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DRAM

Intel – From DRAM to microprocessors

In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer era, Intel’s profits came under increased pressure from Japanese memory-chip manufacturers, and then-president Andy Grove focused the company on microprocessors. Grove described this transition in the book Only the Paranoid Survive. A key element of his plan was the notion, then considered radical, of becoming the single source for successors to the popular 8086 microprocessor.

Intel – From DRAM to microprocessors

Until then, the manufacture of complex integrated circuits was not reliable enough for customers to depend on a single supplier, but Grove began producing processors in three geographically distinct factories,[which?] and ceased licensing the chip designs to competitors such as Zilog and AMD. When the PC industry boomed in the late 1980s and 1990s, Intel was one of the primary beneficiaries.

Samsung Electronics – DRAM price fixing

In December 2010, the European Commission fined six LCD panel producers, including Samsung, a total of €648.925 million for operating as a cartel. The company received a full reduction of the potential fine for being the first firm to assist EU anti-trust authorities.

Samsung Electronics – DRAM price fixing

On October 19, 2011, Samsung was fined EUR 145,727,000 for being part of a price cartel of ten companies for DRAMs which lasted from 1 July 1998 to 15 June 2002. The company received, like most of the other members of the cartel, a 10-% reduction for acknowledging the facts to investigators. Samsung had to pay 90% of their share of the settlement, but Micron avoided payment as a result of having initially revealed the case to investigators.

Aldous Huxley – Drama

The Genius and the Goddess (stage version, co-written with Betty Wendel, 1958)

Aldous Huxley – Drama

Now More Than Ever (Huxley’s lost play discovered in 2000 in the University of Münster, Germany’s Department of English Literature)

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The music hall has been evoked in many films, plays, TV series and books.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

About half of the film Those Were the Days (1934) is set in a music hall. It was based on a farce by Pinero and features the music hall acts of Lily Morris, Harry Bedford, the gymnasts Gaston & Andre, G. H. Elliott, Sam Curtis and Frank Boston & Betty.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

A music hall with a ‘memory man’ act provides a pivotal plot device in the classic 1935 Alfred Hitchcock thriller The 39 Steps.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The Arthur Askey comedy film I Thank You (1941) features old-time music hall star Lily Morris as an ex-music hall artiste now ennobled as “Lady Randall”. In the last scene of the film, however, she reverts to type and gives a rendition of “Waiting at the Church” at an impromptu concert at Aldwych tube station organised by Askey and his side-kick Richard “Stinker” Murdoch.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The Victorian era of music hall was celebrated by the 1944 film, Champagne Charlie.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

Charlie Chaplin’s 1952 film Limelight, set in 1914 London, evokes the music hall world of Chaplin’s youth where he performed as comedian before he achieved worldwide celebrity as a film star in America. The film depicts the last performance of a washed-up music hall clown called Calvero at The Empire theatre, Leicester Square. The film premiered at the Empire Cinema, which was built on the same site as the Empire theatre.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The Good Old Days (1953 to 1983) was a popular BBC television light entertainment programme recorded live at the Leeds City Varieties which recreated an authentic atmosphere of the Victorian–Edwardian music hall with songs and sketches of the era performed by present-day performers in the style of the original artistes

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

John Osborne’s play The Entertainer (1957) portrays the life and work of a failing third-rate music hall stage performer who tries to keep his career going even as his personal life falls apart

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

In Grip of the Strangler (1958), set in Victorian London, the raunchy can-can dancers and loose women of the sleazy “Judas Hole” music hall are terrorised by the Haymarket Strangler, played by Boris Karloff.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

J

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The parodic film Oh! What a Lovely War (1969), based on the stage musical Oh, What a Lovely War! (1963) by Joan Littlewood’s Theatre Workshop, featured the music hall turns and songs that had provided support for the British war effort in World War I.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The popular British television series Upstairs, Downstairs (1971–1975) and its spin-off Thomas & Sarah (1979) each dealt frequently with the world of the Edwardian music hall, sometimes through references to actual Edwardian era performers such as Vesta Tilley or to characters on the show attending performances, and other times through the experiences of the popular character Sarah Moffat, who left domestic service several times and often ended up going on stage to support herself when she did.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

Between 1978 and 1984 BBC television broadcast two series of programmes called The Old Boy Network. These featured a star (usually a music hall performer, but also some younger turns like Eric Sykes) performing some of their best known routines while giving a slide show of their life story. Artistes featured included Arthur Askey, Tommy Trinder, Sandy Powell, and Chesney Allen.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The modern Players’ Theatre Club provides a brief impression of contemporary music hall in the film The Fourth Angel, where Jeremy Irons’ character creates an alibi by visiting a show.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

Sarah Waters’s book Tipping the Velvet (1998) revolves around the world of music halls in the late Victorian era, and in particular around two fictional “mashers” (drag kings) named Kitty Butler and Nan King.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

Music hall had a profound influence on The Beatles through Paul McCartney, who is himself the son of a music hall performer (Jim McCartney, who led Jim Mac’s Jazz Band). Many of McCartney’s songs are indistinguishable from music hall except in their instrumentation. “When I’m Sixty-Four” and “Honey Pie” are two fine examples, as are “Your Mother Should Know” and “Maxwell’s Silver Hammer”.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

Herman’s Hermits, led by Peter Noone, also incorporated music hall into their repertoire, scoring a major hit with their cover of the Harry Champion music hall standard, “I’m Henery the Eighth, I Am”, in 1965 (but Noone’s version included only the chorus, not the many verses of the original).

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

In James Joyce’s short story The Boarding House, Mrs. Mooney’s boarding-house in Hardwicke Street accommodates “occasionally (…) artistes from the music halls”. The Sunday night “reunions” with Jack Mooney in the drawing-room create a certain atmosphere.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

In Vivian Stanshall and Ki Longfellow-Stanshall’s musical, Stinkfoot, a Comic Opera, the lead performer is an ageing music hall artiste named Soliquisto.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

Legendary soul singer Michael Jackson openly admitted his admiration for music hall performers such as Charlie Chaplin.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

British rockers Queen incorporated music hall styles into many of their songs, most notably 1974’s “Killer Queen”.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

Garry Bushell’s punk pathetique band, The Gonads, did rock versions of music hall songs. Many punk pathetique acts were indebted to the music hall tradition.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The Theatre of the Absurd was heavily influenced by music hall in its use of comedy, as well as avant-garde cultural forms (such as surrealism) being a more obvious influence.

Music hall – Cultural influences of music hall: Literature, drama, screen, and later music

The spirit of the music hall lives on in the form of pensioner rapper, Ida Barr who mashes up music hall and rap. Based on a real artiste, the act is performed by Christopher Green.

Digital preservation – DRAMBORA

Digital Repository Audit Method Based On Risk Assessment (DRAMBORA), introduced by the Digital Curation Centre (DCC) and Digital Preservation Europe (DPE) in 2007, offers a methodology and a toolkit for digital repository self-assessment.

Digital preservation – DRAMBORA

The DRAMBORA process is arranged in six stages and concentrates on evaluation of likelihood and potential impact of risks on the repository. The auditor is required to describe and document the repository’s role, objectives, policies, activities and assets, in order to identify and assess the risks associated with these activities and assets and define appropriate measures to manage them.

Drama film

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Drama film

Drama is probably the broadest movie genre and includes subgenres such as romantic drama, sport films, period drama, courtroom drama and crime.

Drama film

Some of the greatest screen performances come from dramas, as there is ample opportunity for actors to stretch into a role that most other genres cannot afford.

Drama film

Drama films have been nominated frequently for the Academy Award (particularly Best Picture) – more than any other film genre.

Drama film – Sub-genres

Dramatic films include a very large spectrum of film genres. Because of the large number of drama films, these movies have been sub-categorized:

Drama film – Sub-genres

Historical drama (epic) (including War drama) – Films that focus on dramatic events in history.

Drama film – Sub-genres

Docudrama: the difference between a docudrama and a documentary is that in a documentary it uses real people to describe history or current events; in a docudrama it uses professionally trained actors to play the roles in the current event, that is “dramatized” a bit. Not to be confused with docufiction.

Drama film – Sub-genres

Comedy-drama: is in which there is an equal, or nearly equal balance of humor and serious content.

Drama film – Sub-genres

Melodramatic plots often deal with “crises of human emotion, failed romance or friendship, strained familial situations, tragedy, illness, neuroses, or emotional and physical hardship.” Film critics sometimes use the term “pejoratively to connote an unrealistic, pathos-filled, campy tale of romance or domestic situations with stereotypical characters (often including a central female character) that would directly appeal to feminine audiences.” Also called “women’s movies”, “weepies”, tearjerkers, or “chick flicks”

Drama film – Sub-genres

Romance: a sub-type of dramatic film which dwells on the elements of romantic love.

Drama film – Sub-genres

Tragedy: a drama in which a character’s downfall is caused by a flaw in their character or by a major error in judgment.

Drama film – Early film-1950s

By the late 1970s, melodrama was nearly finished as an overt genre, as the hunger for realism dominated film in groundbreaking movies like Martin Scorsese’s Mean Streets.

Drama film – Early film-1950s

Dramatic Films focused on character relationships and development

Drama film – Early film-1950s

Some of the most critically acclaimed drama films in Asian cinema were produced during the 1950s, including Yasujir? Ozu’s Tokyo Story (1953), Kenji Mizoguchi’s Ugetsu (1954), Satyajit Ray’s The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959), Guru Dutt’s Pyaasa (1957), and the Akira Kurosawa films Rashomon (1950), Ikiru (1952) and Seven Samurai (1954).

Drama film – 1960s-1970s

The 1960s brought politically driven dramas focusing on war, such as Judgment at Nuremberg (1961), Flashback (1969) and The Manchurian Candidate (1962). Sports dramas became inspiration such as The Hustler (1961) and Downhill Racer (1969).

Drama film – 1960s-1970s

In addition, in sports drama were films that focused on the struggle of athletes such as Brian’s Song (1970), and The Longest Yard (1974)

Drama film – 1980s-1990s

Drama, with a science fiction edge was a theme when Steven Spielberg directed E.T

Drama film – 1980s-1990s

Child-oriented dramas also became more popular with titles such as The Lion King (1994).

Drama film – 2000s

Despite the drop on popularity of the romantic dramas, some of them have enjoyed big box office and critical success, as the controversial, groundbreaking Brokeback Mountain (2005) for example, that won several awards and Slumdog Millionaire (2008), a critically acclaimed romantic-drama that has been nominated for ten Academy Awards, and went on to win eight of them, including Best Picture.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman – Drama/dialogues

The majority of Gilman’s dramas are inaccessible as they are only available from the originals. Some were printed/reprinted in the Forerunner, however.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman – Drama/dialogues

*Dame Nature Interviewed on the Woman Question as It Looks to Her Kate Field’s Washington (1890): 138–40.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman – Drama/dialogues

*The Ceaseless Struggle of Sex: A Dramatic View. Kate Field’s Washington. April 9, 1890, 239–40.

Leitmotifs – Literature and drama

Leitmotif is sometimes used by literary or dramatic critics to refer to a recurring event, image, object or character in a story, poem, film or play. Leitmotifs (or motifs) become significant to the meaning of the overall work when they develop thematic importance. In film, such a motif is most frequently a plot device, image, character trait, or element of the mise en scène.

Leitmotifs – Literature and drama

Leitmotif-like techniques, with word patterns replacing melodies, are said to be used in Ulysses (novel)|Ulysses by James Joyce. Leitmotifs is also said to be present in Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; and also in the works of Samuel Beckett, Virginia Woolf, Kurt Vonnegut, Joseph Heller, Thomas Mann, Chuck Palahniuk, and Julian Barnes.

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation

The ‘Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation’ was given each year for theatrical films, television episodes, or other dramatized works related to science fiction or fantasy released in the previous calendar year.

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation

To date, Retro Hugo awards have been awarded for 1946, 1951, and 1954; the first two were for the Best Dramatic Presentation category while the 1954 awards were for the Short Form category

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation

This has happened in the Dramatic Presentation category four times, in 1959, 1963, 1971, and 1977.

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation

The individual shows with the most awards are the revived 2000s-era Doctor Who with 6 Short Form awards out of 23 nominations and The Twilight Zone (1959 TV series)|The Twilight Zone with 3 Best Dramatic Presentation awards out of 4 nominations

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation – Winners and nominees

In the following tables, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony, rather than when the work was first published

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation – 2003-present

The Short Form award is for a dramatized production in any medium, including film, television, radio, live theater, computer games or music

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation – Retro Hugos

In 1946 and 1951, an award was given for Best Dramatic Presentation, while in 1954 an award was given for Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form

Anonymous (group) – Encyclopedia Dramatica (2004ndash;present)

Journalist Julian Dibbell described Encyclopædia Dramatica as the site where the vast parallel universe of Anonymous in-jokes, catchphrases, and obsessions is lovingly annotated, and you will discover an elaborate trolling culture: Flamingly racist and misogynist content lurks throughout, all of it calculated to offend

Anonymous (group) – Encyclopedia Dramatica (2004ndash;present)

The site’s reincarnation was initially hosted at encyclopediadramatica.ch on servers owned by Ryan Cleary, who later was arrested in relation to attacks by LulzSec against Sony.

Oxford University – Literature, music, and drama

The long list of writers associated with Oxford includes John Fowles, Dr

Oxford University – Literature, music, and drama

Composers Hubert Parry, George Butterworth, John Taverner, William Walton, James Whitbourn and Andrew Lloyd Webber have all been involved with the university.

Oxford University – Literature, music, and drama

Actors Hugh Grant, Kate Beckinsale, Dudley Moore, Michael Palin, and Terry Jones were undergraduates at the University, as were Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck and filmmakers Ken Loach and Richard Curtis.

Atomic layer deposition – DRAM capacitors

ALD is a very promising method, which can satisfy the high conformal requirements of DRAM applications

Dark Shadows – Audio drama

Based on a stage play performed at a Dark Shadows convention, Return to Collinwood is an audio drama written by Jamison Selby and Jim Pierson, and starring David Selby, Kathryn Leigh Scott, John Karlen, Nancy Barrett, Lara Parker, Roger Davis, Marie Wallace, Christopher Pennock, Donna Wandrey, James Storm, and Terry Crawford. The show is available on CD.

Personality disorder – Cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)

* ‘Borderline personality disorder:’ pervasive pattern of instability in relationships, self-image, identity, behavior and affect (psychology)|affects often leading to self-harm and impulsivity

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

Since the Vice Versa (novel)|Vice Versa novel was published in 1882, body swaps have been a popular theme in various media:

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*A Saintly Switch (1999 TV movie) – A NFL quarterback switches bodies with his wife, who is expecting.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

* Boy Meets Girl (TV series)|Boy Meets Girl (2009 TV mini-series) — Two strangers swap bodies when struck by lightning.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*The Change-Up (2011 film) – A lawyer and family man switches with his best friend who is an adult video actor.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*Dragon Ball Z — Captain Ginyu can switch bodies with someone he focuses on.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*Freaky Friday (1976 film) — Mother and daughter. Disney has produced several remakes including the 1995 and 2003 films. This also inspired the Freaky Freakend sitcom block where several TV shows on Disney Channel featured body swapping episodes.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

* Help! I’m Trapped… (book series by Todd Strasser) – A group of children use their science teacher’s machine to swap bodies.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*The Hot Chick (2002 film) – A popular High School cheerleader finds herself in a man’s body.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*The Identity Matrix (1982 novel by Jack L. Chalker) – Victor Gonser swaps with various women as part of an alien body swapping scheme.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*Identity Theft (2009 film) — A lottery winner ends up swapping bodies with a beautiful model who is in deep debt and is wanted by the police.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

* Inside Mari (manga by Sh?z? Oshimi) – A Hikikomori|shut-in guy discovers that he has swapped bodies with a teenage girl. – translation of Natalie (website)|Natalie article.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*Laughing Gas (novel)|Laughing Gas (1936 novel by P. G. Wodehouse) – Reggie and Joey inhale laughing gas at a dentist’s office and find they have swapped bodies.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*La machine (1994 film) – A psychiatrist and his psychopathic murderer patient swap minds.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

* Lejana (The Distances) (short story by Julio Cortázar) – A woman hugs a beggar and finds herself trapped in her body.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

* Prelude to a Kiss (play)|Prelude to a Kiss (1988 play) – A mysterious old man kisses a bride on her wedding day and switches bodies. It was Prelude to a Kiss (film)|adapted into a 1992 film that starred Alec Baldwin and Meg Ryan.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*The Tale of the Body Thief (1992 novel by Anne Rice) – Lestat de Lioncourt makes a deal with Raglan James to switch bodies.

Body swap – Appearances in fiction and drama

*Yamada-kun and the Seven Witches (2012- manga by Miki Yoshikawa) – The main characters can switch bodies with a kiss.

Star Wars Expanded Universe – Radio and audio drama

A radio adaptation of A New Hope was first broadcast on National Public Radio in 1981. The adaptation was written by science fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden (director)|John Madden. It was followed by adaptations of the next two films in the original trilogy: The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi.

Star Wars Expanded Universe – Radio and audio drama

The radio adaptations were notable for including background material probably created by Lucas but not used for the films. Mark Hamill, Anthony Daniels, and Billy Dee Williams reprised their roles as Luke Skywalker, C-3PO, and Lando Calrissian, respectively; John Williams composed an original score; and Ben Burtt, who designed the sound for all of the Star Wars movies, did the same for the radio adaptations.

Star Wars Expanded Universe – Radio and audio drama

In 1983, Buena Vista Records released entirely original Star Wars audio drama, [http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Rebel_Mission_to_Ord_Mantell Rebel Mission to Ord Mantell]. Like the radio adaptations of the films, Rebel Mission to Ord Mantell was written by Brian Daley.

Star Wars Expanded Universe – Radio and audio drama

These audio dramas were adapted from Dark Horse comic books, and include: Tales of the Jedi (1995), Tales from the Mos Eisley Cantina (1995), Dark Empire (1996), Dark Empire II (1996), Empire’s End (1997), Dark Forces (1998), and Crimson Empire (1998).

Star Wars Expanded Universe – Radio and audio drama

Adaptations of the prequel films have not been made at this point.

Fullmetal Alchemist – Audio dramas

The second series of audio dramas, available only with purchases of Sh?nen Gangan, consists two stories in this series, each with two parts

Star Trek: The Original Series – Dramatic underscore

For budgetary reasons, this series made significant use of tracked music, or music written for other episodes that was reused in later episodes. Of the 79 episodes that were broadcast, only 31 had complete or partial original dramatic underscores created specifically for them. The remainder of the music in any episode was tracked from other episodes. Which episodes would have new music was mostly the decision of Robert H. Justman, the Associate Producer during the first two seasons.

Star Trek: The Original Series – Dramatic underscore

Screen credits for the composers were given based on the amount of music composed for, or composed and reused in, the episode. Some of these final music credits were occasionally incorrect.

Star Trek: The Original Series – Dramatic underscore

Beyond the short works of Source music|source music (music whose source is seen or acknowledged onscreen) created for specific episodes, eight composers were contracted to create original dramatic underscore during the series run: Alexander Courage, George Duning, Jerry Fielding, Gerald Fried, Sol Kaplan, Samuel Matlovsky, Joseph Mullendore, and Fred Steiner

Star Trek: The Original Series – Dramatic underscore

The tracked musical underscores were chosen and edited to the episode by the music editors, principal of whom were Robert Raff (most of Season One), Jim Henrikson (Season One and Two), and Richard Lapham (Season Three).

Star Trek: The Original Series – Dramatic underscore

Some of the original recordings of the music were released in the United States commercially on the GNP Crescendo Record Co

Dynamic random-access memory – Operations to read a data bit from a DRAM storage cell

#The bit-lines are precharged to exactly equal voltages that are in between high and low logic levels (e.g., 0.5 V if the two levels are 0 and 1 V). The bit-lines are physically symmetrical to keep the capacitance equal, and therefore at this time their voltages are equal.

Dynamic random-access memory – Operations to read a data bit from a DRAM storage cell

#The precharge circuit is switched off. Because the bit-lines are relatively long, they have enough capacitance to maintain the precharged voltage for a brief time. This is an example of dynamic logic (digital logic)|dynamic logic.

Dynamic random-access memory – Operations to read a data bit from a DRAM storage cell

#The desired row’s word-line is then driven high to connect a cell’s storage capacitor to its bit-line

Dynamic random-access memory – Operations to read a data bit from a DRAM storage cell

#The sense amplifiers are now connected to the bit-lines pairs. Positive feedback then occurs from the cross-connected inverters, thereby amplifying the small voltage difference between the odd and even row bit-lines of a particular column until one bit line is fully at the lowest voltage and the other is at the maximum high voltage. Once this has happened, the row is open (the desired cell data is available).

Dynamic random-access memory – Operations to read a data bit from a DRAM storage cell

#All storage cells in the open row are sensed simultaneously, and the sense amplifier outputs latched. A column address then selects which latch bit to connect to the external data bus. Reads of different columns in the same row can be performed without a row opening delay because, for the open row, all data has already been sensed and latched.

Dynamic random-access memory – Operations to read a data bit from a DRAM storage cell

#While reading of columns in an open row is occurring, current is flowing back up the bit-lines from the output of the sense amplifiers and recharging the storage cells

Dynamic random-access memory – Operations to read a data bit from a DRAM storage cell

#When done with reading all the columns in the current open row, the word-line is switched off to disconnect the storage cell capacitors (the row is closed) from the bit-lines. The sense amplifier is switched off, and the bit lines are precharged again.

DDR SDRAM

‘Double data rate synchronous dynamic random-access memory’ (‘DDR SDRAM’) is a class of memory integrated circuits used in computers. DDR SDRAM, also called DDR1 SDRAM, has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM and DDR3 SDRAM, neither of which is either Forward compatibility|forward or Backward compatibility|backward compatible with DDR1 SDRAM -meaning that DDR2 or DDR3 memory modules will not work in DDR1-equipped motherboards, and vice versa.

DDR SDRAM

The name double data rate refers to the fact that a DDR SDRAM with a certain clock frequency achieves nearly twice the bandwidth (computing)|bandwidth of a SDR SDRAM running at the same clock frequency, due to this double pumping.

DDR SDRAM

With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory bus clock rate) × 2 (for dual rate) × 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of bits/byte). Thus, with a bus frequency of 100MHz, DDR SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 1600MB/s.

DDR SDRAM

Beginning in 1996 and concluding in June 2000, JEDEC developed the DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM specification (JESD79). JEDEC has set standards for data rates of DDR SDRAM, divided into two parts. The first specification is for memory chips, and the second is for memory modules.

DDR SDRAM – MDDR

MDDR is an acronym that some enterprises use for Mobile DDR SDRAM, a type of memory used in some portable electronic devices, like mobile phones, handhelds, and digital audio players. Through techniques including reduced voltage supply and advanced refresh options, Mobile DDR can achieve greater power efficiency.

DRAM

‘Dynamic random-access memory’ (‘DRAM’) is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit

DRAM

The main memory (the RAM) in personal computers is dynamic RAM (DRAM). It is the RAM in Desktop computer|desktops, laptops and workstation computers as well as some of the RAM of video game consoles.

DRAM

The advantage of DRAM is its structural simplicity: only one transistor and a capacitor are required per bit, compared to four or six transistors in SRAM. This allows DRAM to reach very high Computer storage density|densities. Unlike flash memory, DRAM is volatile memory (vs. non-volatile memory), since it loses its data quickly when power is removed. The transistors and capacitors used are extremely small; billions can fit on a single memory chip.

DRAM – History

The Cryptanalysis|cryptanalytic machine code-named Aquarius used at Bletchley Park during World War II incorporated a hard-wired dynamic memory

DRAM – History

In 1964 Arnold Farber and Eugene Schlig, working for IBM, created a hard-wired memory cell, using a transistor gate and tunnel diode latch. They replaced the latch with two transistors and two resistors, a configuration which became known as the Farber-Schlig cell.

DRAM – History

In 1965 Benjamin Agusta and his team at IBM created a 16-bit silicon memory chip based on the Farber-Schlig cell, with 80 transistors, 64 resistors, and four diodes.

DRAM – History

In 1966 DRAM was invented by Dr. Robert Dennard at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. He was granted U.S. patent number [http://patft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=3387286 3,387,286] in 1968. Capacitors had been used for earlier memory schemes such as the drum of the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, the Williams tube and the Selectron tube.

DRAM – History

The Toshiba Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator, which was introduced in November 1966,[http://www.oldcalculatormuseum.com/s-toshbc1411.html Spec Sheet for Toshiba TOSCAL BC-1411] used a form of dynamic RAM built from discrete components.[http://www.oldcalculatormuseum.com/toshbc1411.html Toshiba Toscal BC-1411 Desktop Calculator] (The introduction date is listed here as November 1965, but this is a year too early and appears to be a typographical error.)

DRAM – History

This became the first commercially available DRAM memory, the Intel 1103 (1024×1), in October 1970, despite initial problems with low yield until the fifth revision of the photomask|masks

DRAM – History

However, as density increased to 64K in the early 80s, Mostek was overtaken by Japanese DRAM manufacturers selling higher quality DRAMs using the same multiplexing scheme at below-cost prices.

DRAM – History

See Japan–United States relations#Frictions in the semiconductor industry sector

DRAM – Operation principle

DRAM is usually arranged in a rectangular array of charge storage cells consisting of one capacitor and transistor per data bit. The figure to the right shows a simple example with a 4 by 4 cell matrix. Modern DRAM matrices are many thousands of cells in height and width.

DRAM – Operation principle

The long horizontal lines connecting each row are known as word-lines. Each column of cells is composed of two bit-lines, each connected to every other storage cell in the column (the illustration to the right does not include this important detail). They are generally known as the + and ? bit-lines.

DRAM – To write to memory

To store data, a row is opened and a given column’s sense amplifier is temporarily forced to the desired high or low voltage state, thus causing the bit-line to charge or discharge the cell storage capacitor to the desired value

DRAM – Refresh rate

This makes the controller’s logic circuit more complicated, but this drawback is outweighed by the fact that DRAM is much cheaper per storage cell and because each storage cell is very simple, DRAM has much greater capacity per unit of surface than SRAM.

DRAM – Refresh rate

Most DRAM chips include that counter

DRAM – Refresh rate

Under some conditions, most of the data in DRAM can be recovered even if the DRAM has not been refreshed for several minutes.

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

* Three Plays for Puritans (published 1901)

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

** Captain Brassbound’s Conversion (1899)

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

* John Bull’s Other Island (1904)

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

* How He Lied to Her Husband (1904)

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

* The Fascinating Foundling (1909)

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

* The Inca of Perusalem (1915)

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

* Augustus Does His Bit (1916)

George Bernard Shaw – Drama

* The Shewing Up of Blanco Posnet (1909)

Ssd – DRAM-based

DRAM-based SSDs usually incorporate either an internal battery or an external AC/DC adapter and backup storage systems to ensure data persistence while no power is being supplied to the drive from external sources

Ssd – DRAM-based

SSDs of this type are usually fitted with DRAM modules of the same type used in regular PCs and servers, which can be swapped out and replaced by larger modules.

Ssd – DRAM-based

Such as i-RAM, HyperOs HyperDrive, DDRdrive X1, etc.

Ssd – DRAM-based

Some manufacturers of DRAM SSDs solder the DRAM chips directly to the drive, and do not intend the chips to be swapped out—such as ZeusRAM, Aeon Drive, etc.

Ssd – DRAM-based

A remote, indirect memory-access disk (RIndMA Disk) uses a secondary computer with a fast network or (direct) Infiniband connection to act like a RAM-based SSD, but the new, faster, flash-memory based, SSDs already available in 2009 are making this option not as cost effective.

Ssd – DRAM-based

While the price of DRAM continues to fall, the price of Flash memory falls even faster.

Ssd – DRAM-based

The Flash becomes cheaper than DRAM crossover point occurred approximately 2004.

Cable TV Hong Kong – Drama Channel

‘Wharf Drama Channel’ (Chinese: ???) is a 24-hour daily of Cantonese cable drama channel in Hong Kong co-established by ATV TVB owned by Wharf Cable Television on Channel 5 was officially launched on 31 October 1993 at 2 free-to-air terrestrial television stations such: ATV and TVB dubbed into Cantonese and Chinese subtitle.

Apollo mission – Docudramas

The Apollo program, or certain missions, have been docudrama|dramatized in Apollo 13 (film)|Apollo 13 (1995), Apollo 11 (film)|Apollo 11 (1996), From the Earth to the Moon (TV miniseries)|From the Earth to the Moon (1998), Space Race (TV series)|Space Race (2005), and Moonshot (film)|Moonshot (2009).

Middle East Broadcasting Center – MBC Drama

Do not confuse this channel with MBC’s subscription-based channel MBC+ Drama.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM history

Although the concept of synchronous DRAM has been known since at least the 1970s and was used with early Intel processors, it was only in 1993 that SDRAM began its path to universal acceptance in the electronics industry. In 1993, Samsung introduced its KM48SL2000 synchronous DRAM, and by 2000, SDRAM had replaced virtually all other types of DRAM in modern computers, because of its greater performance.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM history

SDRAM latency is not inherently lower (faster) than asynchronous DRAM. Indeed, early SDRAM was somewhat slower than contemporaneous burst EDO DRAM due to the additional logic. The benefits of SDRAM’s internal buffering come from its ability to interleave operations to multiple banks of memory, thereby increasing effective Bandwidth (computing)|bandwidth.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM history

Today, virtually all SDRAM is manufactured in compliance with standards established by JEDEC, an electronics industry association that adopts open standards to facilitate interoperability of electronic components. JEDEC formally adopted its first SDRAM standard in 1993 and subsequently adopted other SDRAM standards, including those for DDR SDRAM|DDR, DDR2 SDRAM|DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM history

SDRAM is also available in Registered memory|registered varieties, for systems that require greater scalability such as Server (computing)|servers and workstations.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM history

Today, the world’s largest manufacturers of SDRAM include: Samsung Electronics, Panasonic, Micron Technology, and Hynix.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM timing

There are several limits on DRAM performance. Most noted is the read cycle time, the time between successive read operations to an open row. This time decreased from 10ns for 100MHz SDRAM to 5ns for DDR-400, but has remained relatively unchanged through DDR2-800 and DDR3-1600 generations. However, by operating the interface circuitry at increasingly higher multiples of the fundamental read rate, the achievable bandwidth has increased rapidly.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM timing

Another limit is the CAS latency, the time between supplying a column address and receiving the corresponding data. Again, this has remained relatively constant at 10–15 ns through the last few generations of DDR SDRAM.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM timing

10–15ns is 2–3 cycles (CL2–3) of the 200MHz clock of DDR-400 SDRAM, CL4-6 for DDR2-800, and CL8-12 for DDR3-1600

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM timing

This standard was widely influential, and the term PC100 quickly became a common identifier for 100MHz SDRAM modules, and modules are now commonly designated with PC-prefixed numbers (PC66, PC100 or PC133 – although the actual meaning of the numbers has changed).

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDR SDRAM

Originally simply known as SDRAM, ‘single data rate’ SDRAM can accept one command and transfer one word of data per clock cycle. Typical clock frequencies are 100 and 133MHz. Chips are made with a variety of data bus sizes (most commonly 4, 8 or 16 bits), but chips are generally assembled into 168-pin DIMMs that read or write 64 (non-ECC) or 72 (ECC_memory|ECC) bits at a time.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDR SDRAM

Use of the data bus is intricate and thus requires a complex DRAM controller circuit. This is because data written to the DRAM must be presented in the same cycle as the write command, but reads produce output 2 or 3 cycles after the read command. The DRAM controller must ensure that the data bus is never required for a read and a write at the same time.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDR SDRAM

Typical SDR SDRAM clock rates are 66, 100, and 133MHz (periods of 15, 10, and 7.5ns). Clock rates up to 150MHz were available for performance enthusiasts.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM control signals

* ‘CKE’ Clock Enable

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM control signals

* ‘/CS’ Chip Select. When this signal is high, the chip ignores all other inputs (except for CKE), and acts as if a NOP command is received.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM control signals

* ‘DQM’ Data Mask. (The letter Q appears because, following digital logic conventions, the data lines are known as DQ lines.) When high, these signals suppress data I/O. When accompanying write data, the data is not actually written to the DRAM. When asserted high two cycles before a read cycle, the read data is not output from the chip. There is one DQM line per 8 bits on a x16 memory chip or DIMM.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

A 512megabyte|MB SDRAM DIMM (which contains 512mebibyte|MiB (IEC 60027|mebibytes) = = 536,870,912 bytes exactly), might be made of 8 or 9 SDRAM chips, each containing 512megabit|Mbit of storage, and each one contributing 8 bits to the DIMM’s 64- or 72-bit width. A typical 512Mbit SDRAM chip internally contains 4 independent 16MB (MiB) memory banks. Each bank is an array of 8,192 rows of 16,384 bits each. A bank is either idle, active, or changing from one to the other.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

The Active command activates an idle bank. It presents a 2-bit bank address (BA0 BA1) and a 13-bit row address (A0 A12), and causes a read of that row into the bank’s array of all 16,384 column sense amplifiers. This is also known as opening the row. This operation has the side effect of Memory refresh|refreshing the dynamic (capacitive) memory storage cells of that row.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

Once the row has been activated or opened, Read and Write commands are possible to that row

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

Both Read and Write commands require a column address. Because each chip accesses 8 bits of data at a time, there are 2048 possible column addresses thus requiring only 11 address lines (A0 A9, A11).

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

When a Read command is issued, the SDRAM will produce the corresponding output data on the DQ lines in time for the rising edge of the clock 2 or 3 clock cycles later (depending on the configured CAS latency). Subsequent words of the burst will be produced in time for subsequent rising clock edges.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

A Write command is accompanied by the data to be written driven on to the DQ lines during the same rising clock edge. It is the duty of the memory controller to ensure that the SDRAM is not driving read data on to the DQ lines at the same time that it needs to drive write data on to those lines. This can be done by waiting until a read burst has finished, by terminating a read burst, or by using the DQM control line.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

When the memory controller needs to access a different row, it must first return that bank’s sense amplifiers to an idle state, ready to sense the next row

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM construction and operation

Although refreshing a row is an automatic side effect of activating it, there is a minimum time for this to happen, which requires a minimum row access time tRAS delay between an Active command opening a row, and the corresponding precharge command closing it. This limit is usually dwarfed by desired read and write commands to the row, so its value has little effect on typical performance.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM burst ordering

A modern microprocessor with a CPU cache|cache will generally access memory in units of cache lines. To transfer a 64-byte cache line requires 8 consecutive accesses to a 64-bit DIMM, which can all be triggered by a single read or write command by configuring the SDRAM chips, using the mode register, to perform 8-word bursts.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM burst ordering

A cache line fetch is typically triggered by a read from a particular address, and SDRAM allows the critical word of the cache line to be transferred first. (Word here refers to the width of the SDRAM chip or DIMM, which is 64 bits for a typical DIMM.) SDRAM chips support two possible conventions for the ordering of the remaining words in the cache line.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM burst ordering

Bursts always access an aligned block of BL consecutive words beginning on a multiple of BL. So, for example, a 4-word burst access to any column address from 4 to 7 will return words 4 7. The ordering, however, depends on the requested address, and the configured burst type option: sequential or interleaved. Typically, a memory controller will require one or the other.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM burst ordering

When the burst length is 1 or 2, the burst type does not matter. For a burst length of 1, the requested word is the only word accessed. For a burst length of 2, the requested word is accessed first, and the other word in the aligned block is accessed second. This is the following word if an even address was specified, and the previous word if an odd address was specified.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM burst ordering

For the sequential burst mode, later words are accessed in increasing address order, wrapping back to the start of the block when the end is reached. So, for example, for a burst length of 4, and a requested column address of 5, the words would be accessed in the order 5-6-7-4. If the burst length were 8, the access order would be 5-6-7-0-1-2-3-4. This is done by adding a counter to the column address, and ignoring carries past the burst length.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM burst ordering

The interleaved burst mode computes the address using an exclusive or operation between the counter and the address. Using the same starting address of 5, a 4-word burst would return words in the order 5-4-7-6. An 8-word burst would be 5-4-7-6-1-0-3-2. Although more confusing to humans, this can be easier to implement in hardware, and is preferred by Intel microprocessors.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM burst ordering

If the requested column address is at the start of a block, both burst modes return data in the same sequential sequence 0-1-2-3-4-5-6-7. The difference only matters if fetching a cache line from memory in critical-word-first order.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

Single data rate SDRAM has a single 10-bit programmable mode register. Later double-data-rate SDRAM standards add additional mode registers, addressed using the bank address pins. For SDR SDRAM, the bank address pins and address lines A10 and above are ignored, but should be zero during a mode register write.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

The bits are M9 through M0, presented on address lines A9 through A0 during a load mode register cycle.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

# M9: Write burst mode. If 0, writes use the read burst length and mode. If 1, all writes are non-burst (single location).

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

# M8, M7: Operating mode. Reserved, and must be 00.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

# M6, M5, M4: CAS latency. Generally only 010 (CL2) and 011 (CL3) are legal. Specifies the number of cycles between a read command and data output from the chip. The chip has a fundamental limit on this value in nanoseconds; during initialization, the memory controller must use its knowledge of the clock frequency to translate that limit into cycles.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

# M3: Burst type. 0 – requests sequential burst ordering, while 1 requests interleaved burst ordering.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

# M2, M1, M0: Burst length. Values of 000, 001, 010 and 011 specify a burst size of 1, 2, 4 or 8 words, respectively. Each read (and write, if M9 is 0) will perform that many accesses, unless interrupted by a burst stop or other command. A value of 111 specifies a full-row burst. The burst will continue until interrupted. Full-row bursts are only permitted with the sequential burst type.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDRAM mode register

Later (double data rate) SDRAM standards use more mode register bits, and provide additional mode registers called Extended Mode registers. The register number is encoded on the bank address pins during the Load Mode Register command. For example, DDR2 SDRAM has a 13-bit Mode Register, a 13-bit Extended Mode Register #1 (EMR1), and a 5-bit Extended Mode Register #2 (EMR2).

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDR SDRAM (Single Data Rate synchronous DRAM)

This type of SDRAM is slower than the DDR variants, because only one word of data is transmitted per clock cycle (single data rate).

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – SDR SDRAM (Single Data Rate synchronous DRAM)

But this type is also faster than its predecessors Dynamic random-access memory#Extended_data_out_DRAM_.28EDO_DRAM.29|EDO-RAM and Dynamic random-access memory#Fast_page_mode_DRAM_.28FPM_DRAM.29|FPM-RAM which took typically 2 or 3 clocks to transfer one word of data.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR(1) SDRAM

As a result, DDR SDRAM is not backwards compatible with SDR SDRAM.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR(1) SDRAM

DDR SDRAM (sometimes called DDR1 for greater clarity) doubles the minimum read or write unit; every access refers to at least two consecutive words.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR(1) SDRAM

Typical DDR SDRAM clock rates are 133, 166 and 200MHz (7.5, 6, and 5 ns/cycle), generally described as DDR-266, DDR-333 and DDR-400 (3.75, 3, and 2.5ns per beat). Corresponding 184-pin DIMMs are known as PC-2100, PC-2700 and PC-3200. Performance up to DDR-550 (PC-4400) is available for a price.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR2 SDRAM

(In particular, the burst terminate command is deleted.) This allows the bus rate of the SDRAM to be doubled without increasing the clock rate of internal RAM operations; instead, internal operations are performed in units 4 times as wide as SDRAM

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2 SDRAM is now available at a clock rate of 533MHz generally described as DDR2-1066 and the corresponding DIMMs are known as PC2-8500 (also named PC2-8600 depending on the manufacturer)

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR2 SDRAM

Note that because internal operations are at 1/2 the clock rate, DDR2-400 memory (internal clock rate 100MHz) has somewhat higher latency than DDR-400 (internal clock rate 200MHz).

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR3 SDRAM

DDR3 continues the trend, doubling the minimum read or write unit to 8 consecutive words. This allows another doubling of bandwidth and external bus rate without having to change the clock rate of internal operations, just the width. To maintain 800–1600M transfers/s (both edges of a 400–800MHz clock), the internal RAM array has to perform 100–200M fetches per second.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR3 SDRAM

Again, with every doubling, the downside is the increased Latency (engineering)|latency. As with all DDR SDRAM generations, commands are still restricted to one clock edge and command latencies are given in terms of clock cycles, which are half the speed of the usually quoted transfer rate (a CAS latency of 8 with DDR3-800 is 8/(400MHz) = 20 ns, exactly the same latency of CAS2 on PC100 SDR SDRAM).

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR3 SDRAM

DDR3 memory chips are being made commercially, and computer systems using them were available from the second half of 2007, with significant usage from 2008 onwards. Initial clock rates were 400 and 533MHz, which are described as DDR3-800 and DDR3-1066 (PC3-6400 and PC3-8500 modules), but 667 and 800MHz, described as DDR3-1333 and DDR3-1600 (PC3-10600 and PC3-12800 modules) are now common. Performance up to DDR3-2800 (PC3 22400 modules) are available for a price.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR4 SDRAM

‘DDR4 SDRAM’ is the successor to DDR3 SDRAM

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR4 SDRAM

The new chips are expected to run at 1.2Volt|V or less,[http://www.pcpro.co.uk/news/220257/idf-ddr3-wont-catch-up-with-ddr2-during-2009.html Looking forward to DDR4][http://www.heise-online.co.uk/news/IDF-DDR4-the-successor-to-DDR3-memory–/111367 DDR3 successor] versus the 1.5V of DDR3 chips, and have in excess of 2 billion data transfers per second

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR4 SDRAM

DDR4 will not double the internal prefetch width again, but will use the same 8n prefetch as DDR3. Thus, it will be necessary to interleave reads from several banks to keep the data bus busy.

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – DDR4 SDRAM

In January 2011, Samsung announced the completion and release for testing of a 30nm 2GB DDR4 DRAM module

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory – Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)

RDRAM was a proprietary technology that competed against DDR. Its relatively high price and disappointing performance (resulting from high latencies and a narrow 16-bit data channel versus DDR’s 64 bit channel) caused it to lose the race to succeed SDR DRAM.

TV3 (Ireland) – Drama

TV3 are not known for their Drama. TV3 have commissioned a number of short and feature films with both the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland and the Irish Film Board. In 2004 they co-produced RTÉ Two’s ill-fated 20 some-things drama The Big Bow Wow.www.imdb.com/title/tt0401913/

TV3 (Ireland) – Drama

They also took a look a two other drama serials The Guards and a revival of RTÉ’s The Clinic however neither came to fruition

TV3 (Ireland) – Drama

In late 2009, following the cancellation of Raidió Teilifís Éireann|RTÉ’s critically acclaimed medical drama series

TV3 (Ireland) – Drama

The Clinic (TV series)|The Clinic, was cancelled after seven series. TV3 speculated at reviving the show. TV3 later confirmed it would not seek to revive the show.

TV3 (Ireland) – Drama

In 2013, TV3 premiered a new Irish drama Taylor Hill

Ben Jonson – Drama

Apart from two tragedies, Sejanus (play)|Sejanus and Catiline: His Conspiracy|Catiline, that largely failed to impress Renaissance audiences, Jonson’s work for the public theatres was in comedy

Ben Jonson – Drama

The comedies of his middle career, from Eastward Ho to The Devil is an Ass are for the most part city comedy, with a London setting, themes of trickery and money, and a distinct moral ambiguity, despite Jonson’s professed aim in the Prologue to Volpone to mix profit with your pleasure. His late plays or dotages, particularly The Magnetic Lady and The Sad Shepherd, exhibit signs of an accommodation with the romantic tendencies of English Renaissance theatre|Elizabethan comedy.

Ben Jonson – Drama

He planned to write comedies that revived the classical premises of Elizabethan dramatic theory—or rather, since all but the loosest English comedies could claim some descent from Plautus and Terence, he intended to apply those premises with rigour.Doran, 120ff This commitment entailed negations: after The Case is Altered, Jonson eschewed distant locations, noble characters, romantic plots, and other staples of Elizabethan comedy, focussing instead on the satiric and realistic inheritance of new comedy

Ben Jonson – Drama

Many critics since the 18th century have ranked Jonson below only Shakespeare among English Renaissance theatre|English Renaissance dramatists

Ben Jonson – Drama

For some critics, the temptation to contrast Jonson (representing art or craft) with Shakespeare (representing nature, or untutored genius) has seemed natural; Jonson himself may be said to initiate this interpretation in the second folio, and Samuel Butler (poet)|Samuel Butler drew the same comparison in his commonplace book later in the century.

Ben Jonson – Drama

Nicholas Rowe (dramatist)|Nicholas Rowe, to whom may be traced the legend that Jonson owed the production of Every Man in his Humour to Shakespeare’s intercession, likewise attributed Jonson’s excellence to learning, which did not raise him quite to the level of genius

Ben Jonson – Drama

In this period, Alexander Pope is exceptional in that he noted the tendency to exaggeration in these competing critical portraits: It is ever the nature of Parties to be in extremes; and nothing is so probable, as that because Ben Johnson had much the most learning, it was said on the one hand that Shakespear had none at all; and because Shakespear had much the most wit and fancy, it was retorted on the other, that Johnson wanted both.Alexander Pope, ed

Ben Jonson – Drama

Shortly before the Romantic revolution, Edward Capell offered an almost unqualified rejection of Jonson as a dramatic poet, who (he writes) has very poor pretensions to the high place he holds among the English Bards, as there is no original manner to distinguish him, and the tedious sameness visible in his plots indicates a defect of Genius.Quoted in Craig, D

Ben Jonson – Drama

The early 19th century was the great age for recovering Renaissance drama

Ben Jonson – Drama

In the 20th century, Jonson’s body of work has been subject to a more varied set of analyses, broadly consistent with the interests and programmes of modern literary criticism

Ben Jonson – Drama

The proliferation of new critical perspectives after mid-century touched on Jonson inconsistently

DRAM – History

This became the first commercially available DRAM memory, the Intel 1103 (1024×1), in October 1970, despite initial problems with low yield until the fifth revision of the photomask|masks

Theatre – Drama

429 BCE) by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama.Fergusson (1949, 2–3)

Theatre – Drama

In Ancient Greece however, the word drama encompassed all theatrical plays, tragic, comic, or anything in between.

Theatre – Drama

In Improvisational theatre|improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance; performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience.Some forms of improvisation, notably the Commedia dell’arte, improvise on the basis of ‘lazzi’ or rough outlines of scenic action (see Gordon (1983) and Duchartre (1929))

Reality television – As a substitute for scripted drama

VH1 executive vice president Michael Hirschorn wrote that the plots and subject matters on reality television are more authentic and more engaging than in scripted dramas, writing that scripted network television remains dominated by variants on the police procedural..

Reality television – As a substitute for scripted drama

Television critic James Poniewozik wrote that reality shows like Deadliest Catch and Ice Road Truckers showcase working-class people of the kind that used to be routine on scripted network television, but that became a rarity in the 2000s: The better to woo upscale viewers, TV has evicted its mechanics and dockworkers to collect higher rents from yuppies in coffeehouses.

American Airlines Flight 965 – Dramatization

This accident was featured on the television series Air Crash Investigation in the episode Lost, known in some countries as Crash on the Mountain.

Irony – Dramatic irony

This type of irony is the device of giving the spectator an item of information that at least one of the characters in the narrative is unaware of (at least consciously), thus placing the spectator a step ahead of at least one of the characters

Irony – Dramatic irony

Stanton, R., Dramatic Irony in Hawthorne’s Romances, Modern Language Notes, Vol. 71, No. 6 (Jun., 1956), pp. 420–426, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Irony – Dramatic irony

dramatic irony has three stages—installation, exploitation, and resolution (often also called preparation, suspension, and resolution)

Irony – Dramatic irony

—producing dramatic conflict in what one character relies or appears to rely upon, the contrary of which is known by observers (especially the audience; sometimes to other characters within the drama) to be true. In summary, it means that the reader/watcher/listener knows something that one or more of the characters in the piece is not aware of.

Irony – Dramatic irony

* In City Lights the audience knows that Charlie Chaplin’s character is not a millionaire, but the blind flower girl (Virginia Cherrill) believes him to be rich.

Irony – Dramatic irony

Clausius, C., The gentleman is a tramp: Charlie Chaplin’s comedy, P. Lang, 1989, p. 104.

Irony – Dramatic irony

* In North by Northwest, the audience knows that Roger Thornhill (Cary Grant) is not Kaplan; Vandamm (James Mason) and his accomplices do not. The audience also knows that Kaplan is a fictitious agent invented by the CIA; Roger (initially) and Vandamm (throughout) do not.Gulino, P., Screenwriting: The Sequence Approach, Continuum, 2004, pp. 9–10.

Irony – Dramatic irony

* In Oedipus the King, the audience knows that Oedipus himself is the murderer that he is seeking; Oedipus, Creon and Jocasta do not.Storey, I. C. and Allan, A., A Guide to Ancient Greek Drama, John Wiley Sons, 2008, p. 125.

Irony – Dramatic irony

[http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/A_Guide_to_Ancient_Greek_Drama.html?id=z2t1cIVk-A8C]

Irony – Dramatic irony

* In Othello, the audience knows that Desdemona has been faithful to Othello, but Othello does not. The audience also knows that Iago is scheming to bring about Othello’s downfall, a fact hidden from Othello, Desdemona, Cassio and Roderigo.Booth, W. C., A Rhetoric of Irony, University of Chicago Press, 1974, p. 63. [http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/A_Rhetoric_of_Irony.html?id=jbgufPEUD6QC]

Irony – Dramatic irony

* In The Cask of Amontillado, the reader knows that Montresor is planning on murdering Fortunato, while Fortunato believes they are friends.Poe, E. A., The Cask of Amontillado, The Creative Company, 2008, pp. 22–23.

Irony – Dramatic irony

[http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/The_Cask_of_Amontillado.html?id=4b6PnHfQ1y8C]

Irony – Dramatic irony

* In The Truman Show, the viewer is aware that Truman is on a television show, but Truman himself only gradually learns this.Adams, A., Parallel Lives of Jesus: A Guide to the Four Gospels, Presbyterian Publishing Corp, 2011, p. 30.

Irony – Dramatic irony

[http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Parallel_Lives_of_Jesus.html?id=6qDZ3Aie08EC]

Irony – Dramatic irony

* In Romeo and Juliet, the audience knows that Juliet is already married to Romeo, but her family do not. Also, in the crypt, most of the other characters in the cast think Juliet is dead, but the audience knows she only took a sleeping potion. Romeo is also under the same misapprehension when he kills himself.William, J., Cliffs Complete Romeo and Juliet, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009, pp. 135, 169, 181.

Irony – Dramatic irony

[http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/CliffsComplete_Romeo_and_Juliet.html?id=c7MyAImulJ0C]

Return of the Jedi – Radio drama

The radio drama had a running time of three hours.

Return of the Jedi – Radio drama

Principal production of the show was completed on February 11, 1996. Only hours after celebrating its completion with the cast and crew of the show, Daley died of pancreatic cancer. The show is dedicated to his memory.

Return of the Jedi – Radio drama

The cast and crew recorded a get-well message for Daley, but the author never got the chance to hear it. The message is included as part of the Star Wars Trilogy collector’s edition box set.

Central Saint Martins – Drama Centre London

The Drama Centre London was founded in 1963 by a breakaway group of teachers and students from the Central School of Speech and Drama, led by John Blatchley, Yat Malmgren and Christopher Fettes. The school is a member of Drama UK and its undergraduate Acting course is accredited by Drama UK. The Drama Centre London merged with Central Saint Martins in 1999.

Hydramatic

‘Hydramatic’ (also known as ‘Hydra-Matic’) was an automatic transmission developed by both General Motors Corporation|General Motors’ Cadillac and Oldsmobile divisions. Introduced in 1939 for the 1940 model year vehicles, the Hydramatic was the first fully automatic mass-produced transmission developed for passenger automobile use.

Hydramatic – History

During the 1930s, automakers sought to reduce or eliminate the need to shift gears. At the time, synchronized gear shifting was still a novelty (and confined to higher gears in most cases), and shifting a manual gearbox required more care than most drivers cared to exert. The exception here was Cadillac’s break-through synchromesh fully synchronized manual transmission, designed by Cadillac engineer Earl A. Thompson and introduced in the fall of 1928.

Hydramatic – History

Cadillac, under Thompson, began working on a ‘shiftless’ transmission in 1932, and a new department within Cadillac Engineering was created, headed by Thompson and including engineers Ernest Seaholm, Ed Cole, Owen Nacker, and Oliver Kelley

Hydramatic – History

The Automatic Safety Transmission (AST) was a tangent outgrowth of this work. The AST was a semi-automatic transmission using epicyclic gearing|planetary gears and a conventional friction clutch, requiring the driver to use the clutch to shift into or out of gear, but not between the two forward gears. Oldsmobile offered the AST from 1937-1939, while Buick offered it only in 1938.

Hydramatic – History

The HydraMatic was designed to combine hydraulic operation of a planetary gearbox (allowing much shifting to be automated) with a fluid coupling instead of a friction clutch, eliminating the need for de-clutching

Hydramatic – History

The result, dubbed ‘Hydra-Matic Drive’, went into production in May 1939 for the 1940 model year

Hydramatic – History

In 1940, the Hydra-Matic was a United States dollar|$57.00 option, rising to $100.00 for 1941. In 1941, it also became an option on Cadillacs for $125.00. Almost 200,000 had been sold by the time passenger car production was halted for World War II|wartime production in February 1942.

Hydramatic – History

During the war, the Hydramatic was used in a variety of military vehicles, including the M5 Stuart tank (where two of them were mated to twin Cadillac V8 engine#Monobloc|Cadillac V8 engines) and the M24 Chaffee light tank. The extensive wartime service greatly improved the postwar engineering of the transmission, later advertised as battle-tested.

Hydramatic – History

Starting in 1948 Hydramatic became optional for Pontiacs (and was in 70% of them that year),Flory, p.177. although Dynaflow|Buick and Powerglide|Chevrolet chose to develop their own automatic transmissions. One million Hydramatics had been sold by 1949. In the early 1950s various manufacturers without the resources to develop a proprietary automatic transmission bought Hydra-Matics from GM. Users included:

Hydramatic – History

*1958-1960 Rambler American (ATT associated company fleet units only)

Hydramatic – History

*1951 Frazer (automobile)|Frazer

Hydramatic – History

*1951–1955 Kaiser (automobile)|Kaiser

Hydramatic – History

*1949–1954 Lincoln (automobile)|Lincoln

Hydramatic – History

In 1952, Rolls-Royce Limited|Rolls-Royce acquired a license to produce the HydraMatic for Rolls-Royce and Bentley Motors Limited|Bentley automobiles. It continued production through 1967.

Hydramatic – History

Non-GM makes that bought Hydramatics from the corporation, including Ford Motor Co.’s Lincoln division and independent automakers Hudson, Kaiser and Nash, ended up looking for other sources of automatic transmissions as well, with Lincoln using the Borg Warner designed Ford-O-Matic transmission, while other automakers also switched to automatics from Borg-Warner during the downtime.

Hydramatic – History

About nine weeks after the Livonia fire, GM opened up a new source for Hydramatic production at Willow Run Transmission|Willow Run, Michigan. By the time the 1954 models debuted in late 1953, Hydramatic production had returned to normal levels and all ’54 model Cadillacs, Oldsmobiles and Pontiacs with automatic transmissions were once again equipped with Hydramatics.

Hydramatic – History

Evolving by the pressure of industrial competition from other manufacturers such as Studebaker’s three speed lock up torque converter co-designed by Detroit Gear (a division of Borg-Warner), named DG 200/250, and Packard’s dual range two speed lock up torque converter coupled Ultramatic, GM’s Hydramatic underwent several revisions through 1955, before being gradually replaced by the substantially redesigned ‘Controlled Coupling Hydramatic’ (also called ‘Jetaway’ or dual-coupling Hydramatic) in 1956

Hydramatic – History

The new four-speed Jetaway transmission incorporated a secondary fluid coupling and a pair of sprag clutches in place of the former friction clutch and brake bands, shifting in part by alternately draining and filling the secondary coupling

Hydramatic – History

With shifts taking longer and at higher engine speeds, however, performance and fuel efficiency suffered,compared to the original four-speed Hydra-matic. On the plus side, Jetaway was substantially smoother than the original Hydramatic, but also more complex and expensive to produce, as well as less efficient.

Hydramatic – History

Both of those Hydramatic transmissions were ultimately replaced by a new three-speed torque converter automatic transmission called Turbo-Hydramatic in 1964 and 1965, whose design was more similar in principle to the Chrysler TorqueFlite and the ’51 Borg Warner designed Ford Cruise-O-Matic than the fluid coupling Hydramatic the Turbo replaced.

Hydramatic – History

Despite the name, the Turbo-Hydramatic has no mechanical or design relationship to the original Hydramatic, or the ‘Controlled Coupling Hydramatic.’

Hydramatic – History

The Hydramatic was a complex design that was expensive to produce. Despite some early problems, it was reliable, and so rugged it was widely used in drag racing during the 1960s. It was not as smooth as some competitor’s transmissions (notably Buick’s Dynaflow), but was more efficient, especially at highway speeds. The Hydramatic paved the way for widespread acceptance of automatic shifting.

Hydramatic – History

A 3-speed light-duty version of the Turbo-Hydramatic called the Turbo-Hydramatic 180 was produced by GM’s Hydramatic division from 1981 to 1998 for use in a wide variety of small cars and trucks.

Hydramatic – History

‘Hydramatic’ is a trade name for GM’s automatic transmission division, which produces a variety of transmissions, the most notable of which is the Turbo-Hydramatic from the 1960s to the 1990s.

Hydramatic – Design

The Hydramatic used a two-element fluid coupling (not a torque converter, which has at least three elements, the pump, turbine and stator) and three epicyclic gearing|planetary gearsets, providing four forward speeds plus reverse. Standard ratios for the original Hydra-Matic were 3.82:1, 2.63:1, 1.45:1 and 1.00:1 in automotive applications, and 4.08:1, 2.63:1, 1.55:1 and 1.00:1 in light truck and other commercial applications. The Jetaway Hydramatic used 3.96:1, 2.55:1, 1.55:1, and 1.00:1.

Hydramatic – Design

The Hydramatic was fitted with two pumps to pressurize its hydraulic control system and provide lubrication of internal components. The front pump was a variable displacement vane unit driven from the fluid coupling housing, which meant oil pressure would be available immediately upon starting the engine. A relatively constant pressure was maintained by moving a slide inside the pump, which had the effect of changing the pump’s displacement and therefore the volume of oil being delivered.

Hydramatic – Design

The rear pump was an unregulated spur gear type driven from the transmission output shaft, which meant it was capable of pressurizing the transmission if the vehicle was in motion. This feature made it possible to push-start a vehicle with a dead battery if the vehicle could be accelerated to at least . At higher speeds, the rear pump provided all the oil volume that was needed to operate the transmission and the front pump’s slide was nearly centered, causing that pump to produce little output.

Hydramatic – Design

In first gear, power flow was through the forward planetary gear assembly (either 1.45:1 or 1.55:1 reduction, depending on the model), then the fluid coupling, followed by the rear gear assembly (2.63:1 reduction) and through the reverse gear assembly (normally locked) to the output shaft

Hydramatic – Design

When the transmission upshifted to second gear, the forward gear assembly locked and the input torus now ran at engine speed. This had the desirable effect of tightening the fluid coupling|coupling and reducing slippage, but unfortunately also produced a somewhat abrupt shift. It wasn’t at all uncommon for the vehicle to lurch forward during the 1-2 shift, especially when the throttle was wide open.

Hydramatic – Design

Upon shifting to third, the forward gear assembly went back into reduction and the rear gear assembly locked. Due to the manner in which the rear gear assembly was arranged, the coupling went from handling 100 percent of the engine torque to about 40 percent, with the balance being handled solely by the gear train. This greatly reduced slippage, which fact was audible by the substantial reduction that occurred in engine Revolutions per minute|RPM when the shift occurred.

Hydramatic – Design

The shift from third to fourth gear locked the forward gear assembly, producing 1.00:1 transmission. The fluid coupling now only handled about 25 percent of the engine torque, reducing slippage to a negligible amount. The result was a remarkably efficient level of power transfer at highway speeds, something that torque converter equipped automatics could not achieve without the benefit of a converter clutch.

Hydramatic – Design

Only the most knowledgeable and experience Hydramatic technicians, using specifications for spring length and tension from the factory, could even approach getting the 2-3 and 3-2 shifts to be even near perfect

Hydramatic – Design

From 1939-1950, the reverse anchor was used to lock the reverse unit ring gear from turning by engaging external teeth machined into that ring gear

Hydramatic – Design

Shutting off the engine caused the transmission oil pressure to rapidly dissipate

Hydramatic – Design

Also, the original Hydramatic required periodic band adjustments as a routine maintenance item that later versions did not

Hydramatic – Design

The successor, Turbo Hydramatic, was a much simpler, lighter and cheaper, if less efficient, transmission.

Morrison Academy – Music and Drama

*Three Instrumental Ensembles (Flute Choir, Wind Ensemble, and String Ensemble)

Turbo-Hydramatic

‘Turbo-Hydramatic’ or ‘Turbo Hydra-Matic’ is the registered tradename for a family of automatic transmissions developed and produced by General Motors Corporation|General Motors. These transmissions mate a three-element turbine torque converter to a Howard Simpson|Simpson epicyclic gearing|planetary geartrain, providing three forward gear ratio|speeds plus reverse.

Turbo-Hydramatic

Starting in the early 1980s, the Turbo-Hydramatic was gradually supplanted by four-speed automatics, some of which continue to use the Hydramatic trade name.

Turbo-Hydramatic

Although the ‘Turbo Hydra-Matic’ name alludes to the original Hydra-Matic developed by General Motors’ Cadillac division in the late 1930s, the two transmissions were not mechanically related.

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

The THM400 can be visually identified by an oil pan number four shown at [http://www.crankshaftcoalition.com/wiki/Transmission_identification#Common_pan_shapes_and_ratios Transmission Pans]

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

The Turbo-Hydramatic 425|THM425 front wheel drive transmission shares almost all its internal parts with the THM400.

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

By 1980, the relatively heavy THM400 was being phased out of usage in passenger cars in response to demand for improved fuel economy

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

Through the end of the ’70s substantially more CBOP (Cadillac/Buick/Oldsmobile/Pontiac) bellhousing THM400s were produced than any other THM400. Chevrolet bellhousing THM400s, while not rare, can be hard to find and are, as a result, usually more expensive to buy. Other bellhousing patterns are, accordingly, rarer. The THM400 was never produced with a multicase bell housing.

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

Other auto manufacturers have used the THM400 and its 4L80E successor, including Ferrari (in the Ferrari 400|400/412); Jaguar (car)|Jaguar/Daimler Company|Daimler (in pre-1994 Jaguar XJ|XJ12 and Jaguar XJ-S|XJ-S coupes) and their Daimler stable mates; Rolls-Royce Motors|Rolls-Royce (in 1965–1980 Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow|Silver Shadow and 1980-1992 Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit|Silver Spirit series cars, along with their Bentley stable mates); the Nissan Prince Royal; AM General; and Jeep (usually found in the FSJ pickups and Jeep Wagoneer|SUVs)

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

THM400 transmissions are very popular in automotive competition due to their great strength

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

The THM400 was the first three-speed, Simpson-geared automatic to use overrunning clutches for both first and second gear reaction, a feature that eliminated the need to coordinate the simultaneous release of a band and application of a clutch to make the 2-3 gear change

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

The 4L80E (and its successor 4L85E) was the first Hydramatic to incorporate electronic controls — almost all of the THM400/3L80/3L80HD’s components are interchangeable.

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

Transmission fluid cooler line connections are found on the right hand side of the THM400

Turbo-Hydramatic – Super Turbine 400 / THM400 / THM375 / 3L80 / 3L80HD

4-Wheel drive truck applications used a shorter output shaft that coupled with a female transfer case input shaft.Early transfer cases mated directly to the THM400 with an cast-iron adapter,usually a vertical oval shape.Later models used a circular style iron adapter which is generally considered the stronger of the two.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM350

The Turbo Hydra-matic 350 was first used in 1969 model cars

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM350

Some would suggest that the THM350 (or Turbo 350 as called by drag racers and car enthusiasts) was based on the earlier Buick Super Turbine 300 — some components interchange between the two. Both Chevrolet and Buick divisions produced the THM350.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM350

The THM350 was also regarded as a ‘three speed Powerglide’ and during its development, was generally called this

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM350

There is a rumor that the reason for the THM350’s release after the THM400, is that although the THM350 had been in development longer (disputable), it often failed under heavy torque loads

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM350

4-Wheel drive truck applications for the THM350 used an iron adapter that mated the THM-350 to the transfer case directly, similar to the THM400

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM350

Around 1980, a lock-up torque converter was introduced; this transmission was phased out in 1984 in GM passenger cars for the 700R4

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM250

The ‘THM250’ is a derivative of the THM350 and was introduced in 1974 in Chevrolets as a Powerglide replacement. Internally, the THM250 is a THM350 without the intermediate clutch pack with a band adjuster similar to the Powerglide. It was later reintroduced in 1979 as the THM250-C in the wake of the failure-prone THM200/200C.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200

Right after the 1973 1973 oil crisis|OPEC oil embargo, GM developed a lighter-duty version of the THM350 with lightened materials — primarily alloys in place of ferrous materials (e.g. clutch drums and oil pump). The Turbo-Hydramatic 200 was born; however, this transmission was notorious for its failure rate when used behind a V8 engine — especially the Oldsmobile V8 350 Diesel.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200

1976 GM vehicles first saw use of the THM200 — from the GM T platform (RWD)|GM T platform to GM X-Bodies (Chevrolet Nova et al.).

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200

Transmission shops nationwide, along with GM repair facilities, have swapped in THM350s since the 200s were failure prone. Starting with the 1979 model year, vehicles which had the THM200/200C as standard equipment were optioned with the THM250-C, actually a THM350 without the intermediate clutch pack along with an adjustable band similar to the Chevrolet Powerglide.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200

Around 1979, it received a lockup torque converter, and some internal components (primarily the low/reverse clutch drum and planetary gears) were later shared with the Turbo-Hydramatic 200-4R.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

In 1980, for the 1981 model year, the 200-4R (sometimes called 200R4) was introduced for use in GM vehicles. Internally, the components which were prone to failure in the THM200 were improved, and this transmission was used with high-power applications — primarily the Buick Grand National and the 1982 Chevy Corvette. The 200-4R was configured with several different torque converters and gear ratios depending on the vehicle application.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

Unlike the 700R4, most 200-4Rs have a multicase bellhousing for use with Chevrolet, Buick/Olds/Pontiac (BOP), and Cadillac powerplants. Since the external dimensions are similar to the TH-350(overall length, drive shaft yoke spline count/diameter and general size), 200-4Rs are often swapped in place of TH-350s in older vehicles to provide an overdrive gear. (However, 200-4Rs share mounting locations with the TH-400.)

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

Early models had PRND321 on the cluster, while later models had PRN(D)D21, with the left D identified as the overdrive gear by a square or oval ring.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

The THM200-4R can be found in the following vehicles:

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

* 1981-84 C-Bodies, Electra, 98, (82-84) DeVille Fleetwood Broughams

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

* 1984-88 G-Bodies and Pontiac Grand Prix, GMC Caballero, El Camino, Chevrolet Monte Carlo, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme, Regal

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

* 1985-90 D-Bodies Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham Brougham

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

* 1981 Pontiac Firebird (with 301cid engine, non-turbo)

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

* 1989 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am Indy Pace car (with Buick V6 and a Turbocharger)

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM200-4R

The THM200-4R was phased out after 1990 — its final usage was in the GM B platform|GM B-body lineup (Chevrolet Caprice, Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser station wagon, Cadillac Brougham) coupled to either a Chevrolet Small-Block engine#305|Chevrolet 305 or an Oldsmobile V8 engine#307|Oldsmobile 307 engine. It is believed that an HD version of the 200-4R was used in the late 80s Caprice 9C1 police package using the internals from the Buick Grand National.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

The four-speed Turbo Hydra-Matic 700R4 was introduced for the 1982 model year for use in Chevrolet/GMC vehicles.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

In 1990, the Turbo Hydra-Matic 700R4 was renamed the ‘4L60’. Under the new designation, the 4 stands for the number of forward gears, the L for longitudinal applications (rear-wheel-drive), and the 60 is the strength rating (less

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

than the 4L80). 60 is the relative torque value. For example, 80 is stronger than 60, which is stronger than 40, etc. A 4L80-E can handle more torque than a 4L60-E. The E denotes electronically controlled shifting. However, Since the 4L60 is hydraulically shifted based on governor pressure and TV cable position, the E at the end is optional.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

1992 was the last year of widespread usage of the 700R4 (4L60).

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

1993 Camaro, Corvette and Typhoon were equipped with the last production 700R4’s. The last design change of the 700R4 was an added checkball to the valve body.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

In 1992 electronic controls were added, and it became the GM 4L60-E transmission|4L60-E. The 4L60E went into service in trucks, vans, and SUVs in 1993 (for the record, some HD trucks had the 4L60) and in all RWD passenger cars (Corvette, F and B/D bodies) in 1994.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

In 2001, an updated version — the 4L65-E, was introduced. Five-pinion planetaries, along with a strength-improved output shaft, were improved to withstand the 300+ft·lb (400+N·m) of torque of the 6.0 Vortec engine.

Turbo-Hydramatic – THM700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E

The 4L70E transmission is the same as a 4L65E with a speed sensor located in the pump.

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

The Turbo Hydra-Matic 700R4 can be identified by an oil pan number six shown at [http://www.crankshaftcoalition.com/wiki/General_Motors_transmissions#General_Identification General Motors Transmission Pans].

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

The tail shaft housing is held onto the main case by four bolts (the bolt spacing is similar to the THM350), and uses a square-cut o-ring seal, and not a gasket. The typical width of this transmission where it bolts to the engine is overall. From the engine/trans mating surface to the cross member mount bolt is , and engine/trans surface to output shaft housing mating surface is overall, with the tail shaft housing typically measuring .

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

Transmission fluid cooler lines on the 700R4 the bottom fitting on the right side of the transmission is the out line to the cooler and the top fitting is for the return line from the cooler. These fittings are pipe thread, and CAN include an adapter from the factory for threaded steel lines in a SAE International|SAE size. 4L60Es manufactured after 1995 use the modern-day snap-in connections as opposed to threaded SAE fittings.

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

The original version of the transmission had a 27-spline input shaft which was a common failure point

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

In 1995, the 4L60E received a Pulse-width modulation|PWM-controlled lockup converter

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

In 1996, GM introduced a redesigned 4L60E transmission case that incorporated a bolt-on bell (2 piece case, bell and case) housing and an 6 bolt tail housing

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

For the model year 1996 GM trucks, there was 2 versions of the 4L60E transmissions. One had a bolt on bell housing the other did not. Both designs have been interchangeable.

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E / 4L70E / Technical Description

(These ratios are commonly rounded off to 3.06, 1.63, 1.00, 0.70, and 2.29).

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E /4L70E Applications

Chevrolet/GMC/Geo Transmission Lookup Table, www.autorepairmanuals.biz/site/573683/page/372807Transmission Application Chart,

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E /4L70E Applications

*1982-1996 Chevrolet Impala and Caprice police specials equipted with 350 engines.

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E /4L70E Applications

*1990-1996 RWD Cadillac Fleetwood/Cadillac Brougham/Cadillac Limo

Turbo-Hydramatic – 700R4 / 4L60 / 4L60E / 4L65E /4L70E Applications

*1994-1996 Buick Roadmaster

Ichiban Ushiro no Dai Ma? – Drama CD

Two drama CDs produced by Edge Records were released. The first drama CD was released on February 25, 2009, and the second on September 30, 2009.

Anglo-Chinese School – Drama

Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) first formed their Dance team in 2003 and subsequently won Gold in the Singapore Youth Festival for that year.

Anglo-Chinese School – Drama

The school’s JC section, known as the Anglo-Chinese School Independent Stage (ACSIS), has won Gold in the Singapore Youth Festival 2012, for a play called Rabbit. This was ACSIS’ most recent participation in this competition.

Anglo-Chinese School – Drama

The school’s Secondary section, the Anglo-Chinese School Drama Club (ACSDC) has won Silver in the Singapore Youth Festival 2011. In April 2012, they performed a spoof of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, called A:CSI. Later that year, they performed a sequel to it, called A:CSI (II) which was very well received.

Anglo-Chinese School – Drama

In 2013, ACSDC participated in the 2013 SYF with a play entitled The Day I Met The Prince, a take on Kuo Pao Kun’s piece. They won a Distinction, the equivalent of a Gold in the newly changed SYF grading system.

Anglo-Chinese School – Drama

Both clubs are of Anglo-Chinese School (Independent).

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

It was based on the earlier, four-speed Hydramatic, but was more compact, providing only three forward speeds plus a small 8 fluid coupling with a stator in place of the Hydramatic’s fluid coupling

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

There were two models of the Roto Hydramatic: the lightweight ‘Model 5’, which weighed and had ratios of 3.03, 1.58, and 1.00, and the larger ‘Model 10’, which weighed and had ratios of 2.93, 1.56, and 1.00. The stator provided a maximum torque multiplication of 1.2:1.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

In 1961-62, the Model 5 was used on the Opel Kapitan, Vauxhall Velox/Cresta and Holden EK|EK Holden.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The Roto Hydramatic was cheaper and smoother than the previous Hydramatic, but its slower, softer shifts sacrificed performance for refinement. Owners discovered that it was also less durable than Hydramatic, and was prone to various mechanical problems.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

As with previous Hydramatic transmissions, auto safety experts criticized GM for the Hydramatic design which had a shift quadrant sequence of Park-Neutral-Drive-Second-Low-Reverse (P-N-D-S-L-R) due to the placement of reverse adjacent to a forward gear as opposed to the more common P-R-N-D-S-L sequence found in most other automatic transmissions at the time that placed reverse between park and neutral, which was also incorporated in the new Turbo Hydramatic design introduced on Buicks and Cadillacs in 1964, and then other GM divisions in 1965.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The Roto Hydramatic was used in all full-sized Oldsmobile models including the Dynamic 88, Super 88, Ninety-Eight and Starfire from 1961-1964 as well as the compact Oldsmobile F-85 from 1961-1963. Pontiac used the Roto Hydramatic from 1961-1964 on its shorter-wheelbase full-sized cars including the Catalina, Ventura and Grand Prix, but continued with the older four-speed Super Hydramatic design in the longer-wheelbase Star Chief and Bonneville models.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

In the familiar Oldsmobile and Pontiac shift quadrant, P-R-N-D-S-L or P-N-D-S-L-R, the S quadrant was for Super and not second. In the earlier four-speed Hydra-Matic, the S or Super quadrant was actually third gear, allowing 1-2-3 shifts. This nomenclature was also used by Mercedes-Benz with the introduction of the four-speed type-3 automatic transmission. As with the Hydra-Matic, the L position was actually 1st and 2nd gears, holding the transmissions from shifting above 2nd gear.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The Roto-Hydramatic did not have a conventional fluid coupling or torque converter but had an internal fluid coupling with a torque multiplier. There was no real bell-housing; instead, the Roto-Hydramatic had a kind of flange connecting the transmission to the engine. The power flow from the engine crankshaft to the transmission input shaft was connected via a flywheel containing a set of springs to absorb torsional vibrations at the flex plate.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The shifting sequence was very different and much rougher than the Hydra-Matics that preceded it, or the Super Turbines and Turbo Hydramatics that followed it

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

By historical context of comparison, the ’50 Packard Ultra-Matic which was a torque converter applied two speed lock up design with high and low range for four forward speeds and the ’50 Studebaker/Detroit Gear featured a lock up torque converter with four forward speeds. The lock-up feature of Packard’s Ultramatic and Studebaker’s DG 250 is commonplace in virtually all modern 4+speed, overdrive automatic transmissions.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The smaller model 5 Roto Hydramatic uses the same principles of operation as the model 10

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The smaller 61-05 as fitted to the Vauxhall Cresta was dubbed the smoothamatic from Luton in Cars Illustrated in Feb 1961 being quite taken with the overall refinement with the test car, also noting that full throttle starts could be made on slushy roads, perhaps giving away the rather tall 1st gear and minimal torque conversion. They also stated that the gearshifts were so smooth as to be practically imperceptible.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The magazine The Motor, Dec 1960, also praised the high standard of smoothness with very lively performance. The performance was claimed to be almost as fast as with synchromesh gears and the 2-3 shift could be so gradual in gentle driving that you don’t always realise it has happened.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

Certainly, the examples I drove were equal to this and it seemed disappointing when the 61-05 model was discontinued in favour of the Powerglide in 1965.

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

The Roto Hydramatic was a 3-speed transmission, and both the 5 and 10 models worked in a similar way

GM Roto Hydramatic transmission

A diagram is helpful in understanding the above, of the Roto Hydramatic, and a Turboglide section shows the similarity.

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*The Rapture (Doctor Who audio)|The Rapture

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*The Harvest (Doctor Who audio)|The Harvest

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Dreamtime (Doctor Who audio)|Dreamtime

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Nocturne (Doctor Who audio)|Nocturne

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Forty Five (Doctor Who audio)|Forty Five

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*The Magic Mousetrap

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*The Angel of Scutari

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Project Destiny (Doctor Who audio)|Project Destiny

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*A Death in the Family (Doctor Who audio)|A Death in the Family

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Thin Ice (Doctor Who audio)|Thin Ice

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Crime Of The Century (Doctor Who audio)|Crime Of The Century

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Protect and Survive (Doctor Who audio)|Protect and Survive

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Black and White (Doctor Who audio)|Black and White

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*Gods and Monsters (Doctor Who audio)|Gods and Monsters

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

*UNIT Dominion (cameo)

Ace (Doctor Who) – Audio dramas

;bbc.co.uk|BBCi webcast

Sense amplifier – DRAM operation

The sense amplifier operation in dynamic random access memory|DRAM is quite similar to the SRAM, but it performs an additional function. The data in DRAM chips is stored as electric charge in tiny capacitors in the memory cells. The read operation depletes the charge in a cell, destroying the data, so after the data is read out the sense amplifier must immediately write it back in the cell by applying a voltage to it, recharging the capacitor. This is called memory refresh.

Sethusamudram shipping canal project

‘Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project’ () is a proposed project that would link Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka by creating a shipping channel through the shallow sea called Sethusamudram and through a chain of islands collectively called Adam’s Bridge, Ramar Palam (Tamil: ?????? ????? R?mar p?lam), Ram Sethu and similar names. This would provide a continuously navigable sea route in and around the Indian Peninsula.

Sethusamudram shipping canal project

The project involves digging a long deepwater channel linking the shallow Palk Strait with the Gulf of Mannar. Conceived as early as 1860 by Alfred Dundas Taylor, it recently received approval of the Indian government, which plans to break the limestone shoals of Adam’s Bridge as part of this project.

Sethusamudram shipping canal project

A few organisations are opposing damage to Adam’s Bridge on religious, environmental and economical grounds

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – History

Because of its shallow waters, Sethusamudramthe sea separating Sri Lanka from Indiapresents a hindrance to navigation through the Palk Strait

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – History

The Government of India appointed the Sethu Samudram Project Committee in 1955headed by Dr

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – History

In 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh appointed Rajendra K

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – Economic

Some naval hydrographers and experts suggest that the project is unlikely to be financially viable or serve ships in any significant way

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – Economic

The canal is designed for ships of 30,000 metric tonnes and lighter. Most new ships weighing more than 60,000 tonnes and tankers weighing above 150,000 tonnes cannot use this canal.[http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/oct/01inter.htm New generation ships cannot make use of this canal. It does not make nautical sense]

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – Costs of project

Ltd would have to draw up new reports, sit with parliamentary committees and receive fresh approval.[http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/FullcoverageStoryPage.aspx?id=f9c8dce4-77cc-42a9-86b3-b66fcdf0efedTheRamSetuRow_SpecialHeadline=Ram+Setu+project+faces+cash+crunch Ram Setu project faces cash crunch- Hindustan Times] The project cost which originally were will grow by almost , a shipping ministry source said.[http://www.dnaindia.com/money/report_sethusamudram-project-cost-rises-by-rs-4500-cr_1292583 DNA India Sep-2009]

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – Environmental impact

The project would disturb the ecological balance and destroy corals

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – Environmental impact

Tsunami expert Professor Tad Murtywho advised the Government of India on the tsunami warning systemhas said that the planned route may result in increased impact from tsunami waves

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – Environmental impact

On 21 April 2010, the Supreme Court of India decided to delay the project to until an Environmental Impact Analysis on the feasibility of a route through Dhanuskodi instead of Adam’s Bridge had been carried out.

Sethusamudram shipping canal project – Religion

Opposition to the project also came from Hindus, who see the Rama Sethu or Adam’s Bridge as the remains of a bridge created by Rama.

Durham University – Music and drama

Alongside this, student drama productions are held at Durham City’s Gala Theatre, venues around Durham University and within the colleges, Durham Castle, Durham Cathedral, as well as in national and international venues and the Edinburgh Fringe Festival.

Durham University – Music and drama

Since 1975, the university has played host to the Durham Drama Festival, which is an internationally renowned event that celebrates new theatrical and dramatic material written by Durham students

Durham University – Music and drama

Music is also a high-ranking activity in Durham, particularly marked by the Durham University Chamber Choir and Orchestral Societies (including the Palatinate Orchestra).

Durham University – Music and drama

The Durham Cathedral Choir offers six scholarships to students of the University. Several of the colleges (University College, Hatfield, St Chad’s, St John’s and Hild-Bede) also offer organ and choral scholarships to prospective students.

Durham University – Music and drama

Durham is also home to the oldest Gamelan slendro set in the UK with an active community group and an artist in residence

Literature – Drama

Romeo and Juliet, for example, is a classic romantic drama generally accepted as literature.

Literature – Drama

War of the Worlds (radio) in 1938 saw the advent of literature written for radio broadcast, and many works of Drama have been adapted for film or television

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano

Like coloratura mezzos, dramatic mezzos are also often cast in lyric mezzo-soprano roles.

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Azucena, Il trovatore (Giuseppe Verdi|Verdi)*

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Brangäne, Tristan und Isolde (Richard Wagner)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* The Gingerbread Witch, Hansel and Gretel (opera)|Hansel and Gretel (Engelbert Humperdinck|Humperdinck)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* The Countess, The Queen of Spades (opera)|The Queen of Spades (Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky|Tchaikovsky)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Herodias, Salome (opera)|Salome (Richard Strauss)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Klytämnestra, Elektra (opera)|Elektra (Richard Strauss)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Laura, La Gioconda (opera)|La Gioconda (Amilcare Ponchielli|Ponchielli)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Marina, Boris Godunov (opera)|Boris Godunov (Modest Mussorgsky|Mussorgsky)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Gertrude (Mother), Hansel and Gretel (opera)|Hansel and Gretel (Engelbert Humperdinck|Humperdinck)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Ortrud, Lohengrin (opera)|Lohengrin (Wagner)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano roles in opera and operettas

* Princess de Bouillon, Adriana Lecouvreur (Francesco Cilea|Cilea)

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano singers

Notable dramatic mezzo-sopranos include:

Mezzo-soprano – Dramatic mezzo-soprano singers

* Giulietta Simionato

Bass (vocal range) – Hoher Bass/dramatic high bass/dramatic bass-baritone

* Boris, and Varlaam, Boris Godunov (opera)|Boris Godunov by Modest Mussorgsky

Bass (vocal range) – Hoher Bass/dramatic high bass/dramatic bass-baritone

* Wotan Der Ring des Nibelungen by Richard Wagner

Bass (vocal range) – Hoher Bass/dramatic high bass/dramatic bass-baritone

* Banquo, Macbeth (opera)|Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi

Bass (vocal range) – Hoher Bass/dramatic high bass/dramatic bass-baritone

* Zaccaria, Nabucco by Giuseppe Verdi

Bass (vocal range) – Hoher Bass/dramatic high bass/dramatic bass-baritone

* Fiesco, Simon Boccanegra by Giuseppe Verdi

Bass (vocal range) – /dramatic buffo

* Baculus, Der Wildschütz (Albert Lortzing)

Bass (vocal range) – /dramatic buffo

* Ferrando, Il trovatore by Giuseppe Verdi

Bass (vocal range) – /dramatic buffo

* Daland, The Flying Dutchman (opera)|Der fliegende Holländer by Richard Wagner

Bass (vocal range) – Dramatic basso profondo

English equivalent: dramatic low bass. Dramatic basso profondo is a powerful basso profondo voice.

Bass (vocal range) – Dramatic basso profondo

* Il Commendatore, Don Giovanni by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Bass (vocal range) – Dramatic basso profondo

* Marke, Tristan und Isolde by Richard Wagner

Bass (vocal range) – Dramatic basso profondo

* The Varangian (Viking) Guest, Sadko (opera)|Sadko by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

Bass (vocal range) – Dramatic basso profondo

* The Grand Inquisitor, Don Carlos|Don Carlo by Giuseppe Verdi

Bass (vocal range) – Dramatic basso profondo

* Claggart, Billy Budd (opera) by Benjamin Britten

Contralto – Dramatic contralto

They typically sing in a range from the E below middle C (E3) to the second E above middle C (E5).[http://books.google.com/books?id=-BIGv9vIoqcCpg=PA148lpg=PA148dq=What+is+a+dramatic+contraltosource=blots=_zvJFUExDEsig=16BdjKsT9ZIgYO4nNhyoY6JG_l0hl=enei=cnBaS76HK8SOlQeatJHuBAsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=7ved=0CBcQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepageq=What%20is%20a%20dramatic%20contraltof=false The New York Times guide to essential knowledge]

Baritone – Dramatic baritone

Because the Verdi Baritone is sometimes seen as subset of the Dramatic Baritone, some singers perform roles from both sets of repertoire

Baritone – Dramatic baritone

**Jack Rance, La fanciulla del West (Giacomo Puccini)

Baritone – Dramatic baritone

**Nabucco, Nabucco (Giuseppe Verdi)

Baritone – Dramatic baritone

**Iago, Otello (Giuseppe Verdi)

Baritone – Dramatic Bass-baritone/Low Baritone/Heldenbariton

*Common Range: From about the F below low C to the F above middle C (F2 to F#4)

Baritone – Dramatic Bass-baritone/Low Baritone/Heldenbariton

** Dutchman, The Flying Dutchman (opera)|The Flying Dutchman by (Richard Wagner)

Baritone – Dramatic Bass-baritone/Low Baritone/Heldenbariton

** Wotan, Der Ring des Nibelungen (Richard Wagner)

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

The structural elements of a typical Aristophanic plot can be summarized as follows:

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

** ‘prologue’ – an introductory scene with a dialogue and/or soliloquy addressed to the audience, expressed in iambic trimeter and explaining the situation that is to be resolved in the play;

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

** ‘parodos’ – the arrival of the chorus, dancing and singing, sometimes followed by a choreographed skirmish with one or more actors, often expressed in long lines of tetrameters;

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

** ‘symmetrical scenes’ – passages featuring songs and declaimed verses in long lines of tetrameters, arranged symmetrically in two sections such that each half resembles the other in meter and line length; the agon and parabasis can be considered specific instances of symmetrical scenes:

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

*** ‘parabasis’ – verses through which the Chorus addresses the audience directly, firstly in the middle of the play and again near the end (see the section below Aristophanes#Parabasis|Parabasis);

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

*** ‘agon’ – a formal debate that decides the outcome of the play, typically in anapestic tetrameter, though iambs are sometimes used to delineate inferior arguments;Aristophanes:Wasps D.MacDowell (ed.), Oxford University Press 1971, page 207 note 546-630

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

** ‘episodes’ – sections of dialogue in iambic trimeter, often in a succession of scenes featuring minor characters towards the end of a play;

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

** ‘songs’ (‘strophes’/’antistrophes’ or ‘odes’/’antodes’) – often in symmetrical pairs where each half has the same meter and number of lines as the other, used as transitions between other structural elements, or between scenes while actors change costume, and often commenting on the action;

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

** ‘exodus’ – the departure of the Chorus and the actors, in song and dance celebrating the hero’s victory and sometimes celebrating a symbolic marriage.

Aristophanes – Dramatic structure

The rules of competition did not prevent a playwright arranging and adjusting these elements to suit his particular needs.Aristophanes: Lysistrata, The Acharnians, The Clouds A. Sommerstein, Penguin Classics 1975, page 27 In The Acharnians and Peace, for example, there is no formal agon whereas in The Clouds there are two agons.

Aristophanes – Drama

* 1909: Wasps, original Greek, ‘Cambridge University’ undergraduate production, music by Vaughan Williams;

Aristophanes – Drama

* 2004, July–October: The Frogs (musical)|The Frogs (musical), adapted by Nathan Lane, music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, performed at ‘The Vivian Beaumont Theater’ Broadway;

Aristophanes – Drama

* 1962-2006: various plays by students and staff, ‘Kings College London’, in the original Greek:[http://www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/humanities/depts/classics/play/arch/ KCL.ac.uk] Frogs 1962,1971,1988; Thesmophoriazusae 1965, 1974, 1985; Acharnians 1968, 1992, 2004; Clouds 1977, 1990; Birds 1982, 2000; Ecclesiazusae 2006; Peace 1970; Wasps 1981

Aristophanes – Drama

* 2002: Lysistrata, adapted by Robert Brustein, music by Galt McDermot, performed by ‘American Repertory Theatre’, Boston U.S.A.;

Aristophanes – Drama

* 2008, May–June: Frogs, adapted by David Greenspan, music by Thomas Cabaniss, performed by ‘Classic Stage Company’, New York, U.S.A.

QEMM – Vidram

First released in 1990-01-10, it can provide extra conventional memory in text mode programs, by reclaiming buffers located in UMA that are used in graphics modes. It requires EGA/VGA-compatible video card.

QEMM – Vidram

VIDRAMEMS supports DMA-based video memory access at the expense of EMS memory for buffer.

M4 carbine – Feedramps

M4 feedramps are extended from the barrel extension into the upper receiver. This can help alleviate feeding problems which may occur as a result of the increased pressure of the shortened gas system of the M4. This problem is primarily seen in full-auto applications.

Soprano – Dramatic soprano

A ‘dramatic soprano’ (or soprano robusto) has a powerful, rich, emotive voice that can sing over a full orchestra. Usually (but not always) this voice has a lower tessitura than other sopranos, and a darker timbre. Dramatic sopranos have a range from approximately from A (A3) to high C (C6).

Soprano – Dramatic soprano

Some dramatic sopranos, known as Wagnerian sopranos, have a very big voice that can assert itself over an exceptionally large orchestra (over eighty pieces). These voices are substantial and very powerful and ideally even throughout the registers.

Ancient Greek literature – Drama

Ancient Greek drama developed around Greece’s theater culture. Drama was particularly developed in Athens, so works are written in Attic dialect. The dialogues are in iambic trimeter, while chorus are in the meters of choral lyric.

Ancient Greek literature – Drama

In the classic period, performances included three tragedies and one pastoral drama, depicting four different episodes of the same myth

Ancient Greek literature – Drama

The three best authors are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. From Aeschylus, we still have seven tragedies, among which the only surviving series of three tragedies performed together, the so-called Oresteia. Seven works of Sophocles have survived, the most important of which are Oedipus rex and Antigone (Sophocles)|Antigone. From Euripides, seventeen tragedies have survived, among them Medea (play)|Medea and The Bacchae.

Ancient Greek literature – Drama

Like tragedy, comedy arose from a ritual in honor of Dionysus, but in this case the plays were full of frank obscenity, abuse, and insult

Ancient Greek literature – Drama

The third dramatic genre was the satyr play. Although the genre was popular, only one example has survived in its entirety, Euripides’ Cyclops (play)|Cyclops.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

Xenophon consciously and carefully chooses his characters in this dialogue. Those who attend the symposium (422 B.C.E.) are all gentlemen (kaloikagathoi) and are united by their status. Later, however, their disagreements will lead them to conflict. The contemporary readers of the Symposium would have been familiar with each character’s history, and would have recognized the ironic circumstances of the dialogue.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Socrates’: The main character in the work. Socrates drives and controls the conversation at the symposium. He values the craft of match-making because a good match-maker can arrange suitable marriages and friendship between cities.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Callias II|Kallias’: An exceptionally rich Athenian who has paid much money to sophists for his “wisdom.” He is the host of the Symposium for Autolykos whom he lusts after. He is proud of his ability to make other men better. He does this by giving them money, although in the dialogue it is revealed that this makes them just toward everyone but Kallias.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Antisthenes’: A prominent Socratic writer on whose works scholars believe Xenophon relies in part. He is one of Socrates’’ companions who attends the symposium. He values his wealth because, although he has only a little, it is enough to satisfy his needs and it affords him leisure which allows him to spend time with Socrates.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Autolycus of Athens|Autolykos’: The young winner of the pankration whom Kallias invites, along with his father Lykon, to the symposium as his guests of honor. He is most proud of his father.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Lykon’: The father of Autolykos

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Kritoboulos’: He was sent to Socrates by his father for protection (4.24). Kritoboulos values his beauty because it encourages men toward all forms of virtue, not just justice.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Charmides’: He values his poverty because he does not have to worry about losing his possessions and he lives at the expense of the state

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Nikeratos’: Son of the most prominent general in Athens. He is later killed by the Thirty. Nikeratos is proud of his ability to recite all of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, though he is not able to prove that this skill should be valued. He is also portrayed as a very greedy man (4.45).

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Hermogenes (philosopher)|Hermogenes’: One of Socrates’ companions, he is an extremely pious man and values the gods’ favor.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Syracusan and performers’: A group hired by Kallias to perform at his symposium for the entertainment of the guests. The skill of the Syracusan in training his slave performers is much admired by Socrates, and the performances serve as points of conversation throughout the dialogue.

Symposium (Xenophon) – Dramatis Personae

‘Philippos the Jester’: Arrives uninvited during the symposium and distracts everyone from their fascination with the beauty of Autolykos. He tries twice to elicit laughter in the guests, and only when he weeps at his failure does Kritoboulos begin laughing. Philippos contrasts with Socrates, who is easily able to make the guests laugh.

Trinity College London – Drama and performance

Trinity College London offers a choice of qualifications for students and teachers of drama and speech subjects at all levels of experience and ability. Exams can be taken by individuals, pairs or groups. Study strands include Speech and Drama, Individual Acting Skills, Group Performance, Shakespeare, Choral Speaking, Communication Skills, Musical Theatre and Performance Arts.

Trinity College London – Drama and performance

As is the case with music, diplomas in drama, performance and communication subjects are also offered at three levels, and TCL is the awarding body for the series of professional performing arts courses that are funded in part by the Dance and Drama Awards scheme.

Oresteia – References in other Greek dramas

Pietro Pucci of Cornell University argues that in making reference to The Libation Bearers in Electra (Euripides)|Electra, Euripides made a social commentary on the relationship between truth and evidence

Oresteia – References in other Greek dramas

Written in classical Greece about 30 years after the Atreus series, it is probable that Sophocles was at least aware of the Atreus series when writing his more famous Oedipus tragedies.Two Tragic Families, Greek Drama Course

Oresteia – References in other Greek dramas

And, like many contemporaneous works, Aristophanes’ play The Frogs has great fun at Orestes’s expense.

Kenneth Burke – Dramatism

Burke called the social and political rhetorical analysis dramatism and believed that such an approach to language analysis and language usage could help us understand the basis of conflict, the virtues and dangers of cooperation, and the opportunities of identification and consubstantiality.

Kenneth Burke – Dramatism

Burke defined the rhetorical function of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols

Kenneth Burke – Dramatism

Dramatism invites one to consider the matter of motives in a perspective that, being developed from the analysis of drama, treats language and thought primarily as modes of action (Grammar of Motives xxii)

Walter Benjamin – The Origin of German Tragic Drama

‘Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels’ (The Origin of German Tragic Drama, 1928), is a critical study of German baroque drama, as well as the political and cultural climate of Germany during the Counter-Reformation (1545–1648). Benjamin presented the work to the Goethe University Frankfurt|University of Frankfurt in 1925 as the (post-doctoral) dissertation meant to earn him the Habilitation (qualification) to become a university instructor in Germany.

Walter Benjamin – The Origin of German Tragic Drama

He heeded the advice, and three years later, in 1928, he published The Origin of German Tragic Drama as a book.Introducing Walter Benjamin, Howard Cargill, Alex Coles, Andrey Klimowski, 1998, p

Douglas Coupland – Drama and screenplays

* Douglas Coupland: Close Personal Friend (1996)

Douglas Coupland – Drama and screenplays

* Souvenir of Canada (2005) (writing and narration)

Douglas Coupland – Drama and screenplays

:Premiered January 8, 2008 on Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|CBC. Canceled on March 7, 2008. Final airing April 4, 2008.

Anarchism and the arts – Theatre/drama

** The Coast of Utopia (A Trilogy) (2002)

Anarchism and the arts – Theatre/drama

** Emma: A Play in Two Acts about Emma Goldman, American Anarchist (2002)

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

The barber Sweeney Todd, traditionally said to have lived and worked in Fleet Street (he is sometimes called the ‘Demon Barber of Fleet Street’). An urban myth example of a serial killer, the character appears in various English language works starting in the mid-19th century. Neither the popular press, the Old Bailey trial records, the trade directories of the City nor the lists of the Worshipful Company of Barbers|Barbers’ Company mention any such person or indeed any such case.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* George King (film director)|George King: Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (1936 film) and the Tim Burton adaptation of the Stephen Sondheim musical Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film).

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* Amanda Craig: A Vicious Circle (1996). About a fictitious British newspaper tycoon and the world of publishing in general.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* Michael Wall (playwright)|Michael Wall: Amongst Barbarians (1989). Similar to Lily d’Abo in My Name Is Legion, a white British working class couple takes money from a tabloid in order to be able to help their son.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* Howard Brenton and David Hare (dramatist)|David Hare: Pravda (play)|Pravda (1985) About a Rupert Murdoch-like character.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* A. N. Wilson: Scandal (1983 novel)|Scandal (1983). About how a political scandal is created by the tabloid press.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* Michael Frayn: Towards the End of the Morning (1967). A comic novel about failed and failing journalists in a 1960s newspaper.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* Evelyn Waugh: Scoop (novel)|Scoop (1938). About a British newspaper, The Daily Beast, and one of its contributors who is sent to an African country at war called Ishmaelia, based upon the author’s experiences in Abyssinia.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* The Day The Earth Caught Fire. A 1961 science fiction film, starring Janet Munro and Leo McKern where concurrent Russian and U.S. nuclear tests alter the Earth’s orbit, sending it spinning towards the Sun. Much of the impending disaster is seen from the perspective of staff at the Fleet Street office of the Daily Express.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* John Davidson (poet)|John Davidson: Fleet Street Eclogues (poems)|Fleet Street Eclogues (1893) and A Second Series of Fleet Street Eclogues (poems)|A Second Series of Fleet Street Eclogues (1896).

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* Charles Dickens: The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, more commonly known as The Pickwick Papers. Set in Fleet Street.

Fleet Street – Fiction and drama about Fleet Street

* The opening sequence of Children of Men is set on Fleet Street. The protagonist, portrayed by Clive Owen, leaves a café which then explodes in an act of terrorism.

Hillsborough disaster – Hillsborough television drama

It was highly praised and won the BAFTA Award for Best Single Drama in 1997

Culture of Indonesia – Drama and theatre

All of these drama incorporated humor and jest, often involving audiences in their performance.

Culture of Indonesia – Drama and theatre

Randai is a folk theatre tradition of the Minangkabau people|Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals. It incorporates music, singing, dance, drama and the silat martial art, with performances often based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story.

Culture of Indonesia – Drama and theatre

Modern performing art also developed in Indonesia with their distinct style of drama. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are gain popularity in Indonesia as their drama often portray social and political satire of Indonesian society.

Nippon Television – Drama

*Yasuko to Kenji (2008)

Nippon Television – Drama

*Kaseifu no Mita (2011) – the highest watched show of 2011 in Japan

Nippon Television – Drama

*Muse no Kagami (2012)

Syndicated television – Dramatic first-run syndicated programs

Studios found that reruns of one-hour dramas did not sell as well as sitcoms, so they were unable to fully recoup the shows’ costs using the traditional deficit financing model

Syndicated television – Dramatic first-run syndicated programs

When NBC canceled the television series adaptation of Fame (1982 TV series)|Fame after only two seasons, the producers made special arrangements with LBS Communications, which resulted in MGM reviving the series for first-run syndication in the fall of 1983, where it continued for four more seasons, with the last first-run episode airing in the U.S

Syndicated television – Dramatic first-run syndicated programs

Baywatch, which debuted in 1989 on NBC and was canceled after one season also became one of the most watched syndicated shows throughout its ten-year-run, garnering a worldwide audience

Syndicated television – Dramatic first-run syndicated programs

After that series’ ended in 2004, there would not be a first-run syndicated drama (or a first-run scripted series in syndication) until 2008, when Disney-ABC Domestic Television and ABC Studios teamed up with Sam Raimi to launch a new first-run syndicated series Legend of the Seeker, based on Terry Goodkind’s Sword of Truth novel series

Drambuie

‘Drambuie’ is a sweet, golden coloured 40% Alcohol by volume|ABV (80-Alcoholic proof|proof) liqueur made from malt whisky, honey, herbs and spices.

Drambuie

Produced in Broxburn, West Lothian, Scotland, it is served straight, Ice cube|on the rocks, or added to mixed drinks such as the Duo and trio cocktails#Rusty Nail|Rusty Nail.

Drambuie – Etymology

The name Drambuie derives from the Scottish Gaelic phrase an dram buidheach, the drink that satisfies.

Drambuie – History

After the Battle of Culloden in 1746, Prince Charles Edward Stuart fled to the isle of Skye. There, he was given sanctuary by Captain John MacKinnon of Clan MacKinnon. According to family legend, after staying with the captain, the prince rewarded him with this prized drink recipe. This version of events is disputed by historians who believe it to be a story concocted to boost sales of the drink.

Drambuie – History

The name was registered as a trademark in 1893.[http://www.broadfordhotel.co.uk/drambuie.asp The Broadford Hotel is The Original Home of Drambuie]

Drambuie – History

Ross died young, and to pay for their children’s education, his widow was obliged to sell the recipe, by coincidence to a different MacKinnon family, in the early 20th century. The latter MacKinnon family has been producing the drink since.

Drambuie – History

More recently work has been done to strengthen the reputation of the brand after a downturn in popularity and sales.[http://www.profileplus.co.uk/clients.php?id=11 Drambuie], Leisure and Tourism PR Campaign, Public Relations Consultant Scotland, Profile Plus

Drambuie – History

In 2009, Drambuie launched The Royal Legacy of 1745, an upscale malt whisky liqueur. The 40% alcohol by volume spirit won the Drinks International Travel Retail Award for Best Travel Retail Drinks Launch at the TFWA, Cannes, France in October 2009.

Drambuie – History

To celebrate the centenary of Drambuie being bottled in Edinburgh, the makers launched a new style of bottle and embarked on a television and print advertising campaign in 2010. The new bottle is clear which allows the fluid to be seen. It has a new interlocking ‘DD’ Drambuie icon behind the brand name and this also appears on the neck.

Drambuie – Reviews

Drambuie received the highest possible score, a 96-100, in the Wine Enthusiast’s 2008 spirit ratings competition.

Comedy – In ancient Sanskrit drama

After 200 BCE, in ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni’s Natya Shastra defined humour (h?syam) as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle Rasa (aesthetics)|rasas (emotional responses), which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform. Each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. In the case of humour, it was associated with mirth (hasya).

Professional Wrestling – Dramatic elements

Although the competition is staged, dramatic emphasis can be utilized to draw out the most intense reaction from the audience

Poetry – Dramatic poetry

Examples of dramatic poetry in Persian literature include Nizami Ganjavi|Nizami’s two famous dramatic works, Layla and Majnun and Khosrow and Shirin, Ferdowsi’s tragedies such as Sohrab|Rostam and Sohrab, Rumi’s Masnavi, Asad Gorgani|Gorgani’s tragedy of Vis and Ramin, and Vahshi Bafqi|Vahshi’s tragedy of Farhad.

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

Schiller is considered by most Germans to be Germany’s most important classical playwright. Critics like F.J. Lamport and Eric Auerbach have noted his innovative use of dramatic structure and his creation of new forms, such as the melodrama and the bourgeois tragedy. What follows is a brief, chronological description of the plays.

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

The Robbers is considered by critics like Peter Brooks (writer)|Peter Brooks to be the first European melodrama

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

* Fiesco (play)|Fiesco (Die Verschwörung des Fiesco zu Genua):

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

* Intrigue and Love (Kabale und Liebe): The aristocratic Ferdinand von Walter wishes to marry Luise Miller, the bourgeois daughter of the city’s music instructor

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

* Don Carlos (play)|Don Carlos: This play marks Schiller’s entrée into historical drama. Very loosely based on the events surrounding the real Carlos, Prince of Asturias|Don Carlos of Spain, Schiller’s Don Carlos is another republican figure—he attempts to free Flanders from the despotic grip of his father, King Philip II of Spain|Phillip. The Marquis Posa’s famous speech to the king proclaims Schiller’s belief in personal freedom and democracy.

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

* The Wallenstein (play)|Wallenstein Trilogy: These plays follow the fortunes of the treacherous commander Albrecht von Wallenstein during the Thirty Years’ War.

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

* Mary Stuart (play)|Mary Stuart (Maria Stuart): This history of the Scottish queen, who was Elizabeth I’s rival, portrays Mary Stuart as a tragic heroine, misunderstood and used by ruthless politicians, including and especially, Elizabeth.

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

* The Maid of Orleans (play)|The Maid of Orleans (Die Jungfrau von Orleans): about Joan of Arc

Friedrich Schiller – Dramas

* The Bride of Messina (Die Braut von Messina)

Ritual – Social dramas

Drawing on Van Gennep’s model of initiation rites, Turner viewed these social dramas as a dynamic process through which the community renewed itself through the ritual creation of communitas during the liminal phase

The Catholic University of America – Music and drama

The music and drama programs stage productions each semester, performances ranging from Broadway productions to plays. Catholic University students also participate in is a Symphony orchestra and choral groups, including A capella|A Cappella groups Take Note and RedLine.

The Catholic University of America – Music and drama

There have been a number of songs associated with the university over the years

The Catholic University of America – Music and drama

Albert Von Tilzer, composer of Take Me Out To The Ballgame, wrote two songs for the university, [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSVR7iokuo0list=PL67B76B0539E8C7F4 CUA We’re Rooting For You], and CU Will Shine Tonight

The Catholic University of America – Music and drama

The DuFour Athletic Center has hosted The Alarm, The Fixx, Black 47, Gavin DeGraw, Brandi Carlile, The Hooters, They Might Be Giants, Howie Day, and The Ataris. Comedy acts include Ben Stein and Big Al Goodwin.

Drama school

If the drama school is part of a degree-granting institution, undergraduates typically take a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Fine Arts, or, occasionally, Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Design

Drama school – Entry and application process

Entry to drama school is usually through an audition. Some schools make this a two-stage process. Places on an acting course are limited (usually well below 100) so those who fare best at the audition are selected. Most academies state that applicants must be over 18 years of age.

Drama school – Entry and application process

It is also possible to get into a drama school by previous grades

Drama school – Course content

The courses offered by drama schools are heavily based on practical work; after all, their aim is to train students as professional actors for stage and camera work. Students are required to be enthusiastic and motivated in order to meet the demands offered by the course.

Drama school – Course content

At the beginning of the final year (usually the third), most drama schools stage a series of performances throughout the academic year to which Talent agent|agents and casting directors are invited. This helps to build the future of the graduates and serves as a showcase of what the students can do.

Drama school – United Kingdom

In the UK The Conference of Drama Schools comprises Britain’s 22 leading Drama Schools. CDS exists in order to strengthen the voice of the member schools, to set and maintain the highest standards of training within the vocational drama sector, and to make it easier for prospective students to understand the range of courses on offer and the application process.

Drama school – United Kingdom

Founded in 1969, the 22 member schools offer courses in Acting, Musical Theatre, Directing and Technical Theatre training. Graduates of CDS courses are currently working on stage, in front of the camera and behind the scenes in theatres and studios across Britain.

Drama school – United Kingdom

Student loans, drama awards and scholarships may help to provide students with their funding.

Drama school – United Kingdom

The most prominent funding scheme for performing arts education in the UK are the Dance and Drama Awards. This is a government scheme which subsidises the training offered at a selection of the leading performing arts schools in the fields of dance, drama, musical theatre and stage management.

Drama school – Ireland

On 1 August 2008, The Irish Times reported that a RADA graduate, Danielle Ryan, granddaughter of the late Tony Ryan who founded Ryanair, had announced plans to develop an Irish Academy of Dramatic Arts part-funded from a Trust created by her late father, Captain Cathal Ryan.Gerry Smyth, Irish Times, 1 August 2008 [http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2008/0801/1217368811614.html Acting academy to include theatre]

Drama school – Ireland

This plan went ahead and the academy, known as The Lir, opened in September 2011. The Lir is part of Trinity College and is situated in the Grand Canal Dock area. It is officially associated with RADA.

College of San Mateo – Music and drama

The college established the nation’s first college jazz band in 1946, under the direction of Bud Young, who was succeeded by Dick Crest

College of San Mateo – Music and drama

The college maintained an active drama department for many years, presenting plays such as Oedipus Rex and Waiting for Godot, before Cañada College took over drama productions for the San Mateo County Community College District.

Abhinavagupta – Poetical and dramatic works

Abhinavagupta’s most important work on the philosophy of art is Abhinavabh?rat? — a long and complex commentary on Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni. This work has been one of the most important factors contributing to Abhinavagupta’s fame up until present day. His most important contribution was that to the theory of Rasa (aesthetics)|rasa (aesthetic savor).

Abhinavagupta – Poetical and dramatic works

Other poetical works include: Gha?a-karpara-kulaka-viv?ti, a commentary on Gha?akarpara of Kalidasa; K?vyakau?ukavivara?a, a Commentary to the Wonder of Poetry (a work of Bha??a Tauta), now lost; and Dhvany?lokalocana, Illustration of Dhvany?loka, which is a famous work of Anandavardhana.

Alain Badiou – Literature and drama

* Les Citrouilles, a comedy (1996)

Diphenhydramine

The drug has a strong hypnotic effect and is FDA-approved as a non-prescription sleep aid, especially in the form of diphenhydramine citrate

Diphenhydramine – Medical uses

Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine used to treat a number of conditions including allergic symptoms and pruritus|itchiness, the common cold, insomnia, motion sickness, and extrapyramidal symptoms.

Diphenhydramine – Medical uses

Injectable diphenhydramine can be used for life-threatening reactions (anaphylaxis) to allergens such as bee stings, peanuts, or latex, as an adjunct to epinephrine.

Diphenhydramine – Medical uses

Diphenhydramine can cause strong sedation and has also been used as an anxiolytic as a result

Diphenhydramine – Medical uses

Diphenhydramine can cause minor psychological dependence when used improperly

Diphenhydramine – Medical uses

Diphenhydramine also has antiemetic properties, which make it useful in treating the nausea that occurs in motion sickness. As it causes marked sedation in many individuals, newer-generation antihistamines, including loratadine, cetirizine, and dimenhydrinate, may be preferred for antiemetic use.

Diphenhydramine – Medical uses

There are also topical formulations of diphenhydramine available, including creams, lotions, gels, and sprays. These are used to relieve itching, and have the advantage of causing much less systemic effect (i.e., drowsiness) than oral forms. Diphenhydramine also has local anesthetic properties, and has been used as such in patients allergic to common local anesthetics like lidocaine.

Diphenhydramine – Adverse effects

Diphenhydramine is a potent anticholinergic agent

Diphenhydramine – Adverse effects

There is no specific antidote for diphenhydramine toxicity, but the anticholinergic syndrome has been treated with physostigmine for severe delirium or tachycardia. Benzodiazepines may be administered to decrease the likelihood of psychosis, agitation, and seizures in patients who are prone to these symptoms.

Diphenhydramine – Adverse effects

Some patients have an allergic reaction to diphenhydramine in the form of hives. However, psychomotor agitation|restlessness or akathisia can also be a side-effect made worse by increased levels of diphenhydramine, especially with recreational dosages. As diphenhydramine is extensively metabolized by the liver, caution should be exercised when giving the drug to individuals with hepatic impairment.

Diphenhydramine – Special populations

Diphenhydramine is not recommended for patients older than 60 or children under the age of six, unless a physician is consulted. These populations should be treated with second-generation antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, levocetirizine, and azelastine. Due to its strong anticholinergic effects, diphenhydramine is on the Beers Criteria|Beers list of drugs to avoid in the elderly.

Diphenhydramine – Special populations

Diphenhydramine is Category B in the Pregnancy category|FDA Classification of Drug Safety During Pregnancy. Diphenhydramine is also excreted in breast milk. Paradoxical reactions to diphenhydramine have been documented, in particular among children, and it may cause excitation instead of sedation.

Diphenhydramine – Special populations

Topical diphenhydramine is sometimes used especially on patients in hospice. This use is without indication and topical diphenhydramine should not be used as treatment for nausea because research does not indicate that this therapy is more effective than alternatives., which cites

Diphenhydramine – Measurement in body fluids

Rapid urine drug screens using immunoassays based on the principle of competitive binding may show false-positive methadone results for patients having ingested diphenhydramine

Diphenhydramine – Mechanism of action

Diphenhydramine is an inverse agonist of the histamine histamine H1 receptor|H1 receptor (biochemistry)|receptor. It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents. By reversing the effects of histamine on the capillary|capillaries, it can reduce the intensity of Allergy|allergic symptoms. Diphenhydramine also crosses the blood–brain barrier and antagonizes the H1 receptors Central nervous system|centrally. Its effects on central H1 receptors cause drowsiness.

Diphenhydramine – Mechanism of action

Like many other first-generation antihistamines, diphenhydramine is also a potent muscarinic antagonist|antimuscarinic (a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) and, as such, at high doses can cause anticholinergic syndrome. The utility of diphenhydramine as an antiparkinson agent is the result of its blocking properties on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain.

Diphenhydramine – Mechanism of action

Diphenhydramine also acts as an intracellular sodium channel blocker, which is responsible for its actions as a local anesthetic. Diphenhydramine has also been shown to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin.

Diphenhydramine – Mechanism of action

More likely hypotheses are based around diphenhydramine’s antimuscarinic action, and its possible indirect antiglutaminergic and antiadrenergic effects.

Diphenhydramine – Pharmacokinetics

Oral bioavailability of diphenhydramine is in the range of 40–60% and peak plasma concentration occurs approximately 2–3 hours after administration. The primary route of metabolism is two successive demethylations of the tertiary amine. The resulting primary amine is further oxidized to the carboxylic acid. The biological half-life|half-life is as short as 8 hours in children to 17 hours in the elderly.

Diphenhydramine – History

Diphenhydramine was discovered in 1943 by George Rieveschl, a former professor at the University of Cincinnati. In 1946, it became the first prescription antihistamine approved by the Food and Drug Administration (United States)|U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Diphenhydramine can be synthesized by a simple reaction of Bromodiphenylmethane and 2-dimethylaminoethanol.

Diphenhydramine – History

In the 1960s, diphenhydramine was found to inhibit reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin. This discovery led to a search for viable antidepressants with similar structures and fewer side-effects, culminating in the invention of fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). A similar search had previously led to the synthesis of the first SSRI, zimelidine, from brompheniramine, also an antihistamine.

Diphenhydramine – Society and culture

In some jurisdictions, diphenhydramine is often present in postmortem specimens collected during investigation of sudden infant deaths; the drug may play a role in these events.

Diphenhydramine – Society and culture

Diphenhydramine is among the prohibited and controlled substances in the Republic of Zambia. Travelers are advised not to bring this drug into the country. Several Americans have been detained by the Zambian Drug Enforcement Commission for possession of Benadryl and other over-the-counter medications containing diphenhydramine.

Diphenhydramine – Recreational use

Diphenhydramine is sometimes used as a recreational drug, often by those without access to illegal drugs. These people use it for the sedative properties, as well as the delirium-induced hallucinations at higher doses. Diphenhydramine abuse may cause:

Diphenhydramine – Recreational use

* Hallucinations (auditory, visual, etc.)

Diphenhydramine – Recreational use

* Abnormal speech (inaudibility, forced speech, etc.)

Diphenhydramine – Recreational use

* Inability to urinate

Diphenhydramine – Recreational use

* Motor disturbances

Diphenhydramine – Recreational use

* Anxiety/nervousness

Panic of 1907 – Drama at the library

Although calm was largely restored in New York by Saturday, November 2, yet another crisis loomed

Panic of 1907 – Drama at the library

To avert the collapse of Moore Schley, Morgan called an emergency conference at his The Morgan Library Museum|library Saturday morning

Panic of 1907 – Drama at the library

By then, J.P

Panic of 1907 – Drama at the library

At 3 a.m

Panic of 1907 – Drama at the library

On Sunday afternoon and into the evening, Morgan, Perkins, Baker and Stillman, along with U.S. Steel’s Gary and Henry Clay Frick, worked at the library to finalize the deal for U.S. Steel to buy TCI and by Sunday night had a plan for acquisition. But one obstacle remained: the anti-trust crusading President Theodore Roosevelt, who had made breaking up monopoly|monopolies a focus of his presidency.

Panic of 1907 – Drama at the library

Frick and Gary traveled overnight by train to the White House to implore Roosevelt to set aside the application of the Sherman Antitrust Act and allow—before the market opened—a company that already held a 60% share of the steel market to make a large acquisition

List of historical drama films

Other historical dramas are fictionalized tales that are based on an actual person and their deeds, such as Braveheart, which is loosely based on the 13th-century knight William Wallace’s fight for Scotland’s independence.

List of historical drama films

Due to the sheer volume of films included in this genre and in the interest of continuity, this list is primarily focused on films pertaining to the history of Near Eastern and Western civilization. For films pertaining to the history of East Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia, please refer also to the ‘list of Asian historical drama films’.

List of historical drama films – Films set in prehistory

* When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth (1970)

List of historical drama films – Films set in prehistory

* When Women Had Tails|Quando le Donne Avevano la Coda (1970)

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series|Drama Series: Gloria Monty 1981, 1984; Wendy Riche 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000; Jill Farren Phelps 2005, 2006, 2008, 2012

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series|Lead Actor: Anthony Geary (Luke Spencer) 1982, 1999, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2012; Maurice Benard (Sonny Corinthos) 2003

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series|Lead Actress: Finola Hughes (Anna Devane) 1991; Laura Wright (Carly Corinthos Jacks) 2011

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series|Supporting Actor: Peter Hansen (actor)|Peter Hansen (Lee Baldwin) 1979; David Lewis (American actor)|David Lewis (Edward Quartermaine) 1982; Gerald Anthony (Marco Dane) 1993; Steve Burton (actor)|Steve Burton (Jason Morgan (General Hospital)|Jason Morgan) 1998; Stuart Damon (Alan Quartermaine (General Hospital)|Alan Quartermaine) 1999; Rick Hearst (Ric Lansing) 2004, 2007; Jonathan Jackson (actor)|Jonathan Jackson (Lucky Spencer) 2011, 2012

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series|Supporting Actress: Jane Elliot (Tracy Quartermaine) 1981; Rena Sofer (Lois Cerullo) 1995; Sarah Brown (actress)|Sarah Brown (Carly Benson) 2000; Vanessa Marcil (Brenda Barrett), 2003; Natalia Livingston (Emily Quartermaine), 2005; Genie Francis (Laura Spencer), 2007, Nancy Lee Grahn (Alexis Davis), 2012, Julie Marie Berman (Lulu Spencer) 2013

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Younger Actor in a Drama Series|Younger Actor: Jonathan Jackson (actor)|Jonathan Jackson (Lucky Spencer) 1995, 1998, 1999; Jacob Young (Lucky Spencer) 2002; Chad Brannon (Zander Smith) 2004

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Younger Actress in a Drama Series|Younger Actress: Kimberly McCullough (Robin Scorpio) 1989, 1996; Sarah Brown (actress)|Sarah Brown (Carly Benson) 1997, 1998; Julie Marie Berman (Lulu Spencer), 2009, 2010, Kristen Alderson (Starr Manning) 2013

General Hospital – Drama series and performer categories

* Lifetime Achievement: Rachel Ames (Audrey March Hardy) 2004; Anna Lee (Lila Quartermaine) 2004 (posthumous)

Naked (book) – The Drama Bug

An account of Sedaris’ attempts at acting after being introduced to Shakespeare by an actor’s classroom visit. Sedaris finds that the playwright’s florid Elizabethan language appeals to him, and begins to use it in regular conversation.

Anthology series – Drama

* The Philco Television Playhouse (1948–55)

Anthology series – Drama

* Lux Video Theater (1950–59)

Anthology series – Drama

* The United States Steel Hour (1953–63)

Anthology series – Drama

* Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse (1958–60)

Drama

The Drama 100: A Ranking of the Greatest Plays of All Time (2008) Facts on File ISBN 978-0-8160-6073-3

Drama

335 BC)—the earliest work of dramatic theory.Francis Fergusson writes that a drama, as distinguished from a Lyric poetry|lyric, is not primarily a composition in the verbal medium; the Dialogue (fiction)|words result, as one might put it, from the underlying Dramatic structure|structure of incident and Character (arts)|character

Drama

Radio drama has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has also been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio.Banham (1998, 894–900).

Drama

In Improvisational theatre|improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance; performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience.Some forms of improvisation, notably the Commedia dell’arte, improvise on the basis of ‘lazzi’ or rough outlines of scenic action (see Gordon (1983) and Duchartre (1929))

Drama – Classical Greek drama

Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays (though the individual works were not necessarily connected by story or theme), which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play (though exceptions were made, as with Euripides’ Alcestis (play)|Alcestis in 438 BC)

Drama – Classical Greek drama

Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia (though during the Peloponnesian War this may have been reduced to three), each offering a single comedy.Brockett and Hildy (2003, 18) and Banham (1998, 444–445). Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between old comedy (5th century BC), middle comedy (4th century BC) and new comedy (late 4th century to 2nd BC).Banham (1998, 444–445).

Drama – Classical Roman drama

Following the expansion of the Roman Republic (509–27 BC) into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Theatre of ancient Greece|Greek drama.Brockett and Hildy (2003, 43)

Drama – Classical Roman drama

In re-working the Greek originals, the Roman comic dramatists abolished the role of the Greek chorus|chorus in dividing the drama into episodes and introduced musical accompaniment to its dialogue (between one-third of the dialogue in the comedies of Plautus and two-thirds in those of Terence).Brockett and Hildy (2003, 49)

Drama – Classical Roman drama

Plautus, the more popular of the two, wrote between 205 and 184 BC and twenty of his comedies survive, of which his farces are best known; he was admired for the wit of his dialogue and his use of a variety of Meter (poetry)|poetic meters.Brockett and Hildy (2003, 48)

Drama – Classical Roman drama

From the time of the empire, the work of two tragedians survives—one is an unknown author, while the other is the Stoicism|Stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger|Seneca.Brockett and Hildy (2003, 50)

Drama – Medieval

In the Middle Ages, drama in the vernacular languages of Europe may have emerged from religious enactments of the liturgy. Mystery plays were presented on the porch of the cathedrals or by strolling players on Calendar of saints|feast days. Miracle play|Miracle and mystery plays, along with Morality play|moralities and interludes, later evolved into more elaborate forms of drama, such as was seen on the Elizabethan stages.

Drama – Elizabethan and Jacobean

One of the great flowerings of drama in England occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries

Drama – Modern and postmodern

The pivotal and innovative contributions of the Nineteenth-century theatre|19th-century Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen and the Twentieth-century theatre|20th-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht dominate modern drama; each inspired a tradition of imitators, which include many of the greatest playwrights of the modern era.Williams (1993, 25–26) and Moi (2006, 17)

Drama – Modern and postmodern

Other important playwrights of the modern era include Antonin Artaud, August Strindberg, Anton Chekhov, Frank Wedekind, Maurice Maeterlinck, Federico García Lorca, Eugene O’Neill, Luigi Pirandello, George Bernard Shaw, Ernst Toller, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, Jean Genet, Eugène Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Harold Pinter, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Dario Fo, Heiner Müller, and Caryl Churchill.

Drama – India

The earliest form of Indian drama was the Sanskrit drama that is said to have its framework directly given by Lord Shiva who used these techniques to pray to Lord Vishnu.Richmond, Swann, and Zarrilli (1993, 12)

Drama – Sanskrit theatre

The Mah?bh??ya by Patañjali contains the earliest reference to what may have been the seeds of Sanskrit drama.Richmond (1998, 517)

Drama – Sanskrit theatre

It addresses acting, dance, music, Dramaturgy|dramatic construction, Theatre architecture|architecture, Costume design|costuming, Theatrical makeup|make-up, Theatrical properties|props, the organisation of companies, the audience, competitions, and offers a Hindu mythology|mythological account of the origin of theatre.

Drama – Sanskrit theatre

Its drama is regarded as the highest achievement of Sanskrit literature.Brandon (1981, xvii)

Drama – Modern Indian drama

Rabindranath Tagore, was a pioneering modern playwright who wrote plays noted for their exploration and questioning of nationalism, identity, spiritualism and material greed .Banham (1998, 1051). His plays are written in Bengali language|Bengali and include Chitra (Chitrangada, 1892), The King of the Dark Chamber (Raja, 1910), The Post Office (play)|The Post Office (Dakghar, 1913), and Red Oleander (Raktakarabi, 1924).

Drama – Modern Indian drama

Girish Karnad is a noted playwright, who has written a number of plays that use history and mythology, to critique and problematize ideas and ideals that are of contemporary relevance. Karnad’s numerous plays such as Tughlaq, Hayavadana, Taledanda and Naga-Mandala are significant contributions to Indian drama.

Drama – Modern Urdu drama of India and Pakistan

Urdu Drama evolved from the prevailing dramatic traditions of North India shaping Rahas or Raas as practiced by exponents like Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh. His dramatic experiments led to the famous Inder Sabha of Amanat and later this tradition took the shape of Parsi Theatre. Agha Hashr Kashmiri is the culmination of this tradition.

Drama – Modern Urdu drama of India and Pakistan

Urdu Dramatic tradition has been a spectator’s delight since 100 years and counting.

Drama – Modern Urdu drama of India and Pakistan

The thing to be noticed here is that drama on stage imitates drama in life

Drama – Modern Urdu drama of India and Pakistan

While Prof Hasan, Ghulam Jeelani, J.N,Kaushal, Shameem Hanfi, Jameel Shaidayi, etc. belong to the old generation, contemporary writers like Danish Iqbal, Sayeed Alam, Shahid Anwar, Iqbal Niyazi, and Anwar are a few postmodern playwrights actively contributing in the field of Urdu Drama.

Drama – Modern Urdu drama of India and Pakistan

Sayeed Alam is known for his wit and humour and more particularly for Plays like ‘Ghalib in New Delhi’, ‘Big B’ and many other gems which are regularly staged for massive turn out of theatre lovers. Maulana Azad is his magnum opus both for its content and style.

Drama – Modern Urdu drama of India and Pakistan

Danish Iqbal’s play about ‘Dara Shikoh’ directed by M

Drama – China

Chinese theatre has a long and complex history. Today it is often called Chinese opera although this normally refers specifically to the popular form known as Beijing opera and Kunqu; there have been many other forms of theatre in China, such as zaju.

Drama – Japan

N? drama was supported by the government, and particularly the military, with many military commanders having their own troupes and sometimes performing themselves

Drama – Japan

Ky?gen is the comic counterpart to N? drama. It concentrates more on dialogue and less on music, although N? instrumentalists sometimes appear also in Ky?gen. Kabuki drama, developed from the 17th century, is another comic form, which includes dance.

Drama – Opera

To restore the connection with the traditional Theatre of Ancient Greece|Greek drama, he entirely renewed the operatic format, and to emphasize the equal importance of music and drama in these new works, he called them music dramas.

Drama – Pantomime

These stories follow in the tradition of fables and Folklore|folk tales

Drama – Creative drama

Creative drama includes dramatic activities and games used primarily in educational settings with children. Its roots in the United States began in the early 1900s. Winifred Ward is considered to be the founder of creative drama in education, establishing the first academic use of drama in Evanston, Illinois .

Dramatic programming

‘Dramatic programming’ in the UK, or ‘television drama’ and ‘television drama series’ in the United States, or ‘teledrama’ in Sri Lanka, is television program content that is scripted and (normally) fictional along the lines of a traditional drama. This excludes, for example, sports television, television news, reality show and game shows, stand-up comedy and variety shows. Also, by convention, the term is not generally used for situation comedy or soap opera.

Dramatic programming

Most dramatic television programming falls within other standard categories such as miniseries, made-for-TV movies or certain rather circumscribed dramatic genres. One major category of dramatic programing, particularly in the United States, is Crime Drama.

Dramatic programming

Some examples of BBC dramatic programming would be the serials The Six Wives of Henry VIII (TV series)|The Six Wives of Henry VIII or Our Friends in the North.

Dramatic programming

Some examples of US television drama series are Breaking Bad, The Wire, The Sopranos, Sons of Anarchy, Lost (TV series)|Lost, House of Cards (U.S. TV series)|House of Cards, and Mad Men

List of programs broadcast by American Broadcasting Company – Dramas

*Once Upon a Time (TV series)|Once Upon a Time (2011–present)

List of programs broadcast by American Broadcasting Company – Dramas

*Once Upon a Time in Wonderland (2013–present)

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

The battle of Normandy has been the topic of many films, television shows, songs, computer games and books. Many dramatizations focus on the initial landings, and these are covered at Normandy Landings. Some examples that cover the wider battle include:

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*Le Bataillon du ciel (sky’s battalion), a 1947 French film directed by Alexandre Esway based on the book of Joseph Kessel: Free French SAS paratroopers (Special Air Service) in Brittany from 5 June to August 1944.

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*Band of Brothers (TV miniseries)|Band of Brothers, a 2001 American miniseries produced by Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks based on the book of the same name by Stephen Ambrose.

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*Ike: Countdown to D-Day, a 2004 American television film directed by Robert Harmon and written by Lionel Chetwynd which emphasizes the difficult decisions General Dwight D. Eisenhower had to make, while dealing with the varied personalities of his direct subordinates, in order to lead Operation Overlord.

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*The Longest Day (film)|The Longest Day a 1962 film based on the The Longest Day (book)|book of the same name by Cornelius Ryan

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*Un jour avant l’aube (One day before dawn), a 1994 French TV film directed by Jacques Ertaud: Free French SAS in Brittany.

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*The Big Red One, a 1980 film directed by Samuel Fuller and starring Lee Marvin.

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*The Americanization of Emily, a 1964 film written by Paddy Chayefsky, directed by Arthur Hiller and starring James Garner and Julie Andrews.

Invasion of Normandy – Dramatizations

*My Way (2011 film)|My Way, a joint South Korean and US war movie by Kang Je-gyu, stars Jang Dong-gun along with Japanese actor Joe Odagiri and Chinese actress Fan Bingbing.

List of programs broadcast by Fox – Drama

*Almost Human (TV series)|Almost Human (2013–present)

List of programs broadcast by Fox – Drama

*Ryan Caulfield: Year One (1999)

List of programs broadcast by Fox – Drama

*South Central (TV series)|South Central (1994)

Hamlet – Dramatic structure

Even today the play is rarely performed in its entirety, and has only once been dramatised on film completely, with Kenneth Branagh’s 1996 version

Comedy-drama

‘Comedy-drama’ (also known as ‘dramedy’, ‘tragicomedy’, ‘comedic drama’, or ‘seriocomedy’) is a genre of theatre, film, and television that combines elements of comedy and drama, having both humorous and serious content.

Comedy-drama – Theatre

Beginning in the 19th century, authors such as Anton Chekhov, George Bernard Shaw, and Henrik Ibsen blurred the line between comedy and drama.

Comedy-drama – Early television

The advent of radio drama, cinema, and in particular television created greater pressure in marketing to clearly define a product as either comedy or drama. While in live theatre the difference became less and less significant, in mass media comedy and drama were clearly divided. Comedies were expected to keep a consistently light tone and not challenge the viewer by introducing more serious content.

Comedy-drama – Early television

By the early 1960s, television companies commonly presented half-hour-long comedy series or hour-long dramas. Half-hour series were mostly restricted to situation comedy (sitcoms) or family comedy and were usually aired with either a live or overdubbing|overdubbed laugh track. One-hour dramas included such shows as police and detective series, westerns, science fiction, and serialized prime time soap operas.

Comedy-drama – Early television

Arguably, one of the first American television shows to successfully blend elements of comedy and drama together was Jackie Cooper’s military themed series Hennesey. Although the show featured a laugh track, it also contains many elements of character drama that occurred amongst the re-occurring characters and the guest stars. The laugh track wasn’t excessively used in each episode; by the third season, it was eliminated completely from the series.

Comedy-drama – Early television

These were known as comedy-dramas

Comedy-drama – Early television

It was an hour-long series that utilized a laugh track, which was very unusual, but is considered a comedy-drama for the fact that it alternated between drama and comedy.

Comedy-drama – Early television

In the United Kingdom, the format first appeared successfully in 1979 with the long-running series Minder (TV series)|Minder, along with other notable comedy-dramas such as Auf Wiedersehen, Pet and Big Deal (TV series)|Big Deal.

Comedy-drama – Early television

In addition, comedy-drama series have been associated with the single-camera setup|single-camera production format.

Comedy-drama – Attributes of comedy-dramas on TV sitcoms

In a comedy-drama, there is often an absence of a pre-recorded laughing track. Episodes can be either half an hour or an hour long. However, shows that use a 30-minute format tend to be more comedic with dramatic elements that keep storylines going forward, while shows that use a 60-minute format tend to be more dramatically based with humour used throughout the show either as comic relief or to punctuate certain scenes.

Comedy-drama – Attributes of comedy-dramas on TV sitcoms

The continuity of character development and storylines are more relevant in comedy-dramas than in traditional sitcoms

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