Local System Administrator privileges The term system administrator may also be used to describe a privilege which a computer owner must obtain on his/her own computer to perform certain actions even if the computer is not part of a larger system. References      http:/ / nssa.
Edu/ ~nssa/ nssa/ undergrad/ index.
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No/ Studietilbud/ Masterstudier/ Master-Programme-in-Network-and-System-Administration UvA Master SNE homepage (https:/ / www.
Nl) Further reading • Essential System Administration (O’Reilly), 3rd Edition, 2001, by Æleen Frisch • Principles of Network and System Administration (J.
Wiley & Sons), 2000,2003(2ed), by Mark Burgess • The Practice of System and Network Administration (Addison-Wesley), 2nd Edition (July 5, 2007), by Thomas A.
Limoncelli, Christine Hogan and Strata R.
Chalup • Time Management for System Administrators (O’Reilly), 2005, by Thomas A.
Limoncelli • UNIX and Linux System Administration Handbook (Prentice Hall), 4th Edition, 2010, by Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder, Trent R.
Hein, Ben Whaley External links • MCSA Certification (Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator) (www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/ certification/mcsa.aspx) • Apple Certification Programs (training.apple.com/#it) • BSD Certification (www.bsdcertification.org/) • CompTIA’s (www.CompTIA.org/) Certification • ITIL (www.itil.co.uk/) for ITIL certification (part of Office of Government Commerce) • Red Hat’s Certification Curriculum (www.redhat.com/training/certification/) for RHCE and RHCA • BigAdmin Newsletter (www.sun.com/bigadmin/newsletter/) • Art du web.com : the website of system administrator (www.artduweb.com/) • Administration système : Vie et mort des sysadm 😉 (www.administration-systeme.com/) • Linux System Administration Information (linux-administration-pro.com) Systems management 32 Systems management Systems management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed systems including (and commonly in practice) computer systems.
Systems management is strongly influenced by network management initiatives in telecommunications.
Centralized management has a time and effort trade-off that is related to the size of the company, the expertise of the IT staff, and the amount of technology being used: • For a small business startup with ten computers, automated centralized processes may take more time to learn how to use and implement than just doing the management work manually on each computer. • A very large business with thousands of similar employee computers may clearly be able to save time and money, by having IT staff learn to do systems management automation. • A small branch office of a large corporation may have access to a central IT staff, with the experience to set up automated management of the systems in the branch office, without need for local staff in the branch office to do the work.
System management may involve one or more of the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • Hardware inventories.
Server availability monitoring and metrics.
Software inventory and installation.
Anti-virus and anti-malware management.
User’s activities monitoring.
Network capacity and utilization monitoring.
Anti-manipulation management Functions Functional groups are provided according to International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Common management information protocol (X.700) standard.
This framework is also known as Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security (FCAPS).
Fault management • Troubleshooting, error logging and data recovery • Hardware and software inventory • As we begin the process of automating the management of our technology, what equipment and resources do we have already? • How can this inventorying information be gathered and updated automatically, without direct hands-on examination of each device, and without hand-documenting with a pen and notepad? • What do we need to upgrade or repair? • What can we consolidate to reduce complexity or reduce energy use? • What resources would be better reused somewhere else? • What commercial software are we using that is improperly licensed, and either needs to be removed or more licenses purchased? • Provisioning • What software will we need to use in the future? Systems management • What training will need to be provided to use the software effectively? • Software deployment • What steps are necessary to install it on perhaps hundreds or thousands of computers? • Package management • How do we maintain and update the software we are using, possibly through automated update mechanisms? • Billing and statistics gathering • Software metering • Who is using the software and how often? • If the license says only so many copies may be in use at any one time but may be installed in many more places than licensed, then track usage of those licenses. • If the licensed user limit is reached, either prevent more people from using it, or allow overflow and notify accounting that more licenses need to be purchased. • Event and metric monitoring • How reliable are the computers and software? • What errors or software bugs are preventing staff from doing their job? • What trends are we seeing for hardware failure and life expectancy? • Identity management • Policy management However this standard should not be treated as comprehensive, there are obvious omissions.
Some are recently emerging sectors, some are implied and some are just not listed.
The primary ones are: • • • • • Business Impact functions (also known as Business Systems Management) Capacity management Real-time Application Relationship Discovery (which supports Configuration Management) Security Information and Event Management functions (SIEM) Workload scheduling 33
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