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CLOUD COMPUTING

Cloud computing Hosted services

In marketing, cloud computing is mostly used to sell hosted services in the sense of application service provisioning that run client server software at a remote location

Cloud computing Since 2000

Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving “two-pizza teams” (teams small enough to feed with two pizzas) could add new features faster and more easily, Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers, and launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006.

Cloud computing Since 2000

By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing “to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them” and observed that “organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models” so that the “projected shift to computing ..

Cloud computing Since 2000

On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the IBM SmartCloud framework to support Smarter Planet. Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation, cloud computing is a critical piece.

Cloud computing Service models

In 2012, network as a service (NaaS) and communication as a service (CaaS) were officially included by ITU (International Telecommunication Union) as part of the basic cloud computing models, recognized service categories of a telecommunication-centric cloud ecosystem.

Cloud computing Hybrid cloud

Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Such composition expands deployment options for cloud services, allowing IT organizations to use public cloud computing resources to meet temporary needs. This capability enables hybrid clouds to employ cloud bursting for scaling across clouds.

Cloud computing Hybrid cloud

Cloud bursting is an application deployment model in which an application runs in a private cloud or data center and “bursts” to a public cloud when the demand for computing capacity increases. A primary advantage of cloud bursting and a hybrid cloud model is that an organization only pays for extra compute resources when they are needed.

Cloud computing Hybrid cloud

Cloud bursting enables data centers to create an in-house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads, and use cloud resources from public or private clouds, during spikes in processing demands.

Cloud computing Hybrid cloud

By utilizing “hybrid cloud” architecture, companies and individuals are able to obtain degrees of fault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability without dependency on internet connectivity. Hybrid cloud architecture requires both on-premises resources and off-site (remote) server-based cloud infrastructure.

Cloud computing Hybrid cloud

Hybrid clouds lack the flexibility, security and certainty of in-house applications. Hybrid cloud provides the flexibility of in house applications with the fault tolerance and scalability of cloud based services.

Cloud computing Aspects of cloud management systems

A cloud management system is a combination of software and technologies designed to manage cloud environments. The industry has responded to the management challenges of cloud computing with cloud management systems. HP, Novell, Eucalyptus, OpenNebula, Citrix and are among the vendors that have management systems specifically for managing cloud environments.

Cloud computing Aspects of cloud management systems

At a minimum, a cloud management solution should be able to manage a pool of heterogeneous compute resources, provide access to end users, monitor security, manage resource allocation and manage tracking. For composite applications, cloud management solutions also encompass frameworks for workflow mapping and management.

Cloud computing Aspects of cloud management systems

Enterprises with large-scale cloud implementations may require more robust cloud management tools that include specific characteristics, such as the ability to manage multiple platforms from a single point of reference, include intelligent analytics to automate processes like application lifecycle management

Converged infrastructure Converged infrastructure and cloud computing

Converged infrastructure can serve as an enabling platform for private and public cloud computing services, including Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS) offerings.

Converged infrastructure Converged infrastructure and cloud computing

Several characteristics make converged infrastructure well suited to cloud deployments. These include the ability to pool IT resources, to automate resource provisioning and to scale up and down capacity quickly to meet the needs of dynamic computing workloads.

Cloud computing Threats and opportunities of the cloud

Critical voices including GNU project initiator Richard Stallman and Oracle founder Larry Ellison warned that the whole concept is rife with and ownership concerns and constitute merely a fad.

Cloud computing Threats and opportunities of the cloud

However, cloud computing continues to gain steam with 56% of the major European technology decision-makers estimate that the cloud is a priority in 2013 and 2014, and the cloud budget may reach 30% of the overall IT budget.

Cloud computing Threats and opportunities of the cloud

According to the TechInsights Report 2013: Cloud Succeeds based on a survey, the cloud implementations generally meets or exceedes expectations across major service models, such as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS)”.

Cloud computing Threats and opportunities of the cloud

Several deterrents to the widespread adoption of cloud computing remain

Elasticity (cloud computing)

In cloud computing, elasticity is defined as the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and deprovisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible

Elasticity (cloud computing) Example

Let us illustrate elasticity through a simple example of a service provider who wants to run a website on an IaaS cloud

Elasticity (cloud computing) Example

At time , the website becomes unpopular again. The ten machines that are currently allocated to the website are mostly idle and a single machine would be sufficient to serve the few users who are accessing the website. An elastic system should immediately detect this condition and deprovision nine machines and release them to the cloud.

Elasticity (cloud computing) Purpose

Elasticity aims at matching the amount of resources allocated to a service with the amount of resources it actually requires, avoiding over- or under-provisioning

Elasticity (cloud computing) Purpose

Under-provisioning, i.e., allocating fewer resources than required, must be avoided, otherwise the service cannot serve its users with a good service. In the above example, under-provisioning the website may make it seem slow or unreachable. Web users eventually give up on accessing it, thus, the service provider loses customers. On the long term, the provider’s income will decrease, which also reduces the profit.

Cloud computing comparison General information

fluid Operations 2009-03-01 Proprietary Java, C Yes ?

Cloud computing comparison General information

AppScale 2009-03-07 BSD License Python, Ruby, Go Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison General information

Cloud Foundry 2011-04-12 Apache License Ruby, C Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison General information

Cloud.com 2010-05-04 Apache license Java, C Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison General information

Eucalyptus 2008-05-29 Proprietary, GPL v3 Java, C Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison General information

Nimbus 2009-01-09 Apache License Java, Python Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison General information

OpenNebula 2008-03-?? Apache License C++, C, Ruby, Java, Shell script, lex, yacc Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison General information

OpenShift 2011-05-04 Apache License Ruby Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison General information

OnApp 2010-07-01 Proprietary Java, Ruby, C++ Yes Yes

Cloud computing comparison Supported Hosts

Software Linux Windows Bare Metal

Cloud computing comparison Supported Clients

(what the cloud software will run as a virtual instance)

Cloud computing comparison Supported Clients

Software Linux Windows VMware Xen KVM VirtualBox Other

Cloud computing comparison Supported Clients

fluid Operations Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Cloud computing comparison Supported Clients

Jelastic ? ? ? ? ? ? Parallels Virtuozzo Containers

Cloud computing comparison Providers

PaaS providers which can run on IaaS providers (“itself” means the provider is both PaaS and IaaS):

Cloud computing comparison Providers

OpenNebula ? ? ? itself

Cloud computing comparison Providers

AppHarbor Yes (1 worker) Unlimited 49$ 2 workers, 200$ 4 workers ?

Cloud computing comparison Providers

OpenShift Yes (3 small gears) Unlimited $42 ($0.05/hr per small gear, $0.12/hr per medium gear, up to 16 gears) ?

Cloud computing comparison Features

Failover – supports automatic handling of hardware failures (Failover) (partial indicates failovers of controller nodes are not supported)

Cloud computing comparison Features

OCCI – supports Open Cloud Computing Interface

Cloud computing comparison Features

Software Failover OCCI vCloud S3

Cloud computing comparison Features

OpenNebula Partial Yes Yes No

Computer security Cloud computing security

Security in the cloud is challenging, due to varied degrees of security features and management schemes within the cloud entities. In this connection one logical protocol base needs to evolve so that the entire gamut of components operates synchronously and securely.

Cloud computing

In science, cloud computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network and means the ability to run a program on many connected computers at the same time

Cloud computing

The popularity of the term can be attributed to its use in marketing to sell hosted services in the sense of application service provisioning that run client server software on a remote location.

Cloud computing Advantages

Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services.

Cloud computing Advantages

The cloud also focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources

Cloud computing Advantages

The term “moving to cloud” also refers to an organization moving away from a traditional CAPEX model (buy the dedicated hardware and depreciate it over a period of time) to the OPEX model (use a shared cloud infrastructure and pay as you use it).

Cloud computing Advantages

Proponents claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs, and focus on projects that differentiate their businesses instead of infrastructure. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.

Cloud computing The 1950s

The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1950s, when large-scale mainframe computers became available in academia and corporations, accessible via thin clients/terminal computers, often referred to as “static terminals”, because they were used for communications but had no internal processing capacities

Cloud computing The 1960s–1990s

Other scholars have shown that cloud computing’s roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch’s law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers

Cloud computing The 1990s

Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.

Cloud computing The 1990s

As computers became more prevalent, scientists and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to more users through time sharing, experimenting with algorithms to provide the optimal use of the infrastructure, platform and applications with prioritized access to the CPU and efficiency for the end users.

Cloud computing Growth and popularity

The development of the Internet from being document centric via semantic data towards more and more services was described as “Dynamic Web”. This contribution focused in particular in the need for better meta-data able to describe not only implementation details but also conceptual details of model-based applications.

Cloud computing Growth and popularity

The present availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture, autonomic, and utility computing have led to a growth in cloud computing.

Cloud computing Financials

Cloud vendors are experiencing growth rates of 90% per annum.

Cloud computing Origin of the term

The origin of the term cloud computing is unclear. The expression cloud is commonly used in science to describe a large agglomeration of objects that visually appear from a distance as a cloud and describes any set of things whose details are not inspected further in a given context.

Cloud computing Origin of the term

Meteorology: a weather cloud is an agglomeration.

Cloud computing Origin of the term

Mathematics: a large number of points in a coordinate system in mathematics is seen as a point cloud;

Cloud computing Origin of the term

Astronomy: stars that appear crowded together in the sky are known as nebula (Latin for mist or cloud), e.g. the Milky Way;

Cloud computing Origin of the term

Physics: The indeterminate position of electrons around an atomic kernel appears like a cloud to a distant observer

Cloud computing Origin of the term

In analogy to above usage the word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams. The cloud symbol was used to represent the Internet as early as 1994, in which servers were then shown connected to, but external to, the cloud symbol.

Cloud computing Origin of the term

References to cloud computing in its modern sense can be found as early as 1996, with the earliest known mention to be found in a Compaq internal document.

Cloud computing Origin of the term

The term became popular after Amazon.com introduced the Elastic Compute Cloud in 2006.

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Cloud Computing is the result of evolution and adoption of existing technologies and paradigms. The goal of cloud computing is to allow users to take bene?t from all of these technologies, without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise with each one of them. The cloud aims to cut costs, and help the users focus on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles.

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

The main enabling technology for cloud computing is virtualization

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Users face difficult business problems every day. Cloud computing adopts concepts from Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) that can help the user break these problems into services that can be integrated to provide a solution. Cloud computing provides all of its resources as services, and makes use of the well-established standards and best practices gained in the domain of SOA to allow global and easy access to cloud services in a standardized way.

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Cloud computing also leverages concepts from utility computing in order to provide metrics for the services used. Such metrics are at the core of the public cloud pay-per-use models. In addition, measured services are an essential part of the feedback loop in autonomic computing, allowing services to scale on-demand and to perform automatic failure recovery.

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Cloud computing is a kind of grid computing; it has evolved by addressing the QoS (quality of service) and reliability problems. Cloud computing provides the tools and technologies to build data/compute intensive parallel applications with much more affordable prices compared to traditional parallel computing techniques.

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requestors (clients).

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Grid computing — “A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby a ‘super and virtual computer’ is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.”

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as: census; industry and consumer statistics; police and secret intelligence services; enterprise resource planning; and financial transaction processing.

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Utility computing — The “packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity.”

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Peer-to-peer — A distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. Participants are both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).

Cloud computing Similar systems and concepts

Cloud gaming — Also known as on-demand gaming, is a way of delivering games to computers. Gaming data is stored in the provider’s server, so that gaming is independent of client computers used to play the game.

Cloud computing On-demand self-service

On-demand self-service allows users to obtain, configure and deploy cloud services themselves using cloud service catalogues, without requiring the assistance of IT. This feature is listed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a characteristic of cloud computing.

Cloud computing On-demand self-service

The self-service requirement of cloud computing prompts infrastructure vendors to create cloud computing templates, which are obtained from cloud service catalogues. Manufacturers of such templates or blueprints include BMC Software (BMC), with Service Blueprints as part of their cloud management platform Hewlett-Packard (HP), which names its templates as HP Cloud Maps, RightScale and Red Hat, which names its templates CloudForms.

Cloud computing On-demand self-service

The templates contain predefined configurations used by consumers to set up cloud services

Cloud computing On-demand self-service

Cloud computing consumers use cloud templates to move applications between clouds through a self-service portal

Cloud computing Platform as a service (PaaS)

In the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform, typically including Operating System, programming language execution environment, database, and web server

Cloud computing Network as a service (NaaS)

A category of cloud services where the capability provided to the cloud service user is to use network/transport connectivity services and/or inter-cloud network connectivity services. NaaS involves the optimization of resource allocations by considering network and computing resources as a unified whole.

Cloud computing Network as a service (NaaS)

Traditional NaaS services include flexible and extended VPN, and bandwidth on demand. NaaS concept materialization also includes the provision of a virtual network service by the owners of the network infrastructure to a third party (VNP – VNO).

Cloud computing Cloud management

Legacy management infrastructures, which are based on the concept of dedicated system relationships and architecture constructs, are not well suited to cloud environments where instances are continually launched and decommissioned. Instead, the dynamic nature of cloud computing requires monitoring and management tools that are adaptable, extensible and customizable.

Cloud computing Cloud management challenges

Cloud computing presents a number of management challenges

Cloud computing Cloud management challenges

Capacity management is a challenge for both public and private cloud environments because end users have the ability to deploy applications using self-service portals. Applications of all sizes may appear in the environment, consume an unpredictable amount of resources, then disappear at any time.

Cloud computing Cloud management challenges

Chargeback—or, pricing resource use on a granular basis—is a challenge for both public and private cloud environments

Cloud computing Cloud management challenges

which combine public and private cloud services, sometimes with traditional infrastructure elements, present their own set of management challenges

Cloud computing Cloud clients

Some of these devices – cloud clients – rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to be essentially useless without it

Cloud computing Private cloud

They have attracted criticism because users “still have to buy, build, and manage them” and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management, essentially “[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept”.

Cloud computing Public cloud

A cloud is called a ‘Public cloud’ when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use

Cloud computing Community cloud

Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.

Cloud computing Distributed cloud

Cloud computing can also be provided by a distributed set of machines that are running at different locations, while still connected to a single network or hub service. Examples of this include distributed computing platforms such as BOINC and [email protected]

Cloud computing Cloud management strategies

Public clouds are managed by public cloud service providers, which include the public cloud environment’s servers, storage, networking and data center operations. Users of public cloud services can generally select from three basic categories:

Cloud computing Cloud management strategies

User self-provisioning: Customers purchase cloud services directly from the provider, typically through a web form or console interface. The customer pays on a per-transaction basis.

Cloud computing Cloud management strategies

Advance provisioning: Customers contract in advance a predetermined amount of resources, which are prepared in advance of service. The customer pays a flat fee or a monthly fee.

Cloud computing Cloud management strategies

Dynamic provisioning: The provider allocates resources when the customer needs them, then decommissions them when they are no longer needed. The customer is charged on a pay-per-use basis.

Cloud computing Cloud management strategies

Managing a private cloud requires software tools to help create a virtualized pool of compute resources, provide a self-service portal for end users and handle security, resource allocation, tracking and billing. Management tools for private clouds tend to be service driven, as opposed to resource driven, because cloud environments are typically highly virtualized and organized in terms of portable workloads.

Cloud computing Cloud management strategies

In hybrid cloud environments, compute, network and storage resources must be managed across multiple domains, so a good management strategy should start by defining what needs to be managed, and where and how to do it. Policies to help govern these domains should include configuration and installation of images, access control, and budgeting and reporting.

Cloud computing Architecture

Cloud architecture, the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others.

Cloud computing The Intercloud

The Intercloud is an interconnected global “cloud of clouds” and an extension of the Internet “network of networks” on which it is based.

Cloud computing Cloud engineering

Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high-level concerns of commercialisation, standardisation, and governance in conceiving, developing, operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance, information, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering.

Cloud computing Privacy

While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to “harmonise” the legal environment, providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select “availability zones.” Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider can access the data that is on the cloud at any time

Cloud computing Compliance

To comply with regulations including FISMA, HIPAA, and SOX in the United States, the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the Creditcard industry’s PCI DSS, users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. This is how Google is able to “manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA” and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance.

Cloud computing Compliance

Many providers also obtain a SAS 70 Type II audit, but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. Providers typically make this information available on request, under non-disclosure agreement.

Cloud computing Compliance

Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.

Cloud computing Compliance

U.S

Cloud computing Compliance

A multitude of laws and regulations have forced specific compliance requirements onto many companies that collect, generate or store data. These policies may dictate a wide array of data storage policies, such as how long information must be retained, the process used for deleting data, and even certain recovery plans. Below are some examples of compliance laws or regulations.

Cloud computing Compliance

In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires a contingency plan that includes, data backups, data recovery, and data access during emergencies.

Cloud computing Compliance

The privacy laws of the Switzerland demand that private data, including emails, be physically stored in the Switzerland.

Cloud computing Compliance

In the United Kingdom, the Civil Contingencies Act of 2004 sets forth guidance for a Business contingency plan that includes policies for data storage.

Cloud computing Compliance

In a virtualized cloud computing environment, customers may never know exactly where their data is stored. In fact, data may be stored across multiple data centers in an effort to improve reliability, increase performance, and provide redundancies. This geographic dispersion may make it more difficult to ascertain jurisdiction if disputes arise.

Cloud computing Legal

As with other changes in the landscape of computing, certain legal issues arise with cloud computing, including trademark infringement, security concerns and sharing of proprietary data resources.

Cloud computing Legal

The Electronic Frontier Foundation has criticized the United States government during the Megaupload seizure process for considering that people lose property rights by storing data on a cloud computing service.

Cloud computing Legal

One important but not often mentioned problem with cloud computing is the problem of who is in “possession” of the data. If a cloud company is the possessor of the data, the possessor has certain legal rights. If the cloud company is the “custodian” of the data, then a different set of rights would apply. The next problem in the legalities of cloud computing is the problem of legal ownership of the data. Many Terms of Service agreements are silent on the question of ownership.

Cloud computing Legal

These legal issues are not confined to the time period in which the cloud based application is actively being used. There must also be consideration for what happens when the provider-customer relationship ends. In most cases, this event will be addressed before an application is deployed to the cloud. However, in the case of provider insolvencies or bankruptcy the state of the data may become blurred.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Because cloud computing is still relatively new, standards are still being developed. Many cloud platforms and services are proprietary, meaning that they are built on the specific standards, tools and protocols developed by a particular vendor for its particular cloud offering. This can make migrating off a proprietary cloud platform prohibitively complicated and expensive.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Three types of vendor lock-in can occur with cloud computing:

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Platform lock-in: cloud services tend to be built on one of several possible virtualization platforms, for example VMWare or Xen. Migrating from a cloud provider using one platform to a cloud provider using a different platform could be very complicated.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Data lock-in: since the cloud is still new, standards of ownership, i.e. who actually owns the data once it lives on a cloud platform, are not yet developed, which could make it complicated if cloud computing users ever decide to move data off of a cloud vendor’s platform.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Tools lock-in: if tools built to manage a cloud environment are not compatible with different kinds of both virtual and physical infrastructure, those tools will only be able to manage data or apps that live in the vendor’s particular cloud environment.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Heterogeneous cloud computing is described as a type of cloud environment that prevents vendor lock-in, and aligns with enterprise data centers that are operating hybrid cloud models. The absence of vendor lock-in lets cloud administrators select his or her choice of hypervisors for specific tasks, or to deploy virtualized infrastructures to other enterprises without the need to consider the flavor of hypervisor in the other enterprise.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

A heterogeneous cloud is considered one that includes on-premise private clouds, public clouds and software-as-a-service clouds. Heterogeneous clouds can work with environments that are not virtualized, such as traditional data centers. Heterogeneous clouds also allow for the use of piece parts, such as hypervisors, servers, and storage, from multiple vendors.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Cloud piece parts, such as cloud storage systems, offer APIs but they are often incompatible with each other. The result is complicated migration between backends, and makes it difficult to integrate data spread across various locations. This has been described as a problem of vendor lock-in. The solution to this is for clouds to adopt common standards.

Cloud computing Vendor lock-in

Heterogeneous cloud computing differs from homogeneous clouds, which have been described as those using consistent building blocks supplied by a single vendor. Intel General Manager of high-density computing, Jason Waxman, is quoted as saying that a homogenous system of 15,000 servers would cost $6 million more in capital expenditure and use 1 megawatt of power.

Cloud computing Open standards

Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable

Cloud computing Security

As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity, concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model

Cloud computing Security

This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services

Cloud computing Security

Security concerns must be addressed to maintain trust in cloud computing technology.

Cloud computing Sustainability

Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of green computing, no published study substantiates this assumption.

Cloud computing Sustainability

Phil Radford of Greenpeace said “we are concerned that this new explosion in electricity use could lock us into old, polluting energy sources instead of the clean energy available today.” Greenpeace ranks the energy usage of the top ten big brands in cloud computing, and successfully urged several companies to switch to clean energy

Cloud computing Sustainability

Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation

Cloud computing Abuse

As with privately purchased hardware, customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. In 2009, a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware.

Cloud computing IT governance

However, many of the infrastructural and logistical concerns regarding the operation of cloud computing businesses are still unknown

Cloud computing Consumer end storage

The popularity of cloud and cloud computing in general is so quickly increasing among all sorts of companies, that in May 2013, through its company Amazon Web Services, Amazon started a certification program for cloud computing professionals.

Cloud computing Ambiguity of terminology

Outside of the information technology and software industry, the term “cloud” can be found to reference a wide range of services, some of which fall under the category of cloud computing, while others do not

Cloud computing Performance interference and noisy neighbors

Due to its multi-tenant nature and resource sharing, Cloud computing must also deal with the “noisy neighbor” effect

Cloud computing Monopolies and privatization of cyberspace

Žižek criticises the argument purported by supporters of cloud computing that this phenomenon is part of the “natural evolution” of the Internet, sustaining that the quasi-monopolies “set prices at will but also filter the software they provide to give its “universality” a particular twist depending on commercial and ideological interests.”

Cloud computing Research

Many universities, vendors, Institutes and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing:

Cloud computing Research

In October 2007, the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students’ technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.

Cloud computing Research

In April 2009, UC Santa Barbara released the first open source platform-as-a-service, AppScale, which is capable of running Google App Engine applications at scale on a multitude of infrastructures.

Cloud computing Research

In April 2009, the St Andrews Cloud Computing Co-laboratory was launched, focusing on research in the important new area of cloud computing. Unique in the UK, StACC aims to become an international centre of excellence for research and teaching in cloud computing and provides advice and information to businesses interested in cloud-based services.

Cloud computing Research

In October 2010, the TClouds (Trustworthy Clouds) project was started, funded by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme. The project’s goal is to research and inspect the legal foundation and architectural design to build a resilient and trustworthy cloud-of-cloud infrastructure on top of that. The project also develops a prototype to demonstrate its results.

Cloud computing Research

In December 2010, the TrustCloud research project was started by HP Labs Singapore to address transparency and accountability of cloud computing via detective, data-centric approaches encapsulated in a five-layer TrustCloud Framework. The team identified the need for monitoring data life cycles and transfers in the cloud, leading to the tackling of key cloud computing security issues such as cloud data leakages, cloud accountability and cross-national data transfers in transnational clouds.

Cloud computing Research

In June 2011, two Indian Universities i.e. University of Petroleum and Energy Studies and University of Technology and Management introduced cloud computing as a subject in India, in collaboration with IBM.

Cloud computing Research

In July 2011, the High Performance Computing Cloud (HPCCLoud) project was kicked-off aiming at finding out the possibilities of enhancing performance on cloud environments while running the scientific applications – development of HPCCLoud Performance Analysis Toolkit which was funded by CIM-Returning Experts Programme – under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Shajulin Benedict.

Cloud computing Research

In June 2011, the Telecommunications Industry Association developed a Cloud Computing White Paper, to analyze the integration challenges and opportunities between cloud services and traditional U.S. telecommunications standards.

Cloud computing Research

In December 2011, the VISION Cloud EU-funded project proposed an architecture along with an implementation of a cloud environment for data-intensive services aiming to provide a virtualized Cloud Storage infrastructure.

Cloud computing Research

In December 2012, a study released by Microsoft and the International Data Corporation (IDC)showed that millions of cloud-skilled workers would be needed. Millions of cloud-related IT jobs are sitting open and millions more will open in the coming couple of years, due to a shortage in cloud-certified IT workers.

Cloud computing Research

In February 2013, the BonFIRE project launched a multi-site cloud experimentation and testing facility. The facility provides transparent access to cloud resources, with the control and observability necessary to engineer future cloud technologies, in a way that is not restricted, for example, by current business models.

Cloud computing Research

In April 2013, A 2013 report by IT research and advisory firm Gartner., Inc. says that app developers will embrace cloud services, predicting that in three years, 40% of the Mobile App development projects will use cloud backed services. Cloud mobile backed services offer a new kind of PaaS, used to enable the development of Mobile Apps.

Business process management Cloud computing BPM

Cloud computing business process management is the use of (BPM) tools that are delivered as software services (SaaS) over a network. Cloud BPM business logic is deployed on an application server and the business data resides in cloud storage.

Fujitsu – Cloud computing

Fujitsu offers a public cloud service delivered from data centers in Japan, Australia, Singapore, the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany based on its Global Cloud Platform strategy announced in 2010

Fujitsu – Cloud computing

Fujitsu has also launched a Windows Azure powered Global Cloud Platform in a partnership with Microsoft

Fujitsu – Cloud computing

Fujitsu also offers local cloud platforms, such as in Australia, that provide the ability to rely on its domestic data centers which keep sensitive financial data under local jurisdiction and compliance standards.

Microsoft Online Services – Cloud computing and BPOS

‘A year from now that will be 90 percent.’ This full embrace of the term cloud computing is new for Microsoft

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling capabilities

The term “beyond”, however, implies that any consumer, such as organizations, applications, or remote services can also be a part of the cloud computing venture if they subscribe to the cloud’s services.

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling capabilities

This overall servicing vision embodies the general notion: “everything is a service”, as illustrated on the far right. The ability to abstract services in spite of their location, interoperability challenges, or deployment difficulties, the SOMF cloud computing model represents an elastic cloud computing environment, nimble enough to adapt to changes, and meet time-to-market.

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

The introduced examples illustrate cloud design diagrams produced in various software development life cycle stages. In addition, these examples introduce three major cloud modeling spaces, each of which helps modelers to describe service interoperability, integration, message exchange, and collaboration in a deployment environment:

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Service Containment Space: a modeling space that identifies aggregated service formations, such as composite service or service cluster

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

IntraCloud Space: identifies the architecture boundary of a cloud landscape

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

ExtraCloud Space: defines service architecture/s external to a cloud boundary

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Organizational Boundary: a modeling area dedicated to service modeling, typically owned by an organization

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Click on small images for full-size version

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

1. Cloud Logical Design Service Relationships Diagram

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

2. Cloud Logical Design Composition Diagram

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

4. Cloud Delivery Model Diagram

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

5. Cloud Deployment Diagram

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Example 1 depicts (simple and high-level) a logical design relationship diagram, which illustrates associations between three services (composite, atomic, and service cluster), each of which reside within a distinct organizational boundary: North Side Inc., East Side Inc., and West Side Inc. These organizations communicate to a design public cloud by “apparent bidirectional” connectors, depicting the message paths between these entities

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Example 2 shows a logical design composition diagram which illustrates detail offerings of a cloud, denoted by the IntraCloud Space (a space allocated to services within a cloud), which contains two composite services, a service cluster, and an atomic service, forming a circular message delivery path by using circular beams type of connectors that form a message exchange pattern)

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Example 3 shows an analysis proposition diagram, typically created during the analysis phase of a project, in which two organizations exchange messages over a network: Public Cloud Inc

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Example 4 illustrates a general cloud delivery model diagram in which a community cloud delivers two types of services: Software as a Service (SaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). Note the attributes of each of the delivery model.

Service-oriented modeling – Cloud computing modeling examples

Example 5 depicts a cloud computing deployment diagram that contains three different geographical locations: Continent, Region, and Zone.

Virtual appliance – Relationship to infrastructure as a service cloud computing

Virtual appliances are critical resources in infrastructure as a service cloud computing

Node (networking) – End node in cloud computing

Typically, within the cloud computing construct, the individual user / customer computer that connects into one well-managed cloud is called an end node

Nimbus (cloud computing)

Nimbus is a toolkit that, once installed on a cluster, provides an infrastructure as a service cloud to its client via WSRF-based or Amazon EC2 WSDL web service APIs. Nimbus is free and open-source software, subject to the requirements of the Apache License, version 2.

Nimbus (cloud computing)

Nimbus supports both the hypervisors Xen and KVM and virtual machine schedulers Portable Batch System and Oracle Grid Engine. It allows deployment of self-configured virtual clusters via contextualization. It is configurable with respect to scheduling, networking leases, and usage accounting.

Nimbus (cloud computing) – Requirements

Linux kernel’s Netfilter and ebtables for a bridging firewall

Cloud computing security

Cloud computing security (sometimes referred to simply as “cloud security”) is an evolving sub-domain of computer security, network security, and, more broadly, information security. It refers to a broad set of policies, technologies, and controls deployed to protect data, applications, and the associated infrastructure of cloud computing.

Cloud computing security

Cloud security is not to be confused with security software offerings that are “cloud-based” (a.k.a. security-as-a-service).

Cloud computing security – Security issues associated with the cloud

There are a number of security issues/concerns associated with cloud computing but these issues fall into two broad categories: Security issues faced by cloud providers (organizations providing software-, platform-, or infrastructure-as-a-service via the cloud) and security issues faced by their customers

Cloud computing security – Security issues associated with the cloud

The extensive use of virtualization in implementing cloud infrastructure brings unique security concerns for customers or tenants of a public cloud service

Cloud computing security – Cloud Security Controls

Cloud security architecture is effective only if the correct defensive implementations are in place

Cloud computing security – Deterrent Controls

These controls are set in place to prevent any purposeful attack on a cloud system. Much like a warning sign on a fence or a property, these controls do not reduce the actual vulnerability of a system.

Cloud computing security – Preventative Controls

These controls upgrade the strength of the system by managing the vulnerabilities. The preventative control will safeguard vulnerabilities of the system. If an attack were to occur, the preventative controls are in place to cover the attack and reduce the damage and violation to the system’s security.

Cloud computing security – Corrective Controls

Corrective controls are used to reduce the effect of an attack. Unlike the preventative controls, the corrective controls take action as an attack is occurring.

Cloud computing security – Detective Controls

Detective controls are used to detect any attacks that may be occurring to the system. In the event of an attack, the detective control will signal the preventative or corrective controls to address the issue.

Cloud computing security – Dimensions of cloud security

Correct security controls should be implemented according to asset, threat, and vulnerability risk assessment matrices. While cloud security concerns can be grouped into any number of dimensions (Gartner names seven while the Cloud Security Alliance identifies fourteen areas of concern) these dimensions have been aggregated into three general areas: Security and Privacy, Compliance, and Legal or Contractual Issues.

Cloud computing security – Security and privacy

Every enterprise will have its own identity management system to control access to information and computing resources. Cloud providers either integrate the customer’s identity management system into their own infrastructure, using federation or SSO technology, or provide an identity management solution of their own.

Cloud computing security – Security and privacy

Physical and personnel security

Cloud computing security – Security and privacy

Providers ensure that physical machines are adequately secure and that access to these machines as well as all relevant customer data is not only restricted but that access is documented.

Cloud computing security – Security and privacy

Cloud providers assure customers that they will have regular and predictable access to their data and applications.

Cloud computing security – Security and privacy

Cloud providers ensure that applications available as a service via the cloud are secure by implementing testing and acceptance procedures for outsourced or packaged application code. It also requires application security measures be in place in the production environment.

Cloud computing security – Security and privacy

Finally, providers ensure that all critical data (Creditcard numbers, for example) are masked and that only authorized users have access to data in its entirety. Moreover, digital identities and credentials must be protected as should any data that the provider collects or produces about customer activity in the cloud.

Cloud computing security – Security and privacy

In addition, providers and customers must consider legal issues, such as Contracts and E-Discovery, and the related laws, which may vary by country.

Cloud computing security – Compliances

Numerous regulations pertain to the storage and use of data, including Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, among others. Many of these regulations require regular reporting and audit trails. Cloud providers must enable their customers to comply appropriately with these regulations.

Cloud computing security – Business continuity and data recovery

Cloud providers have business continuity and data recovery plans in place to ensure that service can be maintained in case of a disaster or an emergency and that any data loss will be recovered. These plans are shared with and reviewed by their customers.

Cloud computing security – Logs and audit trails

In addition to producing logs and audit trails, cloud providers work with their customers to ensure that these logs and audit trails are properly secured, maintained for as long as the customer requires, and are accessible for the purposes of forensic investigation (e.g., eDiscovery).

Cloud computing security – Unique compliance requirements

In addition to the requirements to which customers are subject, the data centers maintained by cloud providers may also be subject to compliance requirements. Using a cloud service provider (CSP) can lead to additional security concerns around data jurisdiction since customer or tenant data may not remain on the same system, or in the same data center or even within the same provider’s cloud.

Cloud computing security – Legal and contractual issues

Aside from the security and compliance issues enumerated above, cloud providers and their customers will negotiate terms around liability (stipulating how incidents involving data loss or compromise will be resolved, for example), intellectual property, and end-of-service (when data and applications are ultimately returned to the customer).

Cloud computing security – Public records

Legal issues may also include records-keeping requirements in the public sector, where many agencies are required by law to retain and make available electronic records in a specific fashion. This may be determined by legislation, or law may require agencies to conform to the rules and practices set by a records-keeping agency. Public agencies using cloud computing and storage must take these concerns into the account.

Cloud computing security – Further reading

Mowbray, Miranda (2009). “The Fog over the Grimpen Mire: Cloud Computing and the Law”. SCRIPTed 6 (1): 129. doi:10.2966/scrip.060109.132.

IBM cloud computing

This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source.

IBM cloud computing

IBM cloud computing consists of cloud computing solutions for enterprises as offered by the global information technology company, IBM. All offerings are designed for business use, marketed under the name IBM SmartCloud. IBM cloud includes infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) offered through public, private and hybrid cloud delivery models, in addition to the components that make up those clouds.

IBM cloud computing – Overview

IBM offers an entry point to cloud computing whether a client is designing their own virtual private cloud, deploying cloud service, or consuming cloud workload applications.

IBM cloud computing – Overview

The IBM cloud framework begins with the physical hardware of the cloud. IBM offers three hardware platforms for cloud computing. These platforms offer built-in support for virtualization. The next layer of the IBM framework is virtualization. IBM has been involved with virtualization technology for over 40 years and offers IBM Websphere application infrastructure solutions that support programming models and open standards for virtualization.

IBM cloud computing – Overview

Workloads for cloud computing are services or instances of code that can be executed to meet specific business needs

IBM cloud computing – History

IBM cloud computing emerged from the union of two of IBM’s most influential technologies: mainframes and virtualization

IBM cloud computing – History

This combination of virtualization, standardization and automation led to the development of IBM cloud computing

IBM cloud computing – History

In addition to donating hardware and machines, the two tech giants also provided a curriculum to teach students about cloud computing

IBM cloud computing – History

Since early 2011, adoption of IBM SmartCloud solutions has increased steadily. IBM announced in April 2011 that 80% of Fortune 500 companies use IBM cloud. Also the software and services are utilized by more than 20 million end-user customers worldwide. Some of their clients include American Airlines, Aviva, Carfax, Frito-Lay, IndiaFirst Life Insurance Company, and 7-Eleven.

IBM cloud computing – History

On 4 June 2013 IBM announced its acquisition of SoftLayer, to form an IBM Could Services Division.

IBM cloud computing – IBM SmartCloud

IBM SmartCloud is a branded ecosystem of cloud computing products and solutions from IBM. It makes up an increasingly large share of IBM cloud computing offerings. IBM SmartCloud includes infrastructure as a service, software as a service and platform as a service offered through public, private and hybrid cloud delivery models. IBM places these offerings under three umbrellas: SmartCloud Foundation, SmartCloud Services and SmartCloud Solutions.

IBM cloud computing – IBM SmartCloud

SmartCloud Foundation consists of the infrastructure, hardware, provisioning, management, integration and security that serve as the underpinnings of a private or hybrid cloud. Built using those foundational components, PaaS, IaaS and backup services make up SmartCloud Services. Running on this cloud platform and infrastructure, SmartCloud Solutions consist of a number of collaboration, analytics and marketing SaaS applications.

IBM cloud computing – IBM SmartCloud

IBM also builds cloud environments for clients that are not necessarily on the SmartCloud Platform. For example, features of the SmartCloud platform—such as Tivoli management software or IBM Systems Director virtualization—can be integrated separately as part of a non-IBM cloud platform. The SmartCloud platform is distinct in that it consists of solely IBM hardware, software, services and best practices.

IBM cloud computing – IBM SmartCloud

IBM SmartCloud Enterprise and SmartCloud Enterprise+ compete with products like those of Rackspace and Amazon. According to Erich Clementi, vice president of Global Technology Services at IBM, the goal with SmartCloud Enterprise and SmartCloud Enterprise+ is to provide an Amazon EC2-like experience primarily for test and development purposes and to provide a more robust experience for production workloads.

IBM cloud computing – IBM SmartCloud

The SmartCloud platform is continually evolving as IBM continues to feed it with a number of cloud technology acquisitions. In 2011, IBM SmartCloud integrated Hadoop-based InfoSphere BigInsights for big data, Green Hat for software testing and Nirvanix for cloud storage, to name a few. More additions to the platform are expected, as new CEO Virginia Rometty has pledged to spend $20 billion on acquisitions by 2015.

IBM cloud computing – IBM SmartCloud

Users may build their own private cloud or purchase services hosted on the IBM cloud. Users may also purchase IBM hardware, software and services to build their customized cloud environment.

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

IBM also offers planning and consultation throughout the deployment process.cloud computing is best for mobile software

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

Private cloud, owned and operated by the customer

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

Private cloud, owned by the customer, but operated by IBM (or another provider)

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

Virtual private cloud services (based on multi-tenanted support for individual enterprises)

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

Public cloud services (based on the provision of functions to individuals)

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

The majority of cloud users choose a hybrid cloud model, with some workloads being served by internal systems, some from commercial cloud providers and some from public cloud service providers.

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

On August 25, 2011, IBM announced the release of a new hybrid cloud model orchestrated by IBM WebSphere Cast Iron integration of on- and off-premise resources

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

The IBM public cloud offering is SmartCloud Enterprise, launched April 7, 2011. SCE is hosted IaaS with committed service level agreements (SLA)s, and it can be offered in a private, public or hybrid model. The environment is hosted on IBM servers (System p or System x), with a standard set of software images to choose from.

IBM cloud computing – Public, private and hybrid cloud models

For enterprise customers who perceive that the security risk of cloud computing adoption is too high, IBM specializes in secure private cloud offerings

IBM cloud computing – Cloud standards

IBM participates in several cloud standards initiatives within various standards development organizations across the spectrum of cloud service models IaaS, PaaS and SaaS, all of which work toward improvements in cloud interoperability and security.

IBM cloud computing – Cloud standards

HP and Microsoft have also published Cloud Computing Reference Architectures.

IBM cloud computing – Cloud standards

Within the IaaS space, IBM is a leader in the Cloud Management Work Group (CMWG) within the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF), which released a draft version of their IaaS APIs, called the Cloud Infrastructure Management Interface (CIMI), on September 14, 2011. The CIMI APIs define a logical model for the management of resources within the Infrastructure as a Service domain. With these APIs, clients can create, manage and connect machines, volumes and networks.

IBM cloud computing – Cloud standards

Within the PaaS and SaaS space, IBM joins Red Hat, Cisco, Citrix, EMC and numerous others as a contributor to the Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications (TOSCA) technical committee within Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) that provides a standardized way of managing the lifecycle of cloud services, enhancing the portability of cloud based applications

IBM cloud computing – Cloud standards

IDCloud addresses the serious security challenges posed by identity management in cloud computing and investigates the need for profiles to achieve interoperability within current standards.

IBM cloud computing – Cloud standards

In addition to contributing standards requirements to the appropriate standards development organizations (SDO), the CSCC also creates guides that companies can use on their own path to cloud adoption, such as the Practical Guide to Cloud Computing, a straightforward document which outlines the steps an enterprise should consider when adopting cloud computing.

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM SmartCloud Application Services

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

Launch of hybrid cloud solution with Cast Iron Cloud Integration

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM opens two cloud data centers in Japan

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM SmartCloud Virtualized Server Recovery

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

Launch of IBM SmartCloud Enterprise

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM joins Cloud Standards Customer Council

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM Federal Community Cloud for government organizations

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM CloudBurst v2.1 (with POWER7-based hardware)

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

Announcement of cloud computing data center in Ehningen, Germany

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM Smart Business Desktop Cloud

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM opens cloud computing data center in Raleigh, North Carolina

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM Smart Business Development and Test on the IBM Cloud

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

IBM Cloudburst (later renamed IBM Workload Deployer)

IBM cloud computing – Milestones

LotusLive collaboration suite

Mobile cloud computing

Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is the state-of-the-art mobile distributed computing paradigm comprises three heterogeneous domains of mobile computing, cloud computing, and wireless networks aiming to enhance computational capabilities of resource-constrained mobile devices towards rich user experience

Mobile cloud computing

Applications are run on a remote server and then sent to the user. Because of the advanced improvement in mobile browsers thanks to Apple, Google, Microsoft and Research in Motion, nearly every mobile should have a suitable browser. This means developers will have a much wider market and they can bypass the restrictions created by mobile Operating Systems.

Mobile cloud computing

Mobile cloud computing gives new company chances for mobile network providers. Several operators such as Vodafone, Orange and Verizon have started to offer cloud computing services for companies.

Mobile cloud computing – Applications

Mobile Applications are a rapidly developing segment of the global mobile market

Mobile cloud computing – Convenient Commerce

The explosion in the use of electronic commerce (e-commerce) by the business sector has been tremendous since its inception only a few years ago

Mobile cloud computing – Augmented Reality

A new class of Mobile Applications, Augmented Reality (AR), has started to draw users’ attention

Mobile cloud computing – Mobile Learning

Mobile learning today is becoming more popular as there are many people using mobile devices to enhance their learning

Mobile cloud computing – Mobile Healthcare

Cloud computing provides the convenience for users to help them access resources easily and quickly

Mobile cloud computing – Mobile Computing

The analysis of the impact of mobile computing on the various services shows how the mobile computing has changed each service

Mobile cloud computing – MCC Challenges

In the MCC landscape, an amalgam of mobile computing,cloud computing, and communication networks (to augment smartphones) creates several complex challenges such as Mobile Computation Of?oading, Seamless Connectivity,Long WAN Latency,Mobility Management,Context-Processing,Energy Constraint,Vendor/data Lock-in,Security and Privacy, Elasticity that hinder MCC success and adoption.

Mobile cloud computing – Open Research Issues

MCC is an emerging research area with significant research opportunities. Although significant research and development in MCC is available in the literature, still efforts in the following domains lacking:

Mobile cloud computing – Open Research Issues

Architectural issues: A reference architecture for heterogeneous MCC environment is a crucial requirement for unleashing the power of mobile computing towards unrestricted ubiquitous computing.

Mobile cloud computing – Open Research Issues

Energy-efficient transmission: MCC requires frequent transmissions between cloud platform and mobile devices, due to the stochastic nature of wireless networks, the transmission protocol should be carefully designed.

Mobile cloud computing – Open Research Issues

Context-awareness issues: Context-aware and socially-aware computing are inseparable traits of contemporary handheld computers. To achieve the vision of mobile computing among heterogeneous converged networks and computing devices, designing resource-ef?cient environment-aware applications is an essential need.

Mobile cloud computing – Open Research Issues

Live VM migration issues:Executing resource-intensive Mobile Application via Virtual Machine(VM) migration-based application of?oading involves encapsulation of application in VM instance and migrating it to the cloud, which is a challenging task due to additional overhead of deploying and managing VM on mobile devices.

Mobile cloud computing – Open Research Issues

Mobile communication congestion issues: Mobile data traf?c is tremendously hiking by ever increasing mobile user demands for exploiting cloud resources which impact on mobile network operators and demand future efforts to enable smooth communication between mobile and cloud endpoints.

Mobile cloud computing – Open Research Issues

Trust, security, and privacy issues: Trust is an essential factor for the success of the burgeoning MCC paradigm.

Service catalog – Service catalogs for cloud computing services

The use of a service catalog for cloud computing services is an integral part of deploying services on private and public clouds. Users wishing to consume cloud services would use a cloud service catalog to view what cloud services are available, their function, and know the technologies used to provide the services.

Service catalog – Service catalogs for cloud computing services

Users would also see the available different service level options based on latency and reliability. With this knowledge, users are able to change the configuration of the technologies used to deliver the services based on cost, performance and technology improvements.

Service catalog – Service catalogs for cloud computing services

By seeing and understanding the different services available through the cloud users can better appreciate what is available to them, compared to traditional IT whereby one group of users or business unit may be unaware of the technologies available to another unit.

Service catalog – Service catalogs for cloud computing services

Accessed by self-service portals, service catalogs contain a list of cloud services from which cloud consumers select for self-provisioning of cloud services. This removes the need for users to work through various IT departments in order to provision a cloud service, nor are users required to provide detailed IT specifications. They are only required to provide business and organization requirements.

Service catalog – Service catalogs for cloud computing services

To make selection easier and to speed service deployment, service definitions are often standardized in cloud service catalogs. This presents three benefits: improved capacity planning, particularly if standard components are used; quicken service provisioning; and better buying forecasts which helps to lower costs.

Service catalog – Service catalogs for cloud computing services

Automation is an aspect of cloud service catalog that has been noted. Cloud service catalogs have been described as enabling “cloud on auto-pilot” enabling cloud users to build cloud services based on pre-built templates selected from catalogs.

Provisioning – Self-service provisioning for cloud computing services

The self-service nature of cloud computing lets end users obtain and remove cloud services?including applications, the infrastructure supporting the applications, and configuration? themselves without requiring the assistance of an IT staff member

Cloud computing

In science, cloud computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network, and means the ability to run a program or application on many connected computers at the same time

Cloud computing – Advantages

Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services.

Cloud computing – Advantages

The cloud also focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources

Cloud computing – The 1960s–1990s

Other scholars have shown that cloud computing’s roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch’s law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers

Cloud computing – Origin of the term

Astronomy: a cloud of gas and particulate matter in space is known as a nebula (Latin for mist or cloud),

Cloud computing – Similar systems and concepts

Cloud computing shares characteristics with:

Cloud computing – Service models

In 2012, network as a service (NaaS) and communication as a service (CaaS) were officially included by ITU (International Telecommunication Union) as part of the basic cloud computing models, recognized service categories of a telecommunication-centric cloud ecosystem.

Cloud computing – Network as a service (NaaS)

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Cloud computing – Cloud management challenges

Hybrid cloud environments, which combine public and private cloud services, sometimes with traditional infrastructure elements, present their own set of management challenges

Cloud computing – Public cloud

A cloud is called a “public cloud” when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use

Cloud computing – Hybrid cloud

Gartner, Inc.defines a hybrid cloud service as a cloud computing service that is composed of some combination of private, public and community cloud services, from different service providers

Cloud computing – Hybrid cloud

Varied use cases for hybrid cloud composition exist. For example, an organization may store sensitive client data in house on a private cloud application, but interconnect that application to a billing application provided on a public cloud as a software service. This example of hybrid cloud extends the capabilities of the enterprise to deliver a specific business service through the addition of externally available public cloud services.

Cloud computing – Hybrid cloud

Another example of hybrid cloud is one where IT organizations use public cloud computing resources to meet temporary capacity needs that can not be met by the private cloud. This capability enables hybrid clouds to employ cloud bursting for scaling across clouds.

Cloud computing – Cloud engineering

Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high-level concerns of commercialization, standardization, and governance in conceiving, developing, operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance, information, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering.

Cloud computing – Threats and opportunities of the cloud

Several deterrents to the widespread adoption of cloud computing remain

Cloud computing – Privacy

While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to “harmonise” the legal environment, providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically to the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select “availability zones.” Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider can access the data that is on the cloud at any time

Cloud computing – Privacy Solutions

Privacy solution in regards to cloud computing can begin with policy and legislation and end with the end users choice how data is stored. This can include articulating clear and relevant policies( on the cloud service provider side) that describes how the data of each cloud user who uses a cloud services will be accessed and used. Another solution on the users end would be to process/store encrypted data within the cloud to prevent unauthorized access.

Cloud computing – Compliance

The privacy laws of Switzerland demand that private data, including emails, be physically stored in the Switzerland.

Cloud computing – Open source

Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations, prominent examples being the Hadoop framework and VMware’s Cloud Foundry. In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License, a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to run over a network.

Cloud computing – Security

Data breach is a big concern in cloud computing

Cloud computing – Research

In January 2011, the IRMOS EU-funded project developed a real-time cloud platform, enabling interactive applications to be executed in cloud infrastructures.

Business transaction management – Relationship to virtualization and cloud computing

BTM dynamically maps the execution of a user transaction as it traverses the data center

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

The downside of cloud computing, relative to SLAs, is the difficultly in determining root cause for service interruptions due to the complex nature of the environment.

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

As applications are moved from dedicated hardware into the cloud (alternatively, grid computing), these applications need to achieve the same or even more demanding levels of service as classical installations. SLAs for cloud services focus on characteristics of the data center and more recently include characteristics of the network (see carrier cloud) to support end-to-end SLAs.

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

Any SLA management strategy considers two well-differentiated phases: the negotiation of the contract and the monitoring of its fulfilment in real-time. Thus, SLA Management encompasses the SLA contract definition: basic schema with the QoS (quality of service) parameters; SLA negotiation; SLA monitoring; and SLA enforcement—according to defined policies.

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

The main point is to build a new layer upon the grid, cloud, or SOA middleware able to create a negotiation mechanism between providers and consumers of services. An example is the European Union–funded Framework 7 research project, [email protected], which is researching aspects of multi-level, multi-provider SLAs within service-oriented infrastructure and cloud computing; while another EU-funded project, VISION Cloud has provided results with respect to content-oriented SLAs.

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

A summary of the results of various research projects in the area of SLAs (ranging from specifications to monitoring, management and enforcement) has been provided by the European Commission.

History of video games – Cloud computing comes to games

In 2009, a few cloud computing services were announced targeted at Video Games

CherryPal – Cloud computing plans

Cherrypal’s marketers planned to use Firefox not only as its web-browser but also as its user interface to launch other applications such as OpenOffice.org. They planned that the Cherrypal would make use of cloud computing in which applications and storage would be wholly or in part Internet-based. These plans have not yet been implemented. The company’s president asserted the cloud (Green Maraschino) would be launched in February 2010, however it is not known to have occurred.

Alibaba.com – Alibaba Cloud Computing

Alibaba Cloud Computing (www.aliyun.com) aims to build a cloud computing service platform, including e-commerce data mining e-commerce data processing, and data customization. It was established in September 2009 in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of Alibaba Group.

List of cloud computing conferences

This is a list of conferences related to the topic of cloud computing.

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* [ thecloudfactory.io The Cloud Factory | April 7 8, 2014, Banff, Alberta, Canada], thecloudfactory.io

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* [ www.theglobalhighoncloudsummit.com 2nd Annual Global High on Cloud Summit 2014 | 28th – 29th May’14 Mumbai], India(GHOCS) www.theglobalhighoncloudsummit.com

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* Association for Computing Machinery|ACM Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval (SIGIR) www.sigir.org

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC)

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* CloudBurst – Sweden Windows Azure Group driven Cloud Computing conference online and on location in Stockholm Sweden. azureug.se

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* Cloud Service Analytics Workshop (CSAW) – 3rd International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science – CLOSER 2013 closer.scitevents.org/CSAW.aspx

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* Cloud Slam Cloud Computing Conference www.cloudslam.org

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom) cloudcom.org/

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* [ ewh.ieee.org/ieee/ccem/ IEEE Cloud Computing Conference for Emerging Markets 2013 | 16 – 18 October’13 Bangalore] (IEEE CCEM 2013) ewh.ieee.org/ieee/ccem/

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS)

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* IEEE International Parallel Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS)

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC) ucc2013.inf.tu-dresden.de/

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* International Conference on Extending Database Technology (EDBT) edbticdt2012.dima.tu-berlin.de

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* International Conference on Cloud Computing and eGovernance (ICCCEG)

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI) www.usenix.org/events/nsdi11/index.html

List of cloud computing conferences – Conferences

* USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI) www.usenix.org/event/bytopic/osdi.html

List of cloud computing conferences – Workshops

* SC11 sc11.supercomputing.org/?pg=papers.html

List of cloud computing conferences – Journals

* IEEE Computer Society’s Transactions on Cloud Computing www.computer.org/portal/web/tcc

List of cloud computing conferences – Journals

* LJCN www.scirp.org/Journal/cfpOfSpecialIssue.aspx?JournalID=4

List of cloud computing conferences – Journals

* MEEM (The IEEE Multidisciplinary Engineering Education Magazine ) Special Issue on Cloud Computing Technology and Applications www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/e/sac/meem/index.php/meem/announcement/view/8

List of cloud computing conferences – Journals

* Vertical Cloud www.vertical-cloud.com

Entity-attribute-value model – EAV and cloud computing

Many cloud computing vendors offer data stores based on the EAV model, where an arbitrary number of attributes can be associated with a given entity

Entity-attribute-value model – EAV and cloud computing

Google lets you operate on the data using a subset of SQL; Microsoft offer a URL-based querying syntax that is abstracted via a LINQ provider; Amazon offer a more limited syntax

Entity-attribute-value model – EAV and cloud computing

An EAV approach is justified only when the attributes that are being modeled are numerous and sparse: if the data being captured does not meet this requirement, the cloud vendors’ default EAV approach is often a mismatch for applications that require a true back-end database (as opposed to merely a means of persistent data storage)

Entity-attribute-value model – EAV and cloud computing

One significant limitation of SQL Azure is that physical databases are limited to 150GB in size (as of Oct 2012). Microsoft recommends that data sets larger than this be split into multiple physical databases and accessed with parallel queries.

Human interaction management – Cloud computing BPM

‘Cloud computing business process management’ is the use of (BPM) tools that are delivered as Software as a service|software services (SaaS) over a network. Cloud BPM business logic is deployed on an application server and the business data resides in cloud storage.

Ubuntu Linux – Cloud computing

Ubuntu Server offers technology and resources to make a Cloud computing|private or public cloud called Ubuntu Cloud (formerly Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud and formally Ubuntu Cloud Infrastructure), which provides virtualization capability, applications and flexibility to help deploy a cloud within an organization. It consists of the open core Eucalyptus (computing)|Eucalyptus, libvirt, Kernel-based Virtual Machine|KVM or Xen virtualization technology.

Ubuntu Linux – Cloud computing

Ubuntu 11.04 added support for OpenStack, with Eucalyptus to OpenStack migration tools to be released by Canonical in Ubuntu Server 11.10. Ubuntu 11.10 is expected to focus on OpenStack as the Ubuntu’s preferred IaaS offering though Eucalyptus is also expected to be supported. Another major focus is Juju (software)|Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server.

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

As applications are moved from dedicated hardware into the Cloud computing|cloud these applications need to achieve the same or even more demanding levels of service as classical installations. SLAs for cloud services focus on characteristics of the data center and more recently include characteristics of the network (see Carrier Cloud|carrier cloud) to support end-to-end SLAs.

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

The main point is to build a new layer upon the grid, cloud, or Service-oriented architecture|SOA middleware able to create a negotiation mechanism between providers and consumers of services.[ www.it-tude.com/sla-article.html IT-Tude.com – Service Level Agreements] An example is the European Union–funded Framework 7 research project, [email protected],[ sla-at-soi.eu [email protected]] which is researching aspects of multi-level, multi-provider SLAs within service-oriented infrastructure and cloud computing; while another EU-funded project, VISION Cloud has provided results with respect to content-oriented SLAs

Service-level agreement – Cloud computing

A summary of the results of various research projects in the area of SLAs (ranging from specifications to monitoring, management and enforcement) has been provided by the European Commission. Cloud Computing Service Level Agreements – Exploitation of Research Results [ ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/cloud-computing-service-level-agreements-exploitation-research-results European Commission]

Nimbus (cloud computing) – Requirements

* Java (programming language)|Java 1.5+

Nimbus (cloud computing) – Requirements

* Python (programming language)|Python (2.4+)

Nimbus (cloud computing) – Requirements

* Linux kernel’s Netfilter and ebtables for a bridging firewall

Cloud computing comparison

The following is a comparison of some cloud computing software and providers. A more comprehensive list can be found at the foot of this page.

Cloud computing comparison – Providers

Platform_as_a_service | PaaS providers which can run on Cloud_computing#Infrastructure_as_a_service_.28IaaS.29 | IaaS providers (itself means the provider is both PaaS and IaaS):

Cloud computing comparison – Features

* Failover – supports automatic handling of hardware failures (Failover) (partial indicates failovers of controller nodes are not supported)

Cloud computing comparison – Features

* OCCI – supports Open Cloud Computing Interface

Fujitsu Services – Cloud computing

In Japan, the service was offered as the On-Demand Virtual System Service (OViSS) and was then launched globally as Fujitsu Global Cloud Platform/S5 (FGCP/S5). Since July 2013 the service has been called FUJITSU Cloud IaaS Trusted Public S5|IaaS Trusted Public S5. Globally, the service is operated from Fujitsu data centers located in Australia, Singapore, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan.

Fujitsu Services – Cloud computing

Fujitsu has also launched a Azure Services Platform|Windows Azure powered Global Cloud Platform in a partnership with Microsoft

Customer data management – Customer data management and cloud computing

In December 2010, 52% of Information technology|Information Technology (IT) professionals worldwide were deploying, or planning to deploy, cloud computing;Cisco.com (December 2010) [ newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/2010/prod_120810.html%5D this percentage is far higher in many countries.

Network intelligence – Use in cloud computing

The economics and deployment speed of cloud computing is fueling rapid adoption by companies and government agencies

Cloud computing

‘Cloud computing’ is a phrase used to describe a variety of ‘computing’ concepts that involve a large number of computers connected through a real-time communication Computer network|network such as the Internet. In science, cloud computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network, and means the ability to run a program or application on many connected computers at the same time.

Cloud computing

The phrase is often used in reference to network-based services, which appear to be provided by real server hardware, and are in fact served up by virtual hardware, simulated by software running on one or more real machines. Such virtual servers do not physically exist and can therefore be moved around and scaled up or down on the fly without affecting the end user, somewhat like a cloud becoming larger or smaller without being a physical object.

Cloud computing

The major models of cloud computing service are known as software as a service, platform as a service, and infrastructure as a service

Cloud computing – Hosted services

The term cloud computing is mostly used to sell hosted services in the sense of Application service provider|application service provisioning that run client server software at a remote location

Cloud computing – Origin of the term

* Meteorology: a weather cloud is an agglomeration.

Cloud computing – Origin of the term

* Mathematics: a large number of points in a coordinate system in mathematics is seen as a point cloud;

Cloud computing – Origin of the term

* Astronomy: a cloud of gas and particulate matter in space is known as a nebula (Latin for mist or cloud),

Cloud computing – Origin of the term

* Physics: The indeterminate position of electrons around an atomic kernel appears like a cloud to a distant observer

Cloud computing – Origin of the term

In analogy to above usage the word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams

Cloud computing – Origin of the term

The term became popular after Amazon.com introduced the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud|Elastic Compute Cloud in 2006.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Agility’ improves with users’ ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Application programming interface’ (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way that a traditional user interface (e.g., a computer desktop) facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use Representational State Transfer (representational state transfer|REST)-based APIs.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Cost’: cloud providers claim that computing costs reduce

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Device independence|Device and location independence’ enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Virtualization’ technology allows sharing of servers and storage devices and increased utilization. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Multitenancy’ enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:

Cloud computing – Characteristics

** ‘centralization’ of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)

Cloud computing – Characteristics

** ‘peak-load capacity’ increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)

Cloud computing – Characteristics

** ‘utilisation and efficiency’ improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Reliability’ improves with the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Scalability and Elasticity (cloud computing)|elasticity’ via dynamic (on-demand) provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time(Note, the VM startup time varies by VM type, location, os and cloud providers), without users having to engineer for peak loads.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Computer performance|Performance’ is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.He, Qiang, et al. Formulating Cost-Effective Monitoring Strategies for Service-based Systems. (2013): 1-1.A Self-adaptive hierarchical monitoring mechanism for Clouds [ dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.11.1043 Elsevier.com]

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘Computer security|Security’ can improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels

Cloud computing – Characteristics

* ‘ Software maintenance|Maintenance’ of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user’s computer and can be accessed from different places.

Cloud computing – Characteristics

The National Institute of Standards and Technology’s definition of cloud computing identifies five essential characteristics:

Cloud computing – Platform as a service (PaaS)

In the PaaS models, cloud providers deliver a computing platform, typically including Operating System, programming language execution environment, database, and web server

Cloud computing – Cloud management

(2012-01-24) “Cloud Computing: How It Affects Enterprise and Performance Monitoring,” Sys-Con Media [ www.sys-con.com/node/2128036%5D

Cloud computing – Aspects of cloud management systems

A cloud management system is a combination of software and technologies designed to manage cloud environments.[ www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cloud_management.html “Definition: Cloud management”, ITBusinessEdge/Webopedia] The industry has responded to the management challenges of cloud computing with cloud management systems. HP, Novell, Eucalyptus, OpenNebula, Citrix and are among the vendors that have management systems specifically for managing cloud environments.

Cloud computing – The Intercloud

The Intercloud is an interconnected global cloud of clouds and an extension of the Internet network of networks on which it is based.

Cloud computing – Privacy solutions

Solutions to privacy in cloud computing include policy and legislation as well as end users’ choices for how data is stored. The cloud service provider needs to establish clear and relevant policies that describe how the data of each cloud user will be accessed and used. Cloud service users can encrypt data that is processed or stored within the cloud to prevent unauthorized access.

Cloud computing – Ambiguity of terminology

Outside of the information technology and software industry, the term cloud can be found to reference a wide range of services, some of which fall under the category of cloud computing, while others do not

Cloud computing – Performance interference and noisy neighbors

Due to its multi-tenant nature and resource sharing, Cloud computing must also deal with the noisy neighbor effect

Cloud computing – The Future

Cloud computing is therefore still as much a research topic, as it is a market offering.

Cloud computing – The Future

In 2012 the European Commission has issued an analysis of the relevance of the open research issues for commercial stabilisation in which various experts from industry and academia identify in particular the following major concerns:

Cloud computing – The Future

* open interoperation across (proprietary) cloud solutions at IaaS, PaaS and SaaS levels

Cloud computing – The Future

* managing multitenancy at large scale and in heterogeneous environments

Cloud computing – The Future

* dynamic and seamless elasticity from inhouse clouds to public clouds for unusual (scale, complexity) and/or infrequent requirements

Cloud computing – The Future

* data management in a cloud environment, taking the technical and legal constraints into consideration

Cloud computing – The Future

These findings have been refined into a research roadmap proposed by the Cloud Computing Expert Group on Research in December 2012 which tries to lay out a timeline for the identified research topics according to their commercial relevance. With the 8th Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development the European Commission is trying to support the according research work along the lines of the Europe 2020 strategy.

Cloud Computing Manifesto

The ‘Cloud Computing Manifesto’ is a manifesto containing a public declaration of principles and intentions for cloud computing providers and vendors, annotated as a call to action for the worldwide cloud community and dedicated belief that the cloud should be open. It follows the earlier development of the Cloud Computing Bill of Rights which addresses similar issues from the users’ point of view.

Cloud Computing Manifesto

The document was developed by way of an open community consensus process in response to a request by Microsoft that any ‘manifesto’ should be created, from its inception, through an open mechanism like a Wiki, for public debate and comment, all available through a Creative Commons license. Accordingly it is hosted on a MediaWiki wiki and licensed under the [ creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ CC-BY-SA 3.0] license.

Cloud Computing Manifesto

The original, controversial version of the document called the Open Cloud Manifesto was sharply criticised by Microsoft who spoke out vehemently against it for being developed in secret by a shadowy group of IT industry companies, raising questions about conflicts of interest and resulting in extensive media coverage over the following days.[ online.wsj.com/article/BT-CO-20090327-714442.html Turf War Brewing Among Tech Firms Over Cloud Computing ] A pre-announcement commits to the official publication of this document on 30 March 2009 (in spite of calls to publish it earlier), at which time the identities of the signatories (several of the largest technology companies and organizations led by IBM along with Object Management Group|OMG www.eweek.com/c/a/Cloud-Computing/Open-Cloud-Manifesto-Much-Ado-and-To-Do-876838/ and believed also to include Cisco, HP, and Sun Microsystems[ www.vnunet.com/vnunet/news/2239312/microsoft-disappointed-cloud Microsoft expresses outrage at secret ‘Cloud Manifesto’]) is said to be revealed

Cloud Computing Manifesto

The authors of both public and private documents have agreed to work to bring together the best points of each effort.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Controversy

The Open Cloud Manifesto version, developed in private by a secret consortium[ www.von.com/news/microsoft-open-cloud-manifesto.html Microsoft Strikes Out Against ‘Open Cloud Manifesto’] of companies, was prematurely revealed by Microsoft’s Senior Director of Developer Platform Product Management, Steve Martin on 26 March 2009

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

The following principles are defined by the document:

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘User centric’ systems enrich the lives of individuals, education, communication, collaboration, business, entertainment and society as a whole; the end user is the primary stakeholder in cloud computing.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Openness’ of standards, systems and software empowers and protects users; existing standards should be adopted where possible for the benefit of all stakeholders.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Transparency’ fosters trust and accountability; decisions should be open to public collaboration and scrutiny and never be made behind closed doors.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Interoperability’ ensures effectiveness of cloud computing as a public resource; systems must be interoperable over a minimal set of community defined standards and vendor lock-in must be avoided.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Representation’ of all stakeholders is essential; interoperability and standards efforts should not be dominated by vendor(s).

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Discrimination’ against any party for any reason is unacceptable; barriers to entry must be minimised.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Evolution’ is an ongoing process in an immature market; standards may take some time to develop and coalesce but activities should be coordinated and collaborative.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Balance’ of commercial and consumer interests is paramount; if in doubt consumer interests prevail.

Cloud Computing Manifesto – Principles

# ‘Security’ is fundamental, not optional.

Patni Computer Systems – Cloud Computing

*Cloud Acceleration Program

Patni Computer Systems – Cloud Computing

*Cloud Based Outsourcing

Patni Computer Systems – Cloud Computing

*Cloud Infrastructure Services

Virtual appliance – Relationship to infrastructure as a service cloud computing

Virtual appliances are critical resources in infrastructure as a service cloud computing

Dynamic infrastructure – Need for Cloud Computing

Even in the face of global uncertainty, it is the infrastructure that continues to enable commerce and communications – the roads, networks, utilities, and technologies connecting and differentiating organizations, competitors and customers. The need therefore, is for a new type of infrastructure that:

Dynamic infrastructure – Need for Cloud Computing

* Enables visibility, control and automation across all business and IT assets

Dynamic infrastructure – Need for Cloud Computing

* Leverages flexible sourcing like clouds

Dynamic infrastructure – Need for Cloud Computing

Organizations need an infrastructure that can propel them forward — not hold them back. Until now, many organizations have thought of physical infrastructure and IT infrastructure as separate. This meant, for example, that airports, roadways, buildings, power plants, and oil wells were managed in one way, while datacenters, PCs, cell phones, routers, and broadband devices were managed quite differently.

Dynamic infrastructure – Need for Cloud Computing

To succeed in today’s world of instrumented, interconnected, and intelligent assets, a new approach is needed

3tera – Cloud computing software

3tera’s flagship product, AppLogic, is used by numerous service providers as the foundation for their cloud computing offerings.

3tera – Cloud computing software

AppLogic is a turnkey system that converts arrays of servers into virtualized resource pools that users can subscribe to in order to power their applications. Users can define not only virtual machines but also complex application infrastructure like firewalls, VPNs, load balancers and storage, all with nothing more than a browser. Service providers offer a variety of services based on AppLogic, including:

3tera – Cloud computing software

* Virtual Private Server (VPS) with automatic high availability and flexible resource assignment

3tera – Cloud computing software

* Virtual Private Datacenter (VPD or VPDC) for building complex on-line application infrastructure with only a browser

3tera – Cloud computing software

* Software-as-a-Service applications (including project management, issue tracking, and customer relationship management (CRM))

3tera – Cloud computing software

What generally distinguishes 3tera’s model is that AppLogic is made available both as a service or as a software license. This allows customers to obtain service from a number of providers, move easily between providers, as well as operate in-house cloud computing services.

3tera – Cloud computing software

3Tera’s principal founder was the late Vladimir Miloushev. Prior to its acquisition, the management and founders included Barry X Lynn, Chairman and Chief Executive; Peter Nickolov, President and Chief Technology Officer; Bert Armijo, Senior Vice President of Product Development; Eric Tessler, Vice President of Engineering, Essy Nickolova, Vice President of Marketing Communications, Robbie Vann-Adibè, Vice President of Sales; Krasimira Nikolova, Chief Financial Officer. .

Ubuntu Server – Cloud computing

Ubuntu offers Ubuntu Cloud Images which are pre-installed disk images that have been customized by Ubuntu engineering to run on cloud-platforms such as Amazon EC2, Openstack, Windows and LXC. Ubuntu is also prevalent in the VPS provider Digital Ocean.

Ubuntu Server – Cloud computing

Ubuntu 11.04 added support for OpenStack, with Eucalyptus to OpenStack migration tools added by Canonical in Ubuntu Server 11.10. Ubuntu 11.10 added focus on OpenStack as the Ubuntu’s preferred IaaS offering though Eucalyptus is also supported. Another major focus is Juju (software)|Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server.

Business Productivity Online Standard Suite – Cloud computing and BPOS

‘A year from now that will be 90 percent.’ This full embrace of the term cloud computing is new for Microsoft

For More Information, Visit:

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