Within this document there is a statement about the future direction regarding the IT department of <
A common language.
With this common language we have the ability to overcome the two major hurdles in the provision of IT services to our customers and end users.
Those barriers to success are communication and alignment of IT Service Provision with the business needs. The reader will be presented with a structured narrative regarding the provision of IT at <
We will journey through the issues surrounding the provision quality IT services, but the focus will narrow down to a set of well defined and globally accepted best practices regarding IT management – the ITIL Framework. History There is little to be gained from looking at issues from the past.
We learn from the past, but the direction we are heading as a provider of quality IT services is not determined by what is behind us, but the direction we are facing as we move forward. We will however, summarize our past activities by outlining some of the major challenges we have faced. Poor alignment of IT strategy with the business strategy Meeting business and user needs Coping with change Communication with Senior Management Managing costs, budgets and resources Keeping up with technology Recruiting and retaining staff Time and resource management Infrastructure management Maintaining skills and knowledge — The Objective Tree In simple terms the objective tree is a technique for promoting IT Service Management in organizational terms. Using this simplistic model we can now promote a Service Management culture. Most organizations now understand the benefits of having Information Technology (IT) supporting the majority of their business activities.
Few realize the potential of truly aligning the IT department’s objectives with the business objectives.
However, more and more organizations are beginning to recognize IT as being a crucial delivery mechanism of services to their customers. When the IT services are so critical, steps must be in place to ensure that the IT group adds value and delivers consistently. So the starting point for IT Service Management (ITSM) and the ITIL Framework is not technology; it is the organizational objectives. To meet organizational objectives, the organization has business processes in place. Examples of business processes are sales, admin and financial (who have a “sales process”) or logistics, customer service and freight who have a “customer returns process”. Each of the units involved in these business processes needs IT Services (eg.
CRM application, e-mail, word processing, financial tools). Each of these services runs on IT infrastructure that has to be properly managed (Service Management).
IT Infrastructure includes hardware, software, procedures, policies, documentation, etc.
This IT Infrastructure has to be managed. ITIL provides a framework for the management of IT Infrastructure. Question: Why should we manage our infrastructure properly? Answer: Proper management of the IT Infrastructure will ensure that the services required by the business processes are available, so that the organizational objectives can be met. Service delivery is more important than a glimpse of brilliance every now and then.
The internal clients (business processes) and external clients need availability of the IT services and to be able to expect a consistent performance.
Consistency comes through the ability to repeat what was done well in the past. IT Service Management is a means to enable the IT group to provide reliable Information Systems to meet the requirements of the business processes, irrespective of the way these services are delivered to the external customers.
This in turn enables the organization to meet its Business Objectives. Definition: IT Service Management is the effective and efficient process driven management regarding the quality of IT services, provided to end-users. Defining the vision and learning to promote it using the objective tree is the right place to start.
Now that we have set our direction, we need to assess our current position (or baseline) against which we will measure progress. Where are we now? — Measuring Process Maturity There are a wide variety of tools that can assist in establishing our current level of process maturity.
By measuring process maturity we are also assessing the level of communication we have within our IT department. The most commonly occurring process maturity assessment for IT organizations is based around a multi-step maturity model.
The model will allow us to identify the areas that we have strengths in and the areas that we are lacking. The process maturity SCAN measures the performance of the IT department across 10 process areas and one functional area.
These are discussed later, when we review the ITIL framework. Further discussion regarding the measurement model is not appropriate in this document. — Does this concept of a process replace the traditional hierarchy structure of an IT department? Not necessarily.
The formal introduction of processes does not equate to a total re-organization of the IT department. Processes, Services and Functions Most businesses are hierarchically organised.
They have departments, which are responsible for a group of employees.
There are various ways of structuring departments, for example by customer, product, region or discipline.
IT services generally depend on several departments, customers or disciplines. For example, if there is an IT service to provide users with access to an accounting program on a central computer, this will involve several disciplines.
To provide the accounting program the computer centre has to make the program and associated database accessible.
The data and telecommunications department has to make the computer centre accessible, and the PC support department has to provide users with an interface to access the application. Processes that span several departments can monitor the quality of the service by measuring aspects, such as availability, capacity, cost and stability, as well as ensuring that we can deal with issues relating to the service and maintain its availability even during times of unexpected problems. ITIL provides a concise and commonsense set of processes to help with the management, monitoring and delivery of services. A process is a logically related series of activities for the benefit of a defined objective.
The following diagram illustrates cross functional process flows. We now understand that processes can help us to ensure a high quality level of service and service availability. It is now time to review the names of these process areas, according to the Best Practice definition of ITIL.
The IT Infrastructure Library. The ITIL Framework Any organization that delivers IT services to their customers with a goal to support the business processes, needs inherent structure in place.
Historically, that structure was based around functions and technical capabilities.
With the ever-increasing speed of change and the associated need for flexibility a technology driven approach is no longer appropriate, in most situations. That is why IT organizations are looking for alternatives.
Some alternatives include: Total Quality Management TQM processes and continuous improvement projects COBIT as a control & measurement mechanism CMM for control and structure in software (and system) development ITIL for operational and tactical management of service delivery Which single or combination of frameworks selected is entirely dependant on the needs of the organization. For many IT organizations, ITIL is a very good way of managing service delivery and to perform the IT activities in end-to-end processes. The IT Infrastructure Library is a set of books with good practice processes on how to manage IT service delivery.
The library consists of many books and CD-ROMs. The core set of material is the following set of seven tightly coupled areas: Service Delivery Service Support Security Management The Business Perspective Applications Management ICT Infrastructure Management Planning to implement Service Management The Service Support, Service Delivery and Security Management are regarded as the central components of the framework. These books cover the processes required to deliver customer-focused IT services according to your customers’ needs, demands and wishes. They help the IT group to be flexible and reliable enough to ensure consistent IT Service Delivery.
The other core books in the library support these central components. History of ITIL During the late 1980’s the CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommunication Agency) in the UK started to work on what is now known as the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL). Large companies and government agencies in Europe adopted the framework very quickly in the early 1990’s and the ITIL framework has since become known as an industry best practice, for IT Service Management. ITIL has become the de-facto standard in delivering IT Services for all types of organizations.
Both government and non-government organizations benefit from the process driven approach, regardless of the size of the IT department. ITIL is used globally.
ITIL has no geographic boundaries.
It is used extensively throughout Europe, Australia, Canada, USA, United Kingdom and many emerging countries in Asia. In 2000 the British Treasury set up the OGC – Office for Government Commerce – to deal with all commercial activities within the government.
All activities formerly under the control of the CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) were also taken up by the new department.
Even though the CCTA no longer exists, it is noted that they were the original developers of the ITIL framework. In 2000, Microsoft used ITIL as the basis to develop their proprietary Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF). In 2001, ITIL version 2 was released.
In this version the Service Support Book and the Service Delivery book were redeveloped into much more concise volumes. ITIL is a pseudo Public Domain framework.
ITIL is copyright protected.
Copyright is owned by the OGC.
However, any organization can use the intellectual property to implement the processes in their own organization.
Training, tools and consultancy services support this.
The framework is independent of any of the vendors. EXIN and ISEB are the examination bodies that organise and control the entire certification scheme.
They guarantee that the personal certification is fair and honest and independent from the organizations that delivered the course.
Both bodies accredit training organizations to guarantee a consistent level of quality in course delivery. At the time of writing the only generally recognized certification is awarded to individuals.
There is no independent technology certification or organizational certification. The ITIL Service Delivery Set The following chapters describe in brief the Service Delivery processes.
These processes are generally referred to as “tactical” processes. Service Level Management This process provides the contact point between the IT organization and the customer.
Within the ITIL books, ‘the customer’ is defined as being the person who pays for the services.
It should therefore be someone with decision-making authority, EG business manager. Service Level Management is the process that ensures that the IT organization knows what services they can deliver and organises for the IT group and the customer to agree on the levels of service that need to be delivered. It also ensures that the IT group can consistently deliver these services to the customer by ongoing monitoring the service achievements and reporting these to the customer. Financial Management for IT Services When Service Level Management agrees with the customer on Service Levels, it has to be able know how much money is involved in delivering this service.
Especially when the cost for IT services is to be charged on to the customer. Financial Management for IT Services allows the IT organization to clearly articulate the costs of delivering IT Services. There are 3 fundamental components with this process. Budgets IT Accounting — IT Service Continuity Management prepares for the worst case scenario. ITSCM investigates, develops and implements recovery options when an interruption to service reaches a pre-defined point. The ultimate choice of which option to choose, is made by the customer as part of the SLA agreements.
Price has an obvious factor in selected the appropriate recovery option. In the current global situation, a structured approach to IT Service Continuity Management has become more and more important.
Business processes rely more and more on IT Services and IT components are more under ‘attack’. Defining the pre-conditions that constitute a disaster is part of the ITSCM process.
Such definitions form an integral part of any Service Level Agreement relating to the provision of services. The ITIL Service Support Set The following chapters describe in brief the Service Support processes.
These processes are generally referred to as “operational” processes. Service Desk The business users / end-users need IT services to improve the efficiency of their own business processes.
When they can’t use the IT services, they have trouble achieving their objectives. End-users of services need a single point of contact with the IT organization. The Service Desk should be the single point of contact for all end-users.
This is where ALL questions, issues and requests are logged and recorded. The type of Service Desk you need depends on the requirements of your customer base. ITIL defines Service desk types in terms of skill and structure. Skill levels: Call Centre Unskilled Service Desk Skilled Service Desk Expert Service Desk Service Desk structures: Centralized Service Desk Distributed Service Desk Virtual Service Desk Split Function Service Desk Incident Management This process is in place to get the end-user back to work – following an interruption to normal service delivery – as soon as possible.
It is symptom-driven and the only concern is speed of response, and the continuation of the business process. Incident Management uses information out of the Problem Management process (work arounds and Known Errors) and the Configuration Management process (linking Incidents to Configuration Items) A large component of Incident Management is the administration and tracking of the incident itself. The line between the function of the Service Desk and the Incident Management process is perhaps the area of greatest confusion for most people regarding ITIL. It is best explained by making the point again that the Service Desk is a function and that Incident Management typically lies inside that function. If an end user calls the Service Desk they are making contact with a functional part of the IT Service Delivery.
What takes place after the call is made and the end user is being looked after is part of the Incident Management process. Generally, most organizations have their Service Desk staff conducting Level 1 incident management support.
However, this is not a caveat and the decision is dependant on the selected skill level of staff and Service Desk structure selected. Level 2 and beyond Incident Management staff can be tightly integrated into the Service Desk area, or they may be recognisable as a separate group of staff. In a lot of organizations who have adopted ITIL, the concept of Level 3 support has given way to the Problem Management process. Problem Management It is the intent of Problem Management to find Known Errors in the IT Infrastructure. Everything you do within this process is focused on: Finding what the Known Error is (Problem Control ? diagnosis) Identifying alternative solutions for the removal of the Known Error (Error control) Raising a request for change (RFC) to request for the deletion to happen Checks after a change is performed to see that the Known Error is gone The Problem Management process also has an element of proactive troubleshooting.
The concept here is to identify and facilitate the removal of errors before they manifest themselves as end-user complaints or queries. Change Management — © <
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It is at this point that you have introduced Service Management and the ITIL framework.
Now you will be looking to round the document out by describing what you see as the next steps or the Conclusion to this work. DELETE THIS TEXT BOX Author – there are two ways to argue the benefits of ITIL implementation.
One is based on improved quality of Service Provision; the other is on lowering costs. You need to expand on the basis for your IT organization – perhaps it is a combination of both.
Update the highlighted text below as appropriate DELETE THIS TEXT BOX Author – the issue of the Process Maturity Scan is not one that should be reviewed in detail in this document. The purpose of this document is to set direction.
If the SCAN is considered to be a positive step, then quotations for providing this service can be obtained. For further information e-mail: [email protected] DELETE THIS TEXT BOX Author – this is a crucial aspect of this document, but one that must be written by yourself. If the perception of the value of the IT department is high and there are good internal communication flows, then the value of ITIL is diminished.
It is hard to argue the WHY ITIL? However, if this is not the case, then your description of the current situation is required at this point. DELETE THIS TEXT BOX Author – you may have some other specific points that you wish to raise at this point.
Specifically, you may bring up other initiatives that have been used in your organization regarding people development (maybe there is an HR or training department).
You can bring up points regarding the organizational approach to the adoption of new technology (eg.
Leaders or following). With regard to steering you can mention the current Management structure and suggest how the initiative of ITIL adoption could be managed & the level of support required. With respect towards attitude to change.
You can raise this as a positive or negative point.
Are we in IT facing difficulty due to our lack of willingness to investigate a new approach or perhaps we welcome change. The areas of process and communication are dealt with following DELETE THIS TEXT BOX — DELETE THIS TEXT BOX “Today’s IT manager is less interested in technology than most references (books, courses, ‘solutions providers’) care to admit.” NOTICE This document is provided to you as a template strategy.
Some ideas and text you may be able to use, other text you may wish to modify. No responsibility or liability is held with the original authors of the base information. DELETE THIS TEXT BOX Author – you may have some other specific points that you wish to raise here.
The point with this list is that we want to be able to promote ITIL as being a way to address some of the top issues.
We can’t use ITIL to address all issues, as we will see later, due to the fact that IT Service Management encompasses more than just Infrastructure management. DELETE THIS TEXT BOX Author instructions SEARCH AND REPLACE <
Prompt boxes discuss specific areas of the Strategy document with you. DELETE THIS TEXT BOX IT Service Management and the ITIL Framework. Version x.x
Read more about ITIL : < < Company name > > IT Service Management and….: