY-3-8615 chip

History of video game consoles (first generation) – Pong on a chip

(4) Advanced chip compared to classic Pong-in-a-chip: include a microcontroller and a little RAM.

Semiconductor chip

An ‘integrated circuit’ or ‘monolithic integrated circuit’ (also referred to as an ‘IC’, a ‘chip’, or a ‘microchip’) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate (chip) of semiconductor material, normally silicon. This can be made much smaller than a discrete circuit made from independent components.

Semiconductor chip

Integrated circuits are used in virtually all electronic equipment today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the low cost of producing integrated circuits.

Semiconductor chip

ICs can be made very compact, having up to several billion transistors and other electronic components in an area the size of a fingernail. The width of each conducting line in a circuit can be made smaller and smaller as the technology advances; in 2008 it dropped below 100 nanometers and in 2013 it is expected to be in the tens of nanometers.

Semiconductor chip – Introduction

The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components

Semiconductor chip – Introduction

As of 2012, typical chip areas range from a few square millimeters to around 450mm2, with up to 9 million transistors per mm2.

Semiconductor chip – Terminology

An integrated circuit is defined as: A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce

Semiconductor chip – Invention

Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when the German engineer (Siemens AG|SiemensAG) filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed small and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported.

Semiconductor chip – Invention

The idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)|Ministry of Defence, Geoffrey Dummer|Geoffrey W.A

Semiconductor chip – Invention

A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares (wafers), each one containing a single miniaturized component

Semiconductor chip – Invention

Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958, successfully demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September 1958.[http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr/jackbuilt.shtml The Chip that Jack Built], (c

Semiconductor chip – Invention

Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit.Nobel Web AB, (10 October 2000),([http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2000/press.html The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000], Retrieved 29 May 2008 Kilby’s work was named an List of IEEE milestones|IEEE Milestone in 2009.

Semiconductor chip – Invention

Noyce also came up with his own idea of an integrated circuit half a year later than Kilby. His chip solved many practical problems that Kilby’s had not. Produced at Fairchild Semiconductor, it was made of silicon, whereas Kilby’s chip was made of germanium.

Semiconductor chip – Invention

Robert Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Robert C. Sprague (inventor)|Sprague Electric for the principle of p-n junction isolation|p-njunction isolation caused by the action of a biased p-njunction (the diode) as a key concept behind theIC.Kurt Lehovec’s patent on the isolation p-n junction: granted on 10 April 1962, filed 22 April 1959. Robert Noyce credits Lehovec in his article – Microelectronics, Scientific American, September 1977, Volume 23, Number 3, pp. 63–9.

Semiconductor chip – Invention

Fairchild Semiconductor was also home of the first silicon gate IC technology with self-aligned gates, which stands as the basis of all modern CMOS computer chips. The technology was developed by Italian physicist Federico Faggin in 1968, who later joined Intel in order to develop the very first Central Processing Unit (CPU) on one chip (Intel 4004), for which he received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2010.

Semiconductor chip – Generations

Over time, millions, and today billions,Peter Clarke, Intel enters billion-transistor processor era, [http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=172301051 EE Times, 14 October 2005] of transistors could be placed on one chip, and a good design required thorough planning

Semiconductor chip – SSI, MSI and LSI

The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors. Called ‘small-scale integration’ (‘SSI’), digital circuits containing transistors numbering in the tens provided a few logic gates for example, while early linear ICs such as the Plessey SL201 or the Philips TAA320 had as few as two transistors. The term Large Scale Integration was first used by IBM scientist Rolf Landauer when describing the theoretical concept, from there came the terms for SSI, MSI, VLSI, and ULSI.

Semiconductor chip – SSI, MSI and LSI

SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects, and aerospace projects helped inspire development of the technology

Semiconductor chip – SSI, MSI and LSI

The next step in the development of integrated circuits, taken in the late 1960s, introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors on each chip, called ‘medium-scale integration’ (‘MSI’).

Semiconductor chip – SSI, MSI and LSI

They were attractive economically because while they cost little more to produce than SSI devices, they allowed more complex systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards, less assembly work (because of fewer separate components), and a number of other advantages.

Semiconductor chip – SSI, MSI and LSI

Further development, driven by the same economic factors, led to ‘large-scale integration’ (‘LSI’) in the mid-1970s, with tens of thousands of transistors per chip.

Semiconductor chip – SSI, MSI and LSI

Integrated circuits such as 1K-bit RAMs, calculator chips, and the first microprocessors, that began to be manufactured in moderate quantities in the early 1970s, had under 4000 transistors. True LSI circuits, approaching 10,000 transistors, began to be produced around 1974, for computer main memories and second-generation microprocessors.

Semiconductor chip – VLSI

The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and continuing through the present, was very large-scale integration (VLSI). The development started with hundreds of thousands of transistors in the early 1980s, and continues beyond several billion transistors as of 2009.

Semiconductor chip – VLSI

Manufacturers moved to smaller design rules and cleaner fabrication facilities, so that they could make chips with more transistors and maintain adequate yield

Semiconductor chip – VLSI

Microprocessor chips passed the million transistor mark in 1989 and the billion transistor mark in 2005.Peter Clarke, EE Times: Intel enters billion-transistor processor era, 14 November 2005 The trend continues largely unabated, with chips introduced in 2007 containing tens of billions of memory transistors.Antone Gonsalves, EE Times, Samsung begins production of 16-Gb flash, 30 April 2007

Semiconductor chip – ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC

To reflect further growth of the complexity, the term ULSI that stands for ultra-large-scale integration was proposed for chips of complexity of more than 1 million transistors.

Semiconductor chip – ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC

Wafer-scale integration (WSI) is a system of building very-large integrated circuits that uses an entire silicon wafer to produce a single super-chip. Through a combination of large size and reduced packaging, WSI could lead to dramatically reduced costs for some systems, notably massively parallel supercomputers. The name is taken from the term Very-Large-Scale Integration, the current state of the art when WSI was being developed.

Semiconductor chip – ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC

A system-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit in which all the components needed for a computer or other system are included on a single chip

Semiconductor chip – ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC

A three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers of active electronic components that are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit. Communication between layers uses on-die signaling, so power consumption is much lower than in equivalent separate circuits. Judicious use of short vertical wires can substantially reduce overall wire length for faster operation.

Semiconductor chip – Advances in integrated circuits

Digital Random access memory|memory chips and application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC)s are examples of other families of integrated circuits that are important to the modern information society

Semiconductor chip – Advances in integrated circuits

ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years, allowing more circuitry to be packed on each chip

Semiconductor chip – Advances in integrated circuits

In current research projects, integrated circuits are also developed for sensoric applications in implant (medicine)|medical implants or other bioelectronics|bioelectronic devices

Semiconductor chip – Classification

Integrated circuits can be classified into analog circuit|analog, digital circuit|digital and mixed-signal integrated circuit|mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip).

Semiconductor chip – Classification

Digital integrated circuits can contain anywhere from one to millions of logic gates, flip-flop (electronics)|flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration. These digital ICs, typically microprocessors, digital signal processors|DSPs, and micro controllers, work using binary mathematics to process one and zero signals.

Semiconductor chip – Classification

Analog ICs, such as sensors, power network design (IC)|power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. They perform functions like Amplifier|amplification, active filtering, demodulation, and Frequency mixer|mixing. Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a difficult analog circuit from scratch.

Semiconductor chip – Classification

ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to create functions such as Analog-to-digital converter|A/D converters and digital-to-analog converter|D/A converters. Such mixed-signal circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must carefully account for signal interference.

Semiconductor chip – Classification

often further sub-categorize the huge variety of integrated circuits now available:

Semiconductor chip – Classification

* Digital ICs are further sub-categorized as logic ICs, semiconductor memory|memory chips, interface ICs (logic level|level shifters, serializer/deserializer, etc.), Power Management ICs, and programmable devices.

Semiconductor chip – Classification

* Analog ICs are further sub-categorized as linear ICs and RF ICs.

Semiconductor chip – Classification

* mixed-signal integrated circuits are further sub-categorized as data acquisition ICs (including A/D converters, D/A converter, digital potentiometers) and clock/timing ICs.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

The semiconductors of the periodic table of the chemical elements were identified as the most likely materials for a solid-state (electronics)|solid-state vacuum tube

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

Semiconductor ICs are fabricated in a layer process which includes these key process steps:

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

The main process steps are supplemented by doping and cleaning.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

Monocrystalline silicon|Mono-crystal silicon wafer (electronics)|wafers (or for special applications, silicon on sapphire or gallium arsenide wafers) are used as the substrate. Photolithography is used to mark different areas of the substrate to be Doping (Semiconductors)|doped or to have polysilicon, insulators or metal (typically aluminium) tracks deposited on them.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* Integrated circuits are composed of many overlapping layers, each defined by photolithography, and normally shown in different colors

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* In a self-aligned CMOS process, a transistor is formed wherever the gate layer (polysilicon or metal) crosses a diffusion layer.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* capacitor|Capacitive structures, in form very much like the parallel conducting plates of a traditional electrical capacitor, are formed according to the area of the plates, with insulating material between the plates. Capacitors of a wide range of sizes are common on ICs.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* Meandering stripes of varying lengths are sometimes used to form on-chip resistors, though most logic circuits do not need any resistors. The ratio of the length of the resistive structure to its width, combined with its sheet resistivity, determines the resistance.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* More rarely, inductor|inductive structures can be built as tiny on-chip coils, or simulated by gyrators.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

Since a CMOS device only draws current on the transition between boolean algebra (logic)|logic State (computer science)|states, CMOS devices consume much less current than bipolar transistor|bipolar devices.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

A random access memory is the most regular type of integrated circuit; the highest density devices are thus memories; but even a microprocessor will have memory on the chip

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

As of 2005, a Semiconductor fabrication plant|fabrication facility (commonly known as a semiconductor fab) costs over US$1 billion to construct.For example, Intel Fab 28 cost $3.5 billion, while its neighboring Fab 18 cost $1.5 billion www.theinquirer.net/default.aspx?article=29958 The cost of a fabrication facility rises over time (Rock’s law) because much of the operation is automated. Today, the most advanced processes employ the following techniques:

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* The wafers are up to 300mm in diameter (wider than a common dinner plate).

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* Use of 32 nanometer or smaller chip manufacturing process. Intel, IBM, NEC, and AMD are using ~32 nanometers for their central processing unit|CPU chips. IBM and AMD introduced immersion lithography for their 45nm processes

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* Copper interconnects where copper wiring replaces aluminium for interconnects.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* Low-K dielectric insulators.

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* Strained silicon in a process used by IBM known as strained silicon directly on insulator (SSDOI)

Semiconductor chip – Fabrication

* Multigate devices such as tri-gate transistors being manufactured by Intel from 2011 in their 22nm process.

Semiconductor chip – Packaging

In the 1980s pin counts of VLSI circuits exceeded the practical limit for DIP packaging, leading to pin grid array (PGA) and leadless chip carrier (LCC) packages

Semiconductor chip – Packaging

In the late 1990s, PQFP|plastic quad flat pack (PQFP) and thin small-outline package (TSOP) packages became the most common for high pin count devices, though PGA packages are still often used for high-end microprocessors. Intel and AMD are currently transitioning from PGA packages on high-end microprocessors to land grid array (LGA) packages.

Semiconductor chip – Packaging

Flip-chip Ball Grid Array packages, which allow for much higher pin count than other package types, were developed in the 1990s

Semiconductor chip – Packaging

Traces out of the die, through the package, and into the printed circuit board have very different electrical properties, compared to on-chip signals. They require special design techniques and need much more electric power than signals confined to the chip itself.

Semiconductor chip – Packaging

When multiple dies are put in one package, it is called SiP, for System In Package. When multiple dies are combined on a small substrate, often ceramic, it’s called an MCM, or Multi-Chip Module. The boundary between a big MCM and a small printed circuit board is sometimes fuzzy.

Semiconductor chip – Other developments

This allows a single chip to be programmed to implement different LSI-type functions such as logic gates, adder (electronics)|adders and processor register|registers

Semiconductor chip – Other developments

The techniques perfected by the integrated circuits industry over the last three decades have been used to create very small mechanical devices driven by electricity using a technology known as microelectromechanical systems. These devices are used in a variety of commercial and military applications. Example commercial applications include DLP projectors, inkjet printers, and accelerometers used to deploy automobile airbags.

Semiconductor chip – Other developments

In the past, radios could not be fabricated in the same low-cost processes as microprocessors. But since 1998, a large number of radio chips have been developed using CMOS processes. Examples include Intel’s DECT cordless phone, or Atheros’s 802.11 card.

Semiconductor chip – Other developments

Chip revolution poses problems for programmers, New Scientist (Vol 193, Number 2594)

Semiconductor chip – Other developments

Since the early 2000s, the integration of optical functionality into silicon chips has been actively pursued in both academic research and in industry resulting in the successful commercialization of silicon based integrated optical transceivers combining optical devices (modulators, detectors, routing) with CMOS based electronics.

Semiconductor chip – Silicon labelling and graffiti

To allow identification during production most silicon chips will have a serial number in one corner. It is also common to add the manufacturer’s logo. Ever since ICs were created, some chip designers have used the silicon surface area for surreptitious, non-functional images or words. These are sometimes referred to as chip art, silicon art, silicon graffiti or silicon doodling.

Semiconductor chip – ICs and IC families

* 7400 series Transistor-transistor logic|TTL logic building blocks

Semiconductor chip – ICs and IC families

* 4000 series, the CMOS counterpart to the 7400 series (see also: HCMOS|74HC00 series)

Semiconductor chip – ICs and IC families

* Intel 4004, the world’s first microprocessor, which led to the famous Intel 8080|8080 CPU and then the IBM PC’s Intel 8088|8088, 80286, Intel i486|486 etc.

Semiconductor chip – ICs and IC families

* The MOS Technology 6502 and Zilog Z80 microprocessors, used in many home computers of the early 1980s

Semiconductor chip – ICs and IC families

* The Motorola 6800 series of computer-related chips, leading to the 68000 and 88000 series (used in some Apple computers and in the 1980s Commodore Amiga series).

Semiconductor chip – ICs and IC families

* The List of LM-series integrated circuits|LM-series of analog integrated circuits.

System-on-chip

A ‘system on a chip’ or ‘system on chip’ (‘SoC’ or ‘SOC’) is an integrated circuit (‘IC’) that integrates all components of a computer or other Electronics|electronic system into a single chip. It may contain Digital signal|digital, Analog signal|analog, Mixed-signal integrated circuits|mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate (electronics)|substrate. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems.

System-on-chip

Many interesting systems are too complex to fit on just one chip built with a process optimized for just one of the system’s tasks.

System-on-chip

When it is not feasible to construct a SoC for a particular application, an alternative is a system in package (SiP) comprising a number of chips in a single Chip carrier|package. In large volumes, SoC is believed to be more cost-effective than SiP since it increases the yield of the fabrication and because its packaging is simpler.

System-on-chip

Another option, as seen for example in higher end cell phones and on the BeagleBoard, is package on package stacking during board assembly. The SoC chip includes processors and numerous digital peripherals, and comes in a Ball grid array|ball grid package with lower and upper connections. The lower balls connect to the board and various peripherals, with the upper balls in a ring holding the memory buses used to access NAND flash and DDR2 RAM. Memory packages could come from multiple vendors.

System-on-chip – Structure

* A microcontroller, microprocessor or digital signal processor|DSP core(s). Some SoCs—called multiprocessor system on chip (MPSoC)—include more than one processor core.

System-on-chip – Structure

* Memory blocks including a selection of Read-only memory|ROM, Random access memory|RAM, EEPROM and flash memory.

System-on-chip – Structure

* Timing sources including oscillators and phase-locked loops.

System-on-chip – Structure

* Peripherals including counter-timers, real-time timers and power-on reset generators.

System-on-chip – Structure

* External Electrical connector|interfaces including industry standards such as Universal Serial Bus|USB, FireWire, Ethernet, USART, Serial Peripheral Interface Bus|SPI.

System-on-chip – Structure

* Analog signal|Analog interfaces including Analog to digital converter|ADCs and Digital to analog converter|DACs.

System-on-chip – Structure

* Voltage regulators and power management circuits.

System-on-chip – Structure

These blocks are connected by either a proprietary or industry-standard Computer bus|bus such as the Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture|AMBA bus from ARM Holdings. Direct Memory Access|DMA controllers route data directly between external Electrical connector|interfaces and memory, bypassing the processor core and thereby increasing the data throughput of the SoC.

System-on-chip – Design flow

A SoC consists of both the Computer hardware|hardware described above, and the Computer software|software controlling the microcontroller, microprocessor or digital signal processing|DSP cores, peripherals and interfaces. The Design flow (EDA)|design flow for a SoC aims to develop this hardware and software in parallel.

System-on-chip – Design flow

Most SoCs are developed from pre-qualified Semiconductor intellectual property core|hardware blocks for the hardware elements described above, together with the Device driver|software drivers that control their operation

System-on-chip – Design flow

With the growing complexity of chips, hardware verification languages like SystemVerilog, SystemC, e (verification language)|e, and OpenVera are being used

System-on-chip – Design flow

Traditionally, engineers have employed simulation acceleration, Emulator|emulation and/or an FPGA prototype to verify and debug both hardware and software for SoC designs prior to tapeout

System-on-chip – Design flow

FPGA prototypes, in contrast, use FPGAs directly to enable engineers to validate and test at, or close to, a system’s full operating frequency with real-world stimulus. Tools such as Certus are used to insert probes in the FPGA RTL that make signals available for observation. This is used to debug hardware, firmware and software interactions across multiple FPGA with capabilities similar to a logic analyzer.

System-on-chip – Design flow

After debug the hardware of the SoC follows the place and route|place-and-route phase of the design of an integrated circuit or Application-specific integrated circuit|ASIC before it is fabricated.

System-on-chip – Fabrication

SoCs can be fabricated by several technology|technologies, including:

System-on-chip – Fabrication

SoC designs usually consume less power and have a lower cost and higher reliability than the multi-chip systems that they replace. And with fewer packages in the system, assembly costs are reduced as well.

System-on-chip – Fabrication

However, like most VLSI designs, the total cost is higher for one large chip than for the same functionality distributed over several smaller chips, because of Semiconductor device fabrication#Device test|lower yields and higher Non-recurring engineering|NRE costs.

Bluetooth SMART – Chip

Bluetooth LE integrated circuit implementations were announced by a number of manufacturers (Broadcom,[http://www.broadcom.com/press/release.php?id=s443734 Broadcom press release, Feb 2010] Texas Instruments,[http://newscenter.ti.com/index.php?s=32851item=123734 TI press release Oct 2009] CSR plc|CSR[http://www.csr.com/news/pr/release/16/en CSR press release Dec 2009] and Nordic Semiconductor[http://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/News/Press-Releases/Product-Related-News/Nordic-Semiconductor-ships-samples-and-development-kits-for-its-Blue-Bluetooth-low-energy-single-mode-solution-to-lead-customers Nordic press release Nov 2009]), starting in late 2009

Microchip Technology

‘Microchip Technology’ is an USA|American manufacturer of microcontroller, memory and analog semiconductors. Its products include microcontrollers (PIC microcontroller|PICmicro, PIC24#PIC24 and dsPIC 16-bit microcontrollers|dsPIC / PIC24, PIC32), Serial EEPROM devices, Serial Static random access memory|SRAM devices, KeeLoq|KEELOQ devices, radio frequency (RF) devices, thermal, power and battery management analog devices, as well as linear, interface and mixed signal devices.

Microchip Technology

Some of the interface devices include USB, ZigBee/MiWi, Controller Area Network, and Ethernet.

Microchip Technology

Corporate headquarters is located at Chandler, Arizona with wafer fabs in Tempe, Arizona and Gresham, Oregon. Sales for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013 were $1,581,623,000.

Microchip Technology

Among its chief competitors are Analog Devices, Atmel, Freescale (spin-off from Motorola), Infineon, Maxim Integrated Products, NXP Semiconductors (spin-off from Philips), Renesas Electronics Corporation|Renesas Electronics, STMicroelectronics, and Texas Instruments.

Microchip Technology – History

The company was founded in 1987 when General Instrument spun off its microelectronics division as a wholly owned subsidiary. Microchip Technology became an independent company in 1989 when it was acquired by a group of venture capitalists, and went public in 1993.

Microchip Technology – History

In April 2009, Microchip Technology announced the nanoWatt XLP Microcontrollers (With World’s Lowest Sleep Current).Quick, Darren. [http://www.gizmag.com/nanowatt-xlp-microcontrollers/11575/ nanoWatt XLP Microcontrollers claim world’s lowest sleep current] gizmag April 30, 2009 Microchip Technology had sold more than 6 billion microcontrollers as of 2009.

Microchip Technology – History

In April 2010, Microchip acquired Silicon Storage Technology (SST), and sold several SST flash memory assets to Greenliant Systems in May that year.

Microchip Technology – History

In September 2011, Microchip Technology shipped the 10 billionth PIC microcontroller.[http://www.microchip.com/pagehandler/en-us/press-release/microchip-technology-delivers-10-billionth-pic-mic.html Microchip Technology Delivers 10 Billionth PIC® Microcontroller]

Microchip Technology – History

In August 2012, Microchip acquired Standard Microsystems Corporation (SMSC).

Microchip Technology – HI-TECH Software

Founded in 1984, the company is best known for its HI-TECH C PRO compilers with whole-program compilation technology, or Omniscient Code Generation (OCG).[http://electronicdesign.com/Articles/Index.cfm?AD=1AD=1ArticleID=15352 Whole Program C Compiler Optimizes Across Modules] HI-TECH Software was bought by Microchip on 20 February 2009,www.search.asic.gov.au/cgi-bin/gns030c?acn=002_724_549juris=9hdtext=ACNsrchsrc=1 whereupon it refocused its development effort exclusively on supporting Microchip products.[http://www.htsoft.com/HI-TECH%20Customer%20Letter_Final.pdf HI-TECH Customer Letter]

Microchip Technology – Supported manufacturers and architectures

HI-TECH Software has also provided compilers for the following manufacturers and architectures, but none of them are advertised since the Microchip acquisition:

Microchip Technology – Supported manufacturers and architectures

* Z80 for CP/M The Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine saved a copy of the compiler, available [http://web.archive.org/web/20070221053727/http://www.htsoft.com/products/CPM.php here] and a installing turorial is available [http://techtinkering.com/2008/10/22/installing-the-hi-tech-z80-c-compiler-for-cpm/ here]. and Z80 cross compiler.

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

* ‘ATI Wonder series|Graphics Solution / Small Wonder’ – Series of 8-bit Industry Standard Architecture|ISA cards with Monochrome Display Adapter|MDA, Hercules Graphics Card|Hercules, Color Graphics Adapter|CGA and Plantronics Colorplus|Plantronics Color+ compatibility. Later versions added Enhanced Graphics Adapter|EGA support.

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

* ‘ATI Mach|Mach Series’ – Introduced ATI’s first 2D computer graphics|2D graphical user interface|GUI Windows Accelerator. As the series evolved, GUI acceleration improved dramatically and early video acceleration appeared.

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

The various chips were very popular with Original equipment manufacturer|OEMs of the time

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

** ‘ATI Rage#Mobility|Rage Mobility’ – Designed for use in low-power environments, such as notebooks. These chips were functionally similar to their desktop counterparts, but had additions such as advanced power management, Liquid crystal display|LCD interfaces, and Multi monitor|dual monitor functionality.

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

* ‘Radeon Series’ – ATI launched the Radeon line in 2000 as their consumer 3D accelerator add-in cards, its flagship product line and the direct competitor to Nvidia’s GeForce

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

** ‘Radeon|Mobility Radeon’ – A series of power-optimized versions of Radeon graphics chips for use in laptops. They introduced innovations such as modularized RAM chips, DVD (MPEG2) acceleration, notebook GPU card sockets, and ATI PowerPlay|PowerPlay power management technology. AMD recently announced DirectX 11-compatible versions of its mobile processors ..

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

It allowed, by using a secondary video card and a dual PCI-E motherboard based on an ATI Crossfire-compatible chipset, the ability to combine the power of the two, three or four video cards to increase performance through a variety of different rendering options

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

* ‘FireGL/FirePro’ – Launched in 2001, following ATI’s acquisition of FireGL Graphics from Diamond Multimedia. Workstation CAD/CAM video card, based on the Radeon series.

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

*’FireMV’ – For workstations, featuring multi-view, for multiple displays with 2D acceleration only, usually based on low-end products of the Radeon series (now integrated into FirePro series).

ATI Technologies – Computer graphics chipsets

Although AMD strongly considered making the functional part of the ATI drivers open source, before the merger with AMD, ATI had no plans to release their graphics drivers as free software:

ATI Technologies – Personal computer platforms and chipsets

*’Radeon R100|IGP 3×0, Radeon R100|Mobility Radeon 7000 IGP’ – ATI’s first chipsets. Included a DirectX 7-level 3D graphics processor.

ATI Technologies – Personal computer platforms and chipsets

*’Radeon R200|9100 IGP’ – 2nd generation system chipset. IXP250 southbridge. It was notable for being ATI’s first complete motherboard chipset, including an ATI-built southbridge. It included an updated DirectX 8.1 class graphics processor Gavrichenkov, Ilya. [http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/chipsets/display/ati-igp9100.html ATI RADEON 9100 IGP Integrated Chipset Review], X-bit Labs, December 1, 2003.

ATI Technologies – Personal computer platforms and chipsets

*’Xpress 200|Xpress 200/200P’ – PCI Express-based Athlon 64 and Pentium 4 chipset. Supports SATA as well as integrated graphics with DirectX 9.0 support, the first integrated graphics chipset to do so Wasson, Scott. [http://techreport.com/reviews/2004q4/radeon-xpress200/index.x?pg=1 ATI’s Radeon Xpress 200 chipset], Tech Report, November 8, 2004.

ATI Technologies – Personal computer platforms and chipsets

*’Xpress 3200′ – similar to Xpress 200, but designed for optimal ATI CrossFire|CrossFire performance.

ATI Technologies – Personal computer platforms and chipsets

The deal with Intel ended with the purchase of ATI by AMD in 2006, with Intel announcing Silicon Integrated Systems|SiS IGP chipset (D201GLY chipset, codenamed Little Valley) for entry-level desktop platform, replacing the Grand County series chipsets.

ATI Technologies – Handheld chipsets

* ‘Imageon’ – System-on-a-chip (SoC) design introduced in 2002 to bring integrated 2D computer graphics|2D and 3D computer graphics|3D graphics to handhelds devices, cellphones and Tablet computer|Tablet PCs. The Imageon 2298 included DVD quality recording and playback, TV output, and supported up to a 12-megapixel camera, with another line of Imageon products, the 2300 series supporting OpenGL ES 1.1+ extensions. The Imageon line was rebranded under AMD, and sold to Qualcomm in 2009.

ATI Technologies – Handheld chipsets

* ‘Imageon|Imageon TV’ – Announced in February 2006, allowing handhelds devices to receive digital broadcast TV (DVB-H) signals and enables watching TV programs on these devices, the chipset includes tuner, demodulator, decoder, and a full software stack, operates alongside the Imageon chip.

ATI Technologies – Handheld chipsets

Besides full products, ATI also supplied 3D and 2D graphics components to other vendors, specifically the Qualcomm[http://brew.qualcomm.com/bnry_brew/pdf/brew_2007/Tech-303_Ligon.pdf page 10 and 15] MSM7000 series SoC chips of handheld and upcoming Freescale i

ATI Technologies – Handheld chipsets

After the AMD acquisition, the Imageon and Xilleon were sold off to Qualcomm and Broadcom, respectively.

Neurochip

A ‘neurochip’ is a chip (integrated circuit/microprocessor) that is designed for the interaction with neuronal cells.

Neurochip – Formation

The University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine scientists who proved it is possible to cultivate a network of brain cells that reconnect on a silicon chip—or the brain on a microchip—have developed new technology that monitors brain cell activity at a resolution never achieved before.

Neurochip – Formation

Developed with the National Research Council Canada (NRC), the new silicon chips are also simpler to use, which will help future understanding of how brain cells work under normal conditions and permit drug discoveries for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Neurochip – Formation

Naweed Syed’s lab cultivated brain cells on a microchip.

Neurochip – Formation

The new technology from the lab of Naweed Syed, in collaboration with the NRC, is published online this month in the journal, Biomedical Devices.

Neurochip – Formation

“This technical breakthrough means we can track subtle changes in brain activity at the level of ion channels and synaptic potentials, which are also the most suitable target sites for drug development in neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychological disorders,” says Syed, professor and head of the Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, member of the Hotchkiss Brain Institute and advisor to the Vice President Research on Biomedical Engineering Initiative of the University of Chicago.

Neurochip – Formation

Now, larger networks of cells can be placed on a chip and observed in minute detail, allowing the analysis of several brain cells networking and performing automatic, large-scale drug screening for various brain dysfunctions.

Neurochip – Formation

This new technology has the potential to help scientists in a variety of fields and on a variety of research projects. Gerald Zamponi, professor and head of the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and member of the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, says, “This technology can likely be scaled up such that it will become a novel tool for medium throughput drug screening, in addition to its usefulness for basic biomedical research”.

Neurochip – Formation

In previous studies, researchers developed a neurochip that could directly stimulate and record brain cell activity. Now, Orly Yadid-Pecht and Naweed Syed have successfully developed a novel lab-on-a-chip technology that, through an ultra-sensitive component built directly on the microchip, also enables direct imaging of activity in brain cells.[http://www.ucalgary.ca/news/utoday/august1-2012/neurochip New advances for neurochip UToday, University of Calgary August 1, 2012]

Neurochip – Applications

Present applications are neuron research. Future applications (still in the experimental phase) are retinal implants or brain implants.

Biochip

In molecular biology, ‘biochips’ are essentially miniaturized laboratories that can perform hundreds or

Biochip

thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of biological analytes for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism agents.

Biochip – History

The development started with early work on the underlying sensor technology. One of the first portable, chemistry-based sensors was the glass electrode|glass pH electrode, invented in 1922 by Hughes (Hughes, 1922). Measurement of pH was accomplished by

Biochip – History

using exchange sites to create permselective membranes was used to develop

Biochip – History

other Ion selective electrode|ion sensors in subsequent years. For example, a K+ sensor was

Biochip – History

produced by incorporating valinomycin into a thin membrane (Schultz, 1996).

Biochip – History

Over thirty years elapsed before the first true biosensor (i.e. a

Biochip – History

sensor utilizing biological molecules) emerged. In 1956, Leland Clark

Biochip – History

published a paper on an Clark electrode|oxygen sensing electrode (Clark, 1956_41).

Biochip – History

This device became the basis for a glucose sensor developed in 1962 by Clark

Biochip – History

and colleague Lyons which utilized glucose oxidase molecules embedded in a

Biochip – History

dialysis membrane (Clark, 1962). The enzyme functioned in the

Biochip – History

presence of glucose to decrease the amount of oxygen available to the oxygen electrode, thereby relating oxygen levels to glucose concentration. This and

Biochip – History

similar biosensors became known as enzyme electrodes, and are still in use

Biochip – History

In 1953, James D. Watson|Watson and Francis Crick|Crick announced their discovery of the now familiar

Biochip – History

double helix structure of DNA molecules and set the stage for genetics

Biochip – History

research that continues to the present day (Nelson, 2000). The development

Biochip – History

of sequencing techniques in 1977 by Walter Gilbert|Gilbert (Maxam, 1977) and

Biochip – History

directly read the genetic codes that provide instructions for

Biochip – History

protein biosynthesis|protein synthesis. This research showed how hybridisation (molecular biology)|hybridization of complementary single

Biochip – History

oligonucleotide strands could be used as a basis for DNA sensing. Two

Biochip – History

additional developments enabled the technology used in modern DNA-based

Biochip – History

biosensors. First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the

Biochip – History

(PCR) technique (Nelson, 2000), a method for amplifying DNA concentrations.

Biochip – History

This discovery made possible the detection of extremely small quantities of

Biochip – History

DNA molecules with fluorescent tags instead of

Biochip – History

radiolabels (Smith, 1986), thus enabling hybridization experiments to

Biochip – History

The rapid technological advances of the biochemistry and semiconductor fields

Biochip – History

Figure 1 shows the make up of a typical biochip platform.

Biochip – History

The actual sensing component (or chip) is just one piece of a complete

Biochip – History

analysis system. Transducer|Transduction must be done to translate the actual sensing

Biochip – History

event (DNA binding, redox|oxidation/reduction, etc.) into a format

Biochip – History

understandable by a computer (voltage, light intensity, mass, etc.),

Biochip – History

which then enables additional analysis and processing to produce a final,

Biochip – History

human-readable output. The multiple technologies needed to make a successful

Biochip – History

require a true multidisciplinary approach, making the barrier to entry steep.

Biochip – History

One of the first commercial biochips was introduced by Affymetrix. Their

Biochip – History

GeneChip products contain thousands of individual DNA sensors for use in

Biochip – History

sensing defects, or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes such as

Biochip – History

cancer) (Cheng, 2001). The chips are produced using microlithography

Biochip – History

techniques traditionally used to fabricate integrated circuits (see below).

Biochip – History

being commercialized. Numerous advancements continue to be made in sensing

Biochip – History

Cancer diagnosis through DNA typing is just one market opportunity. A variety

Biochip – History

of industries currently desire the ability to simultaneously screen for a

Biochip – History

wide range of chemical and biological agents, with purposes ranging from

Biochip – History

testing public water systems for disease agents to screening airline cargo

Biochip – History

for explosives. Pharmaceutical companies wish to combinatorially screen drug

Biochip – History

Numerous transduction methods can be employed including surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence, and chemiluminescence. The particular sensing and

Biochip – History

transduction techniques chosen depend on factors such as price, sensitivity, and reusability.

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

The microarray mdash; the dense, two-dimensional grid of biosensors mdash; is the critical component of a biochip platform. Typically, the sensors are deposited on a flat substrate, which may either be passive (e.g. silicon or glass) or active, the latter

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

consisting of integrated electronics or microtechnology|micromechanical devices that perform or assist signal transduction. Surface chemistry is used to covalent bond|covalently bind the sensor molecules to the substrate medium. The fabrication of microarrays is non-trivial and is a major economic and technological hurdle that may

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

Various means exist to achieve the placement, but typically robotic micro-pipetting (Schena, 1995) or micro-printing (MacBeath, 1999) systems are used to place tiny spots of sensor material on the chip surface

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

process results in high manufacturing costs.

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

Fodor and colleagues developed a unique fabrication process (later used by

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

Affymetrix) in which a series of microlithography steps is used to

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

Combinatorial chemistry|combinatorially synthesize hundreds of thousands of unique, single-stranded

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

DNA sensors on a substrate one nucleotide at a

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

time (Fodor, 1991; Pease, 1994). One lithography step is needed per base type; thus, a total

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

of four steps is required per nucleotide level. Although this technique is

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

very powerful in that many sensors can be created simultaneously, it is

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

currently only feasible for creating short DNA strands (15ndash;25 nucleotides).

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

Reliability and cost factors limit the number of photolithography steps that

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

can be done. Furthermore, light-directed combinatorial synthesis techniques

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

are not currently possible for proteins or other sensing molecules.

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

approach is used chiefly to map or encode the coordinate of each sensor

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

to its function. Sensors in these arrays typically use a universal signalling

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

technique (e.g. fluorescence), thus making coordinates their only

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

identifying feature. These arrays must be made using a serial process

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

(i.e. requiring multiple, sequential steps) to ensure that each sensor

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

positions on the chip, is an alternative to the serial method. The tedious and expensive positioning process is

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

not required, enabling the use of parallelized self-assembly techniques. In

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

this approach, large batches of identical sensors can be produced; sensors

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

non-coordinate based encoding scheme must be used to identify each sensor. As

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

the figure shows, such a design was first demonstrated (and later

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

commercialized by Illumina) using functionalized beads placed randomly in the

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

encoded with a fluorescent signature. However, this encoding scheme is

Biochip – Microarray fabrication

limited in the number of unique dye combinations that can be used and

Biochip – Protein biochip array and other microarray technologies

The difference from conventional immunoassays is that the capture ligands are covalently attached to the surface of the biochip in an ordered array rather than in solution.

Biochip – Protein biochip array and other microarray technologies

In sandwich assays an enzyme-labelled antibody is used; in competitive assays an enzyme-labelled antigen is used

Biochip – Protein biochip array and other microarray technologies

Details about other array technologies can be found in the following page: Antibody microarray

Chipless RFID

Because of the absence of ICs the major challenges in design of chipless RFID is the encoding and transmission of data.

Chipless RFID – Time domain Reflectometry vs Frequency Signature devices

Chipless RFID tag may use either time domain reflectometry or frequency signature techniques

Chipless RFID – Siemens Self generating ceramic mixtures

In 2001, Roke Manor Research centre announced materials that emit characteristic radiation when moved, these may be exploited for storage of few bits encoded in the presence or absence of certain chemicals.

Chipless RFID – Somark Innovations biocompatible RFID ink

Somark employed a dielectric barcode that may be read using microwave

Chipless RFID – CrossID nanometric ink

This system uses materials exhibiting varying magnetism. They resonate at different frequencies when exited by radiation. The reader analyzes the spectrum of the reflected signal to make out which materials are present. There are 70 different materials were found each material’s presence or absence may be used to encode one bit thus enabling encoding up to 270 unique binary strings. They work on frequency between three and ten gigahertz.

Chipless RFID – Tapemark’s Chipless ID

In 2004 Tapemark announced a chipless RFID that will have only a passive antenna with diameter as small as 5 micron. The antenna consist of small fibers called nano-resonant structures. Spatial difference in structure may be used to encode data. The interrogator sends out a coherent pulse and reads back an interference patterns which it decodes to identify a tag. They work from 24GHz-60GHz.

Chipless RFID – Sagentia’s Programmable Magnetic Resonance

They are Acoustomagnetic devices

Chipless RFID – Flying-Null’s magnetic data tagging

The Flying Null technology uses a series of passive magnetic structure much like the lines used in conventional bar codes

Chipless RFID – Surface acoustic wave based RFIDs

It consist of a piezoelectric crystal like lithium niobate on which transducers are made by single-metal-layer photo-lithographic technology

Chipless RFID – Surface acoustic wave based RFIDs

RFID Technology, Cristina Turcu (Ed.), ISBN 978-3-902613-54-7, InTech, Available from:

Chipless RFID – Surface acoustic wave based RFIDs

www.intechopen.com/books/development_and_implementation_of_rfid_technology/surface_acoustic_wa

Chipless RFID – Capacitively-tuned split microstrip resonators

They employ a grid of dipole antennas that are tuned to different frequencies. The interrogator generates a frequency sweep signal and scans for dips in the signal. It may be used to encode as many bits as there are dipole antenna. The frequency swept will be determined by the length of the antennas used. The coupling between the dipoles posses a challenge.

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips

Berger hopes to eventually use these chips as electronic implants for humans whose brains that suffer from diseases such as Alzheimer’s that disrupt neuronal networks.

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips – Theordore Berger’s Education, Impact as a Researcher, and Inspiration for the chip

While Berger’s aspirations of memory implant sounded unrealistic to his colleagues for a long time, Berger has continued to maintain a high level of determination, and has referred to many other successes in neuroprosthetics that once seemed unattainable

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips – Theordore Berger’s Education, Impact as a Researcher, and Inspiration for the chip

Berger has spent 35 years of his life trying to develop a keen understanding of how neurons behave in the hippocampus.The hippocampus is a major component of the brain that belongs in the limbic system and consolidates information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips – The Technology and Medical Application of this Chip

To begin making a brain prosthesis, Berger and his collaborator Valsilis Marmarelis, a biomedical engineer at USC, worked with the hippocampus slices of rats. Since they knew that neuronal signals travel from one side of the hippocampus to the other, the researchers sent random pulses into the hippocampus, recorded the signals at specific locales to see how they were changed, and then derived equations representing the changes. They then programed those equations into the computer chips.

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips – The Technology and Medical Application of this Chip

Next, they had to determine whether a chip could be used as a prosthesis, or implant, for a damaged region in the hippocampus. To do this, they had to figure out whether they could avoid a central component of the pathway in the brain slices. They put electrodes in the region, which carried electrical pulses to an external chip. The chip then executed the transformations that are normally carried out in the hippocampus, and other electrodes sent the signals back to the slice of brain.

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips – Trials of the chip on rats and monkeys

This artificial hippocampus played a significant role in the developmental stage of the chip, as it went on to show that if a prosthetic device and its associated electrodes were implanted in the animals with a normally functioning hippocampus, the device could potentially enhance the memory capability of normal rats.()

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips – Trials of the chip on rats and monkeys

Last year, scientists conducted an experiment on monkeys where they placed electrodes in the monkeys’ brains to obtain the code formed in the prefrontal cortex that they believe allowed animals to remember an image that had been shown to them earlier. They then drugged the monkeys with cocaine, which impairs that part of the brain. The researchers were able to improve the monkey’s performance by using the implanted electrodes to send the correct code to the monkeys’ prefrontal cortex.

Prosthetic Neuronal Memory Silicon Chips – Goals for the Future

Ultimately, Berger hopes to restore the ability to create long-term memories by implanting chips such as these into the brain.()

Malay Archipelago

The ‘Malay Archipelago’ refers to the archipelago between mainland Southeast Asia|Southeastern Asia and Australia (continent)|Australia. The name was derived from a nineteenth century concept of a Malay race.

Malay Archipelago

The island of New Guinea or islands of Papua New Guinea are not always included in definitions of the Malay Archipelago.[http://www.worldworx.tv/regional-information/asia/maritime-southeast-asia/index.htm Maritime Southeast Asia]

Malay Archipelago – Etymology and terminology

The term was derived from the concept of a Malay race, which referred to the people who inhabited what is now Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia (excluding West Papua (region)|western New Guinea), Malaysia, qthe Philippines, and Singapore

Malay Archipelago – Etymology and terminology

The 19th century naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace|Alfred Wallace used the term Malay Archipelago as the title of The Malay Archipelago|his influential book documenting his studies in the region. Wallace also referred to the area as the Indian Archipelago and the Indo-Australian Archipelago.; He included within the region the Solomon Islands and the Malay Peninsula due to physiographic similarities. As Wallace noted,www.papuaweb.org/dlib/bk/wallace/race.html

Malay Archipelago – Etymology and terminology

This line will separate the Malayan and all the Asiatic races, from the Papuans and all that inhabit the Pacific; and though along the line of junction intermigration and commixture have taken place, yet the division is on the whole almost as well defined and strongly contrasted, as is the corresponding zoological division of the Archipelago, into an Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan region

Malay Archipelago – Etymology and terminology

The area is called Nusantara in the Indonesian language.; The area is also referred to as the Indonesian archipelago.Friedhelm Göltenboth (2006) Ecology of insular Southeast Asia: the Indonesian Archipelago Elsevier, ISBN 0-444-52739-7, ISBN 978-0-444-52739-4[http://books.google.com/books?id=ikSQw_-8gboCpg=PA227dq=maritime+southeast+asiaei=q9olS730OZOkkATG58nOCwcd=1#v=onepageq=malay%20archipelagof=false Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, Volume 1] The term Maritime Southeast Asia is largely synonymous, covering both the islands in Southeast Asia and nearby island-like communities, such as those found on the Malay Peninsula.

Malay Archipelago – Geography

The land and sea area of the archipelago exceeds 2 million km2. The over 25,000 islands of the archipelago comprise many smaller archipelagoes.[http://web.archive.org/web/20071022221129/http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/general.asp Philippines : General Information]. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved 2009-11-06; ;

Malay Archipelago – Geography

The major groupings are:

Malay Archipelago – Geography

*New Guinea and surrounding islands (when included)

Malay Archipelago – Geography

The six largest islands are New Guinea, Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Java, and Luzon.

Malay Archipelago – Geography

Geologically the archipelago is one of the most active volcano|volcanic regions in the world. Tectonic uplifts have produced large mountains, including the highest in Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia, with a height of 4,095.2m and Puncak Jaya on Papua, Indonesia at . Other high mountains in the archipelago include Puncak Mandala, Indonesia at and Puncak Trikora, Indonesia, at .

Malay Archipelago – Geography

The climate throughout the archipelago, owing to its position on the equator, is tropical.

Malay Archipelago – Biogeography

Wallace used the term Malay Archipelago as the title of The Malay Archipelago|his influential book documenting his studies in the region

Malay Archipelago – Demography

Over 350 million people live in the region, with the most populated island being Java (island)|Java. The people living there are predominantly from Austronesian peoples|Austronesian subgroupings and correspondingly speak western Malayo-Polynesian languages. The main religions in this region are Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and traditional animism.

Malay Archipelago – Demography

Culturally, the region is often seen as part of Farther India or Greater India—the Coedes Indianized states of Southeast Asia refers to it as Island Southeast Asia.Coedes, G. (1968) The Indianized states of Southeast Asia Edited by Walter F. Vella. Translated by Susan Brown Cowing.Canberra : Australian National University Press. Introduction… The geographic area here called Farther India consists of Indonesia, or island Southeast Asia….

Phoneme – Neutralization and archiphonemes

An ‘archiphoneme’ is an object sometimes used to represent an underspecified phoneme.

Phoneme – Neutralization and archiphonemes

A description using the approach of underspecification would not attempt to assign to a specific phoneme in some or all of these cases, although it might be assigned to an archiphoneme, written something like |A|, which reflects the two neutralized phonemes in this position.

Phoneme – Neutralization and archiphonemes

Instead they may analyze these phones as belonging to a single archiphoneme, written something like |N|, and state the underlying representations of limp, lint, link to be .

Phoneme – Neutralization and archiphonemes

This latter type of analysis is often associated with Nikolai Trubetzkoy of the Prague school. Archiphonemes are often notated with a capital letter within pipes, as with the examples |A| and |N| given above. Other ways the second of these might be notated include , , or |n*|.

Phoneme – Neutralization and archiphonemes

As in the previous examples, some theorists would prefer not to make such a determination, and simply assign the flap in both cases to a single archiphoneme, written (for example) |D|.

Phoneme – Neutralization and archiphonemes

For a special kind of neutralization proposed in generative linguistics|generative phonology, see absolute neutralization.

Multi-Chip Module

A ‘multi-chip module (MCM)’ is a specialized electronic package where multiple integrated circuits (ICs), semiconductor dies or other discrete components are packaged onto a unifying substrate, facilitating their use as a single component (as though a larger IC). The MCM itself will often be referred to as a chip in designs, thus illustrating its integrated nature.

Multi-Chip Module – Overview

Multi-Chip Modules come in a variety of forms depending on the complexity and development philosophies of their designers. These can range from using pre-packaged ICs on a small printed circuit board (PCB) meant to mimic the package footprint of an existing chip package to fully custom chip packages integrating many chip dies on a High Density Interconnection (HDI) substrate.

Multi-Chip Module – Overview

Multi-Chip Module packaging is an important facet of modern electronic miniaturization and micro-electronic systems. MCMs are classified according to the technology used to create the HDI (High Density Interconnection) substrate.

Multi-Chip Module – Overview

* MCM-L – laminated MCM. The substrate is a multi-layer laminated PCB (Printed circuit board).

Multi-Chip Module – Overview

* MCM-D – deposited MCM. The modules are deposited on the base substrate using thin film technology.

Multi-Chip Module – Overview

* MCM-C – ceramic substrate MCMs, such as Low temperature co-fired ceramic|LTCC.

Multi-Chip Module – Chip stack MCMs

Since area is more often at a premium in miniature electronics designs, the chip-stack is an attractive option in many applications such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs)

Multi-Chip Module – Examples of MCM technologies

*IBM 3081 mainframe’s thermal conduction module (1980s)

Multi-Chip Module – Examples of MCM technologies

*Intel Pentium Pro, Pentium D Presler [http://www.theinquirer.org/?article=25746], Xeon Dempsey and Clovertown, Core 2 Quad (Kentsfield and Yorkfield) and Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale

Multi-Chip Module – Examples of MCM technologies

*Xenos (graphics chip)|Xenos, a Graphics processing unit|GPU designed by ATI Technologies for the Xbox 360, with eDRAM

Multi-Chip Module – Examples of MCM technologies

*Nintendo’s Wii U has its CPU, GPU, and onboard VRAM (integrated into the GPU) on one MCM.

Microfluidics – DNA chips (microarrays)

plastic or silicon substrate on which pieces of DNA (probes) are affixed in a microscopic

Microfluidics – DNA chips (microarrays)

array. Similar to a DNA microarray, a protein array is a miniature array

Microfluidics – DNA chips (microarrays)

where a multitude of different capture agents, most frequently monoclonal

Microfluidics – DNA chips (microarrays)

antibodies, are deposited on a chip surface; they are used to determine the

Microfluidics – DNA chips (microarrays)

presence and/or amount of proteins in biological samples, e.g., blood. A

Microfluidics – DNA chips (microarrays)

reconfigurable nor scalable after manufacture. Digital microfluidics has been described as a means for carrying out Digital PCR.

RFID chip

‘Radio-frequency identification’ (‘RFID’) is the wireless non-contact use of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects

RFID chip

RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses. Microchip implant (animal)|Livestock and pets may have tags injected, allowing positive identification of the animal. On off-shore oil and gas platforms, RFID tags are worn by personnel as a safety measure, allowing them to be located 24 hours a day and to be quickly found in emergencies.

RFID chip

Since RFID tags can be attached to clothing, possessions, or even Microchip implant (human)|implanted within people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised privacy concerns.

Infineon – Chip Card Security (CCS)

[http://www.computerwoche.de/security/2359712/ Infineon chips for the new identity cards in Computerwoche]

GeForce 6 Series – GeForce 6100 and 6150 series chip specifications

Both the 6100 and 6150 support Shader Model 3.0 and DirectX 9.0c. The 6150 also features support for High-Definition video playback, PureVideo Processing, DVI, and video-out while the 6100 supports PureVideo Processing only. Maximum supported resolution is 1920 x 1440 pixels (@75Hz) for RGB display and 1600 x 1200 pixels (@65Hz) for DVI-D display

Bark – Bark chip extraction

;Wood Adhesives from Bark-Derived Phenols:www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/fy04/wood_adhesives.pdf Wood Bark has lignin content and when it is pyrolyzed (subjected to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen), it yields a liquid bio-oil product rich in natural phenol derivatives. The phenol derivatives are isolated and recovered for application as a replacement for fossil-based phenols in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins used in Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and plywood.

CPU cache – Multi-core chips

For example, an eight-core chip with three levels may include an L1 cache for each core, an L3 cache shared by all cores, with the L2 cache intermediate, e.g., one for each pair of cores.

Analytical chemistry – Lab-on-a-chip

Devices that integrate (multiple) laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size and that are capable of handling extremely small fluid volumes down to less than picoliters.

X86 virtualization – Chipset

Memory and I/O virtualization is performed by the chipset. Typically these features must be enabled by the BIOS, which must be able to support them and also be set to use them.

Intel Corporation – Server chips

In July 2011, Intel announced that its server chips, the Xeon series, will use new sensors that can improve data center cooling efficiency.James Niccolai, IDG News. [http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/235282/intel_adds_sensors_to_aid_data_center_cooling.html Intel Adds Sensors to Aid Data Center Cooling]. PC World. July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.

Challenging the Chip

‘Challenging the Chip’ is a 2006 book on labor rights and environmental justice in the global electronics industry edited by Ted Smith (environmentalist)|Ted Smith, David A

Challenging the Chip

This 357-page book was put together by scores of people around the world (who) have been involved over the course of several years in the conceptualization, development, editing and production (of it).

Challenging the Chip – New wave of technology

It is embodied in the tiny chips (and the computers they power) that are radically and rapidly transforming our world — and, like the automobile, not always for the better.

Challenging the Chip – New wave of technology

He also contends that the story of the dark side of the chip needs to be told and retold across the global village before it is too late to do anything about it.

Challenging the Chip – New wave of technology

The book narrates the story of how the high-tech industry grew in the Valley of Heart’s Delight (before the place got renamed to Silicon Valley) and how Santa Clara Valley fruit-processing workers such as Alida Hernandez got reinvented into clean room workers. This deplorable pattern is still being replicated around the world.

Challenging the Chip – Stories of electronic workers suffering toxic exposures

The book contains stories about Electronics|electronic workers suffering toxic exposures and fighting over it. From the Southwestern US and the Maquiladora region on the Mexico–United States border, to Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, China, and India.

Challenging the Chip – Stories of electronic workers suffering toxic exposures

The book argues that far too (words) have been addressed to the downside of the (electronics industry’s) revolution. Its co-editors, in a signed article titled The Quest for Sustainability and Justice in a High-Tech World, say: Although most consumers are eager to enjoy their latest electronic games, few relate the declining prices of these and other electronic technologies to the labor of Third World women, who are paid pennies a day.

Challenging the Chip – Stories of electronic workers suffering toxic exposures

Other issues focused on by the co-editors include environmental degradation, occupational health hazards, and the widespread ignorance of the health and ecological footprints of the global electronics industry.

Challenging the Chip – Stories of electronic workers suffering toxic exposures

There are problems of contamination by hi-tech manufacturing (of workers, air, land and water) from all around — Silicon Valley in the United States, Silicon Glen in Scotland, Silicon Island in Thailand, and Silicon Paddy in China. It contrasts the reality between the CEOs and upper management drawing multimillion dollar salaries and ‘golden parachutes’ as against the reality of the production workers living in packed dormitories and often facing sweatshop conditions.

Challenging the Chip – Unsung heroines and heroes

While acknowledging the work of the hi-tech revolution pioneers, the book’s editors also points to the accomplishments of the unsung heroines and heroes of this revolution’s other side

Challenging the Chip – Globalisation of electronics, labor rights, product end-of-life

Its editors say the book has two geographical frames of reference—the vicinity of San Jose, California (or, Silicon Valley), and parts of the world increasingly integrated into global networks of electronics production, consumption, and disposal. The volume looks at three broad, integrative themes: the globalization of electronics manufacturing; labor rights and environmental justice; and the product end-of-life cycle issues (e-waste, and extended producer responsibility).

Challenging the Chip – Globalisation of electronics, labor rights, product end-of-life

In terms of global electronics, the book focuses on Silicon Valley (where the United States electronics industry’s roots lie, and which has a three-decade history of community and worker dialog and struggle). It also looks at electronics manufacturing in China, India, Thailand, and Central and Eastern Europe.

Challenging the Chip – Globalisation of electronics, labor rights, product end-of-life

In terms of labor rights and environmental justice, the book looks at the stories of workers and environmentalists taking up such issues — work hazards, antiunion hostility, and environmental health perils—in countries that range from the United States, to Mexico, Scotland, and Thailand, among others.

Challenging the Chip – Globalisation of electronics, labor rights, product end-of-life

E-waste issues get looked at in the context of trading or dumping from the North to South. But as nations like India and China increasingly modernize, their own industries and consumers are contributing to the problems as well, says the editors.

Challenging the Chip – Failed to keep pace with social and environmental advances

They argue that while the electronics industry leaders have produced enormous technical innovation over the years, they have failed to keep sufficient pace with the socially and environmentally oriented advances that are available to them

Challenging the Chip – Downside not addressed

Says an introduction to its contents: Of the millions of words written over the past several decades about the electronics industry’s incredible transformation of our world, far too few have been addressed (to) the downside of this revolution. Many are surprised to learn that environmental degradation and occupational health hazards are as much a part of high-tech manufacturing as miniaturization and other such marvels.

Challenging the Chip – Third World women’s labor, pollute surroundings

The editors also comment: Although most consumers are eager to enjoy their latest computers, televisions, cellular phones, iPods, and electronic games, few relate the declining prices of these and other electronic technologies to the labor of Third World women, who are paid pennies a day. Fewer still realize that the amazingly powerful microprocessors and superminiaturized, high-capacity memory devices harm the workers who produce them and pollute the surrounding communities’ air and water.

Challenging the Chip – Comments on the book

Sandra Steingraber calls this book essential reading for anyone who owns a cell phone or a computer and says our digital possessions connect us not only to global information but also to global contamination and injustice

Challenging the Chip – Regions covered

Chapters of the book cover Made in China electronics workers, Thailand’s electronic sector’s corporate social responsibility, electronic workers in India, workers in and around Central and Eastern Europe’s semiconductor plants (Russia, Belarus, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland and Romania), Silicon Valley’s Toxics’ Coalition and workers’ struggles, Mexico, Taiwan’s Hsinchu Science Park, other issues from Taiwan, high-tech pollution in Japan, the electronic waste trade, e-waste in Delhi, producer responsibility laws in Sweden and Japan, among other themes.

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System – TD-CDMA (UTRA-TDD 3.84 Mcps High Chip Rate)

UMTS-TDD’s air interfaces that use the TD-CDMA channel access technique are standardized as ‘UTRA-TDD HCR’, which uses increments of 5MHz of spectrum, each slice divided into 10ms frames containing fifteen time slots (1500 per second)

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System – TD-SCDMA (UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps low chip rate)

‘TD-SCDMA’ uses the Time division multiple access|TDMA channel access method combined with an adaptive synchronous CDMA component on 1.6MHz slices of spectrum, allowing deployment in even tighter frequency bands than TD-CDMA

Windshield – Repair of stone-chip and crack damage

According to the US National Windshield Repair Association many types of stone damage can be successfully repaired. Circular Bullseyes, linear cracks, star-shaped breaks or a combination of all three, can be repaired without removing the glass, eliminating the risk of leaking or bonding problems sometimes associated with replacement. Repair of cracks up to is within permissible limits, Auto glass with more severe damage needs to be replaced.

Windshield – Repair of stone-chip and crack damage

In cracked windshield repair, air is removed from the damaged area on the windshield with a specified vacuum injection pump. Then using the injection pump, clear adhesive resin is injected to replace the air in the windshield crack. The resin is then cured with an ultraviolet light. When done properly, the damaged area’s strength is restored, as is 90–95% of the clarity. Auto glass chip repair usually take about 15–20 minutes.

Samsung Electro-Mechanics – MLCC (multilayer chip capacitor)

The multilayer chip capacitor (MLCC) is a commonly used part in electronic products. For example, a smart phone has more than 400 MLCCs, while a tablet PC contains about

Samsung Electro-Mechanics – MLCC (multilayer chip capacitor)

500, a laptop computer contains least 800 and an LCD TV uses over 1,300. These devices serve as a kind of dam to adjust electrical current to the specification of the product in question.

Samsung Electro-Mechanics – MLCC (multilayer chip capacitor)

The global trend toward smaller and lighter electronics products is driving demand for MLCCs of smaller sizes with higher capacities.

Advanced Multimedia Supplements – Chipsets and engines

There are also implementations targeted mainly for mobile device manufacturers.

List of Smartphones using GLONASS Navigation – Any latest generation Qualcomm gpsONE(tm) Chipset based device

* Devices using latest Qualcomm chipsets have GLONASS as part of the gpsOne(tm)

List of Smartphones using GLONASS Navigation – Any latest generation Qualcomm gpsONE(tm) Chipset based device

* Qualcomm Blog article on GLONASS support being added

IEEE P1905 – Chipsets

Qualcomm [http://qca.qualcomm.com/tag/nvoy/] indicated its 2014 AV2 chip releases would include nVoy support

Texas Instruments – First speech synthesis chip

[http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4102385/TI-will-exit-dedicated-speech-synthesis-chips-transfer-products-to-Sensory]

Exynos (system on chip)

‘Exynos’ is a series of ARM architecture|ARM-based System on a chip|System-on-Chips (SoCs) developed and manufactured by Samsung Electronics and is a continuation of Samsung’s earlier S3C, S5L and S5P line of SoCs.

Exynos (system on chip) – History

In 2010 Samsung launched the S5PC110 (now Exynos 3 Single) in its Samsung Galaxy S mobile phone, which featured a licensed ARM Cortex-A8 Central processing unit|CPU.

Exynos (system on chip) – History

In early 2011, Samsung first launched the Exynos 4210 SoC in its Samsung Galaxy S II mobile smartphone. The driver code for the Exynos 4210 was made available in the Linux kernel and support was added in version 3.2 in November 2011.

Exynos (system on chip) – History

On 29 September 2011, Samsung introduced Exynos 4212 as a successor to the 4210; it features a higher clock frequency and 50 percent higher 3D graphics performance over the previous processor generation. Built with a 32nm|32nm High-k dielectric|High-K Metal Gate (HKMG) low-power process; it promises a 30 percent lower power-level over the previous process generation.

Exynos (system on chip) – History

On 30 November 2011, Samsung released information about their upcoming SoC with a Multi-core processor|dual-core ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore|ARM Cortex-A15 CPU, which was initially named Exynos 5250 and was later renamed to Exynos 5 Dual

Exynos (system on chip) – History

On 26 April 2012, Samsung released the Exynos 4 Quad, which powers the Samsung Galaxy S III and Samsung Galaxy Note II. The Exynos 4 Quad SoC uses 20% less power than the SoC in Samsung Galaxy SII. Samsung also changed the name of several SoCs, Exynos 3110 to Exynos 3 Single, Exynos 4210 and 4212 to Exynos 4 Dual 45nm, and Exynos 4 Dual 32nm and Exynos 5250 to Exynos 5 Dual.

Snapdragon (system on chip)

‘Snapdragon’ is a family of mobile system on chip|systems on a chip (SoC) by Qualcomm. Qualcomm considers Snapdragon a platform for use in smartphones, tablets, and smartbook devices.

Snapdragon (system on chip)

The original Snapdragon CPU, dubbed Scorpion (CPU)|Scorpion, is Qualcomm’s own design. It has many features similar to those of the ARM architecture|ARM ARM Cortex-A8|Cortex-A8 core and it is based on the ARMv7 instruction set, but theoretically has much higher performance for multimedia-related SIMD operations. The successor to Scorpion, found in S4 Snapdragon SoCs is named Krait (CPU)|Krait and has many similarities with the ARM Cortex-A15 CPU and is also based on the ARMv7 instruction set.

Snapdragon (system on chip)

Majority Snapdragon processors contain the circuitry to decode high-definition video (HD) resolution at 720p or 1080p depending on the Snapdragon chipset. Adreno, the company’s proprietary GPU technology, integrated into Snapdragon chipsets (and certain other Qualcomm chipsets) is Qualcomm’s own design, using assets the company acquired from AMD. The Adreno 225 GPU in Snapdragon S4 SoCs adds support for DirectX 9/Shader Model 3.0 which makes it compatible with Microsoft’s Windows 8.

Snapdragon (system on chip)

It also has the advantage of benefiting from advances in the manufacturing process, for example 28 nanometer|28nm in most S4 SoCs, thus providing modems and other dedicated circuitry with lower power characteristics than external chips manufactured with older processes.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – History

* In 4th Quarter of 2008, the first chipsets in the Snapdragon family, the QSD8650 and the QSD8250, were made available.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – History

* On 1 June 2010, Qualcomm announced sampling of the MSM8x60 series of Snapdragon SoCs.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – History

* On 17 November 2010, Qualcomm announces the roadmap for Next-Gen Snapdragon SoC development, including the MSM8960, citing future improvements in CPU and GPU performance and lower power consumption.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – History

* On 5 January 2011, a version of Microsoft Windows 7 compiled for ARM was shown running on the Snapdragon SoC at the 2011 Consumer Electronics Show.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – History

* On 3 August 2011, Qualcomm announced a plan to use simple names (S1, S2, S3 and S4) for Snapdragon processors so that the public can better understand the products. The higher the number, the newer generation of SoC it is.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – History

* On 7 January 2013, Qualcomm announced new names and tiers for the 2013 line of Snapdragon SoC’s, Snapdragon 200, 400, 600 and 800. The model tiers can easiest be described as equivalent to the Play (200), Plus (400), Pro (600) and Prime (800) tiers of the S4 generation of SoCs.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Snapdragon 410

The Snapdragon 410 system on a chip was announced on the 9 December 2013, it is Qualcomm’s first 64-bit mobile system on a chip. It also has Multimode 4G LTE, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, NFC, GPS, GLONASS and BeiDou capabilities, and contains the Adreno 306 GPU. It is capable of supporting a 1080p screen and a 13 Megapixel camera.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Snapdragon 602A

The Snapdragon 602A[http://www.qualcomm.com/media/releases/2014/01/06/qualcomm-introduces-snapdragon-automotive-solutions-connected-car Qualcomm News and Events] processor was announced on the 6th of January 2014, it is Qualcomm’s solution to car industry.

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Snapdragon 802

It’s a New Ultra HD Processor for TVs and Set-Top-Boxes.[http://www.qualcomm.com/media/releases/2014/01/06/qualcomm-announces-new-ultra-hd-processor-tvs-and-set-top-boxes Qualcomm News and Events]

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Snapdragon 805

* Krait 450 quad-core CPU running at up to 2.5GHz

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Snapdragon 805

* 4K UHD video upscale play

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Snapdragon 805

* Dual camera image signal processor

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Similar platforms

* OMAP by Texas Instruments

Snapdragon (system on chip) – Similar platforms

* I.MX#i.MX6x series|i.MX by Freescale Semiconductor

Celeron 743 – Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm)

* Based on Westmere (Microarchitecture)|Westmere microarchitecture

Celeron 743 – Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm)

* All models support: MMX (instruction set)|MMX, Streaming SIMD Extensions|SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Smart Cache.

Celeron 743 – Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm)

* Contains 45 nm Ironlake graphics processing unit|GPU.

Celeron 743 – Arrandale (microprocessor)|Arrandale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm)

* P4505 and U3405 support memory ECC RAM and PCIe bifurcation.

Apple (system on chip) – Apple A5

The chip in the Apple TV has one core disabled.[http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/12/03/18/single_core_a5_cpu_in_new_1080p_apple_tv_doubles_ram_to_512mb.html Single-core A5 CPU in new 1080p Apple TV doubles RAM to 512MB] The markings of the square package indicates that it’s named APL2498, and in software, the chip is called S5L8942

Apple (system on chip) – Apple A6

The A6 is said to use a 1.3GHz custom Apple-designed ARM architecture|ARMv7 based Multi-core processor|dual-core CPU, called Swift, rather than a licensed CPU from ARM like in previous designs, and an integrated 266MHz triple-core PowerVR SGX 543MP3 citation |url=http://www.anandtech.com/show/6323/apple-a6-die-revealed-3core-gpu-100mm2 |title=Apple A6 Die Revealed: 3-core GPU, graphics processing unit (GPU)

Allwinner Technology – Chipset Specs

The Allwinner SoC family includes A-series, which is intended for Android OS, and F-series, which is intended for the company’s self-developed Melis operating system.

Allwinner Technology – Chipset Specs

The A-Series; A10, A20 and A31 SoC’s has a proprietary inhouse designed multimedia co-processing DSP|DSP (Digital Signal Processing) processor technology for hardware accelerated video, image, and audio decoding, called CedarX (with subprocssing called CedarV for video decoding and CedarA for audio decoding), able to decode 2160p 2D and 1080p 3D video

MediaTek – Closed nature of System on a chip|system-on-chip solutions

A petition was launched on February, 2013, to ask MediaTek to provide support for Android (operating system)#Open-source community|AOSP and custom ROMs.iPetition/aosp-support-for-mediatek-devices

Rockchip

Due to their evolution from the MP3/MP4 player market most Rockchip ICs feature advanced media decoding logic but lack integrated cellular radio basebands.

Rockchip

Rockchip is an ARM Holdings|ARM licensee and uses the ARM architecture for the majority of its projects.

Rockchip – RK27xx series

Rockchip was first known for their RK 27xx series that was very efficient at MP3/MP4 decoding and was integrated in many low-cost PMP products.

Rockchip – RK2806[http://www.rock-chips.com/product.php?id68width830height500 ]

* Up to 1280×720 h.263 and h.264 software video acceleration.

Rockchip – RK2808A[http://www.rock-chips.com/product.php?id77width830height500 ]

This chip is the core of many Android (Operating System)|Android and Windows Mobile mobile internet devices.

Rockchip – RK2816[http://www.rock-chips.com/product.php?id69width830height500 ]

The RK2816 is targeted at Portable media player|PMP devices, and Mobile Internet device|MIDs. It has the same specifications as the RK2806 but also includes HDMI output, Android os|Android support, and up to 720p Hardware video acceleration.

Rockchip – RK2818[http://www.rock-chips.com/product.php?id76width830height500 ]

* Up to 720p hardware video acceleration for h.264

Rockchip – RK291x series

The Rockchip RK291x is a family of System-on-a-chip|SoCs based on the ARM Cortex-A8 CPU core. They were presented for the first time at Consumer Electronic Show|CES 2011.

Rockchip – RK291x series

The RK2918 is compatible with Android (operating system)|Android Froyo (2.2), Gingerbread(2.3), HoneyComb (3.x) and Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0).[http://armdevices.net/2011/01/07/rockchip-presents-rk2818-and-rk29xx-series-processors-at-ces-2011/] on ARMdevices.net (Unofficial support for Ubuntu and other Linux flavours exists.)

Rockchip – RK291x series

* Cortex-A8 processor, clocked at up to 1.2GHz (due to stability reasons often limited to 1GHz)

Rockchip – RK291x series

* NEON ARM NEON|SIMD support

Rockchip – RK291x series

* Vivante GC800 GPU supporting Open GL ES 2.0 and Open VG 1.1 support

Rockchip – RK291x series

* VPU (Video Processing Unit) supporting 1080p image and video decoding for h.264, Xvid, H263, AVS, MPEG4, RV, and WMV

Rockchip – RK291x series

* USB 1.1 Host, USB 2.0 Host and USB 2.0 Device Interface

Rockchip – RK291x series

The RK2906 is basically a RK2918 but the costdown version ([http://innovel.com.tw/en/products/seven-inch-series/I701s/ with HDMI output]).

Rockchip – RK292x series

The Rockchip RK2928 contains a single core ARM Cortex A9 running at speeds of 1GHz or 1.2GHz, It replaces the Vivante GC800 GPU of the older RK291x series with an ARM architecture|ARM Mali (GPU)|Mali-400 GPU.

Rockchip – RK30xx series

The Rockchip RK30xx series use a dual core ARM Cortex-A9 CPU core.

Rockchip – RK30xx series

In terms of performance, the RK3066 is between the Samsung Exynos 4210 and the Samsung Exynos 4212.[http://pdadb.net/index.php?m=cpuid=a3066c=rockchip_rk3066 Rockchip RK3066 RISC Application Processor]http://www.cnx-software.com/2012/11/04/rockchip-rk3066-rk30xx-processor-documentation-source-code-and-tools/ Rockchip RK3066/RK30xx Processors Documentation, Source Code and Tools[http://yuandao-n90-window-dual-core-2.googlecode.com/files/RK3066_MID.pdf Schematics for RK3066 reference tablet (RK3066_REF_2CELL)][http://yuandao-n90-window-dual-core-2.googlecode.com/files/RK3066_datasheet_brief.pdf RK3066 datasheet brief]

Rockchip – RK30xx series

* Dual-core Cortex-A9 processor (ARMv7 architecture) clocked up to 1.6GHz

Rockchip – RK30xx series

* Quad core Mali (GPU)|Mali 400, clocked at 250MHz supporting Open GL ES 2.0, Open VG 1.1 support, 9 GFLOPS

Rockchip – RK30xx series

* VPU (Video Processing Unit) Multi-Media Processor supporting 1080p image and video decoding

Rockchip – RK31xx series

Rockchip has announced the RK31xx series for 2nd quarter of 2013. The RK3188 is based on ARM’s Cortex A9 design and features a quad core CPU clocked at 1.8-2.0GHz frequency on a 28nm process. In April 2013, Rockchip showed the RK3168, a very low power dual core Cortex A9 based CPU, also manufactured using the 28nm process.

Rockchip – RK32xx series

Rockchip has announced the RK32xx series for the second quarter of 2014. It will feature an ARM Cortex-A12 CPU and ARM Mali-T624 GPU.

Core i5-2467M – Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm dual-core)

* All models support: MMX (instruction set)|MMX, Streaming SIMD Extensions|SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Trusted Execution Technology|TXT, Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Hyper-Threading, Turbo Boost, AES instruction set|AES-NI, Smart Cache.

Core i5-2467M – Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm dual-core)

* Core i5-655K, Core i5-661 does not support Intel TXT and Intel VT-d.[http://ark.intel.com/Compare.aspx?ids=43546,48750,43550,43553, Core i5-655K, Core i5-661 does not support Intel TXT and Intel VT-d]

Core i5-2467M – Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm dual-core)

* Core i5-655K features an unlocked multiplier.

Core i5-2467M – Clarkdale (microprocessor)|Clarkdale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm dual-core)

* Front-side bus|FSB has been replaced with Direct Media Interface|DMI.

Core i5-2467M – Haswell-H (Multi-chip package|MCP, quad-core, 22 nm)

* All models support: MMX (instruction set)|MMX, Streaming SIMD Extensions|SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, Advanced Vector Extensions|AVX, Advanced Vector Extensions 2|AVX2, FMA3, Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), Intel 64, XD bit (an NX bit implementation), Intel VT-x, Intel VT-d, Turbo Boost, AES instruction set|AES-NI, Smart Cache, Intel Insider.

Core i5-2467M – Haswell-H (Multi-chip package|MCP, quad-core, 22 nm)

* Core i5-4570R and Core i5-4670R also contain Crystalwell: 128 MiB eDRAM built at (22 nm) acting as CPU cache#Multi-level caches|L4 cache

Core i5-2467M – Arrandale (microprocessor)|Arrandale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm)

* i5-5xx series (i5-520M, i5-520E, i5-540M, i5-560M, i5-580M, i5-520UM, i5-540UM, i5-560UM) supports AES-NI, Trusted Execution Technology|TXT and Intel VT-d. ark.intel.com/ProductCollection.aspx?familyId=43483

Core i5-2467M – Arrandale (microprocessor)|Arrandale (Multi-chip package|MCP, 32 nm)

* Core i5-520E has support for ECC memory and PCI express port bifurcation.

Intel Skulltrail – Although found to be an extremely powerful computing platform, Skulltrail has been criticized by media outlets for being ahead of its time. This is in part due to the lack of support for multi-core computing with many popular game engines at the time, in addition to the extremely high price of the components involved. The use of FB-DIMMs due to the workstation chipset has also been pointed at as a major limiting factor for Skulltrail.[http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/cpu/display/intel-skulltrail_12.html Kinky Luxury: Intel Skulltrail Platform Review][http://www.hothardware.com/Articles/Intel_Skulltrail_Unleashed_Core_2_Extreme_QX9775_x_2/?page13 Intel Skulltrail Unleashed: Core 2 Extreme QX9775 × 2][http://enthusiast.hardocp.com/article.html?artMTQ1OCw5LCxoZW50aHVzaWFzdA

Intel Skulltrail Preview] although this limitation can be mitigated by purchasing specially designed Kingston HyperX FB-DIMMS that have a lower latency than generic FB-DIMMshttp://www.legitreviews.com/article/724/1/

Intel Skulltrail – Although found to be an extremely powerful computing platform, Skulltrail has been criticized by media outlets for being ahead of its time. This is in part due to the lack of support for multi-core computing with many popular game engines at the time, in addition to the extremely high price of the components involved. The use of FB-DIMMs due to the workstation chipset has also been pointed at as a major limiting factor for Skulltrail.[http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/cpu/display/intel-skulltrail_12.html Kinky Luxury: Intel Skulltrail Platform Review][http://www.hothardware.com/Articles/Intel_Skulltrail_Unleashed_Core_2_Extreme_QX9775_x_2/?page13 Intel Skulltrail Unleashed: Core 2 Extreme QX9775 × 2][http://enthusiast.hardocp.com/article.html?artMTQ1OCw5LCxoZW50aHVzaWFzdA

The base Skulltrail platform consists of an Intel D5400XS mainboard which cost upwards of US$600 when it hit the market as a standalone part

Intel Skulltrail – Although found to be an extremely powerful computing platform, Skulltrail has been criticized by media outlets for being ahead of its time. This is in part due to the lack of support for multi-core computing with many popular game engines at the time, in addition to the extremely high price of the components involved. The use of FB-DIMMs due to the workstation chipset has also been pointed at as a major limiting factor for Skulltrail.[http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/cpu/display/intel-skulltrail_12.html Kinky Luxury: Intel Skulltrail Platform Review][http://www.hothardware.com/Articles/Intel_Skulltrail_Unleashed_Core_2_Extreme_QX9775_x_2/?page13 Intel Skulltrail Unleashed: Core 2 Extreme QX9775 × 2][http://enthusiast.hardocp.com/article.html?artMTQ1OCw5LCxoZW50aHVzaWFzdA

Intel’s Skulltrail D5400XS motherboard is made with two nForce chips. The Skulltrail D5400XS motherboard is now just one of the motherboards available, along with motherboards with Intel X58|X58 and Intel P55|P55 chipsets, that runs both nVidia|nVidia’s Scalable Link Interface|SLI and ATI Technologies|ATI’s ATI CrossFire|Crossfire platforms out of the box with public hardware drivers.

List of single-board computers – Snapdragon (system on chip)|Qualcomm Snapdragon

* [http://www.inforcecomputing.com/product/moreinfo/ifc6410.html IFC6410] – Snapdragon S4 Pro APQ8064 (from Inforce Computing)

List of single-board computers – Samsung Exynos (system on chip)|Exynos

* Origen Board[http://www.origenboard.org OrigenBoard.org] – Exynos 4 Dual, Quad development board, Official Samsung reference board for Linaro

List of single-board computers – Samsung Exynos (system on chip)|Exynos

* [http://www.hardkernel.com/renewal_2011/products/prdt_info.php Hardkernel ODROID] – Exynos 4 and 5 Boards

ARM11 – Chips

* Cavium ECONA CNS3000 series [http://www.cavium.com/ECONA_CNS3″.html ECONA CNS3″ ARM Based SoC Processors] at Cavium.com

ARM11 – Chips

* CSR plc|CSR Quatro 4230, Quatro 4500 series, Quatro 5300 series

ARM11 – Chips

* Freescale Semiconductor i.MX3x series, such as i.MX31, I.MX#i.MX35_family|i.MX35

ARM11 – Chips

* Texas Instruments OMAP|OMAP2 series, with a Texas Instruments TMS320|TMS320 C55x or C64x digital signal processor|DSP as a second core

Serial Digital Video Out – Intel chipsets supporting SDVO

Intel documents SDVO as existing within the chipsets integrating an Intel GMA|Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA 900 through 3000 families).

Chip select

‘Chip select’ (‘CS’) or ‘slave select’ (‘SS’) is the name of a control line in digital electronics used to select one chip out of several connected to the same computer bus usually utilizing the three-state logic.

Chip select

One bus that uses the chip/slave select is the Serial Peripheral Interface Bus.

Chip select

When an engineer needs to connect several devices to the same set of input wires (e.g., a computer bus), but retain the ability to send and receive data or commands to each device independently of the others on the bus, he can use a chip select. The chip select is a command pin on many integrated circuits which connects the I/O pins on the device to the internal circuitry of that device.

Chip select

Because the other chips have their chip select pins in the inactive state, their outputs are high impedance, allowing the single selected chip to drive its outputs.

Chip select

In short, the chip select is an access-enable switch. ON means the device responds to changes on its input pins (such as data or address information for a RAM device) and drives any output pins (possibly not at the same time), while OFF tells the device to ignore the outside world for both inputs and outputs.

Realtek – Chipsets for HD multimedia players and recorders

The increasing popularity of HD media players in 2009 led to the entry of Realtek into that market. The first series, the ‘1xx3’ modelsFor Realtek chipsets the last number in the chipset name indicates the chipset generation. So all chips ending in ‘3’ are 1xx3 (2009) generation and all ending in ‘5’ are 1xx5 (2011) generation.

Realtek – Chipsets for HD multimedia players and recorders

sold at a lower price than similar quality chipsets of Realtek’s competitors. (The main competitors were the Sigma Media Players.)

Realtek – Chipsets for HD multimedia players and recorders

Realtek produced three major versions of Realtek 1xx3 and several minor variations. The three major 1xx3 chipset versions (1073, 1183, and 1283) all featured the same chip in terms of format support and performance, the only difference being the added ability to record AV sources in the 1283. HD Audio support in the 1xx3 improved through the chipset’s life with several revisions. The DD and CC versions of the chipset both added full 7.1 HD-audio support to the chipset.

Realtek – Chipsets for HD multimedia players and recorders

The 1073 players all built on a common SDK (firmware+OS) provided by Realtek. This meant that they were all essentially similar in performance and interface. It also meant that producing these players was very easy for manufacturers, all they had to do was create the hardware and Realtek provided the software.

Realtek – Chipsets for HD multimedia players and recorders

Key players from the Realtek 1073 era were the original Xtreamer, the Asus O!PlayHD, ACRyan PlayOn and the Mede8er MED500X Manufacturers released hundreds of Realtek 1073 players.

Realtek – Chipsets for HD multimedia players and recorders

As with the later version of the 1xx8 chipset full 7.1 HD-audio downmix and passthrough are supported in the 1xx5.

Realtek – Chipsets for HD multimedia players and recorders

Realtek released the next generation of its chipsets, the ‘1xx6’ series 1186, in early October 2011. This runs at 750Mhz, has HDMI 1.4, is capable of 3D including 3D ISO, and is able to dual-boot into Android. Key 1186 players include the Mede8er X3D Series (MED1000X3D, MED800X3D, MED600X3D), Xtreamer Prodigy 3D and HiMedia 900B.

List of important publications in computer science – The case for a single-chip multiprocessor

* Kunle Olukotun, Basem Nayfeh, Lance Hammond, Kenneth G. Wilson|Ken Wilson, Kunyung Chang

List of important publications in computer science – The case for a single-chip multiprocessor

* [http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.136.951rep=rep1type=pdf Online version(PDF)]

List of important publications in computer science – The case for a single-chip multiprocessor

Description: This paper argues that the approach taken to improving the performance of processors by adding multiple instruction issue and out-of-order execution cannot continue to provide speedups indefinitely. It lays out the case for making single chip processors that contain multiple cores. With the mainstream introduction of multicore processors by List of Intel microprocessors|Intel in 2005, and their subsequent domination of the market, this paper was shown to be prescient.

Chiphopper

The IBM Systems Application Advantage for Linux, also known as the Chiphopper offering, is designed to help you in porting, testing, and supporting your existing Linux® x86 applications on other IBM Systems and middleware platforms. It can help you maximize your Linux market opportunity while minimizing your expense.

Chiphopper

The Chiphopper offering helps developers whose applications run on x86 Linux systems by providing Programming tool|tools to scrub their C (programming language)|C/C++ code for Software portability|portability prior to porting to Power Architecture and System z systems. Source Computer hardware|hardware platforms for 32- and 64-bit applications are x86, EM64T, and AMD systems running Linux Standard Base (LSB) 3.x certified Linux distributions.

POWER4 – Multi-chip configuration

The POWER4 also came in a configuration using a multi-chip module (MCM) containing four POWER4 dies in a single package, with up to 128 MB of shared L3 ECC cache per MCM.

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

First implementation came from Samsung in 2012 with the Exynos 5 Dual, which shipped in October 2012 with the Samsung Chromebook Series 3 (ARM version), followed in November by the Nexus 10|Google Nexus 10.

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

Implementations of other manufacturers are expected to hit market in 2013.

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

Press announcements of forthcoming implementations:

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

*Broadcom SoC[ www.thinq.co.uk/2011/2/17/broadcom-announces-plans-arms-cortex-a15-soc/ Broadcom announces plans for ARM’s Cortex-A15 SoC | thinq]

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

*HiSilicon K3V3[ www.tomshardware.com/news/Huawei-HiSilicon-K3V3-Chipset-Smartphones,20327.html Huawei Announces HiSilicon K3V3 Chipset For Smartphones] on Tom’s Hardware

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

*Nvidia Tegra#Upcoming releases|Tegra 4 (Wayne)[ pressroom.nvidia.com/easyir/customrel.do?easyirid=A0D622CE9F579F09version=livereleasejsp=release_157xhtml=trueprid=705184 NVIDIA Announces Project Denver to Build Custom CPU Cores Based on ARM Architecture, Targeting Personal Computers to Supercomputers – NVIDIA Newsroom]

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

*Samsung Exynos 5 Dual[ www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/newsView.do?news_id=1267 Samsung Announces Industry First ARM Cortex-A15 Processor Samples for Tablet Computers]

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

*ST-Ericsson NovaThor|Nova A9600 (dual-core @ 2.5GHz over 20k DMIPS)[ www.stericsson.com/press_releases/NovaThor.jsp Changing the game: ST-Ericsson Unveils NovaThor™ Family of Smartphone Platforms Combining its Most Advanced Application Processors with the Latest Generation of Modems]

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

*Texas Instruments OMAP#OMAP 5|OMAP 5 SoCs[ www.ti.com/ww/en/omap/omap5/omap5-platform.html?DCMP=OMAP5HQS=Other+PR+wbu_omap5_pr_v OMAP? Applications Processors – OMAP? 5 Platform]

ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore – Chips

Other licensees, such as LG,[ www.arm.com/about/newsroom/lg-electronics-licenses-arm-processor-technology-to-drive-platform-strategy-in-home-and-mobile-markets.php LG Electronics Licenses ARM Processor Technology to Drive – ARM][ www.itproportal.com/2011/04/26/why-lg-getting-arm-cortex-a15-license-big-deal/ Why LG Getting ARM Cortex A15 License Is A Big Deal | ITProPortal.com] are expected to produce an A15 based design at some point.

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