ITILITIL Continual Service Improvement : In particular incident management is able to assist in defining….

• • • • • • • ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION Raising of problem records for incidents where an underlying cause has not been identified Validation that incidents have not recurred for problems that have been resolved Feedback on incidents related to changes and releases Identification of CIs associated with or impacted by incidents Satisfaction feedback from customers who have experienced incidents Feedback on level and quality of monitoring technologies and event management activities Communications about incident and resolution history detail to assist with identification of overall service quality Interfaces Examples of interfaces with incident management are listed below for each Service Lifecycle stage. Service Design • Service level management: The ability to resolve incidents in a specified time is a key part of delivering an agreed level of service.

Incident management enables SLM to define measurable responses to service disruptions.

It also provides reports that enable SLM to review SLAs objectively and regularly.

In particular, incident management is able to assist in defining where services are at their weakest so that SLM can define actions as part of the service improvement plan (SIP) (see ITIL Continual Service Improvement for more details).

SLM defines the acceptable levels of service within which incident management works, including: • • • • • • • Incident response times Impact definitions Target fix times Service definitions, which are mapped to users Rules for requesting services Expectations for providing feedback to users Information security management: Providing security-related incident information as Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 113 needed to support Service Design activities and gain a full picture of the effectiveness of the security measures as a whole based on an insight into all security incidents.

This is facilitated by maintaining log and audit files and incident records. • Capacity management: Incident management provides a trigger for performance monitoring where there appears to be a performance problem.

Capacity management may develop workarounds for incidents. • Availability management: Availability management will use incident management data to determine the availability of IT services and look at where the incident lifecycle can be improved. Service Transition • Service asset and configuration management: This process provides the data used to identify and progress incidents.

One of the uses of the CMS is to identify faulty equipment and to assess the impact of an incident.

The CMS also contains information about which categories of incidents should be assigned to which support group.

In turn, incident management can maintain the status of faulty CIs.

It can also assist service asset and configuration management to audit the infrastructure when working to resolve an incident. • Change management: Where a change is required to implement a workaround or resolution, this will need to be logged as an RFC and progressed through change management.

In turn, incident management is able to detect and resolve incidents that arise from failed changes.

Service Operation • Problem management: For some incidents, it will be appropriate to involve problem management to investigate and resolve the underlying cause to prevent or reduce the impact of recurrence.

Incident management provides a point where these are reported.

Problem management, in return, can provide known errors for faster incident resolution through workarounds that can be used to restore service. • Access management: Incidents should be raised when unauthorized access attempts and security breaches have been detected.

A history of incidents should also be maintained to support forensic investigation activities and resolution of access breaches. 113 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 114 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION 7.2.8 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of Incident Management — Demand management is responsible for understanding and strategically responding to business demands for services by: 1.

Analyzing patterns of activity and user profiles 2.

Provisioning capacity in line with strategic objectives Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 185 8.2 Terminology Term analytical modeling Definition (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Strategy) A technique that uses mathematical models to predict the behaviour of IT services or other configuration items.

Analytical models are commonly used in capacity management and availability management. (ITIL Service Strategy) A segment of the business that has its own plans, metrics, income, and costs.

Each business unit owns assets and uses these to create value for customers in the form of goods and services. (ITIL Service Design) The maximum throughput that a configuration item or IT service can deliver.

For some types of CI, capacity may be the size or volume, for example, a disk drive. (ITIL Service Strategy) A workload profile of one or more business activities.

Patterns of business activity are used to help the IT service provider understand and plan for different levels of business activity.

See also user profile. (ITIL Service Strategy) A pattern of user demand for IT services.

Each user profile includes one or more patterns of business activity. business unit capacity pattern of business activity (PBA) user profile (UP) 185 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 186 ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION Service Operation is responsible for managing demand by utilizing two techniques: — availability management information system (AMIS) backup 335 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 336 Term ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION Definition (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A management tool developed by Drs Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton.

A balanced scorecard enables a strategy to be broken down into key performance indicators.

Performance against the KPIs is used to demonstrate how well the strategy is being achieved.

A balanced scorecard has four major areas, each of which has a small number of KPIs.

The same four areas are considered at different levels of detail throughout the organization. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Transition) A snapshot that is used as a reference point.

Many snapshots may be taken and recorded over time but only some will be used as baselines.

For example: An ITSM baseline can be used as a starting point to measure the effect of a service improvement plan.

A performance baseline can be used to measure changes in performance over the lifetime of an IT service.

A configuration baseline can be used as part of a back-out plan to enable the IT infrastructure to be restored to a known configuration if a change or release fails.

See also benchmark. balanced scorecard baseline benchmark (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Transition) A baseline that is used to compare related data sets as part of a benchmarking exercise.

For example, a recent snapshot of a process can be compared to a previous baseline of that process, or a current baseline can be compared to industry data or best practice.

See also benchmarking; baseline. benchmarking (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) The process responsible for comparing a benchmark with related data sets, such as a more recent snapshot, industry data, or best practice.

The term is also used to mean creating a series of benchmarks over time and comparing the results to measure progress or improvement.

This process is not described in detail within the core ITIL® publications.

The Best Management Practice portfolio is owned by the Cabinet Office, part of HM Government.

Formerly owned by CCTA and then OGC, the BMP functions moved to the Cabinet Office in June 2010.

The BMP portfolio includes guidance on IT service management and project, program, risk, portfolio, and value management.

There is also a management maturity model as well as related glossaries of terms. Best Management Practice (BMP) — business customer 337 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 338 Term ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION Definition (ITIL® Service Strategy) Business impact analysis is the activity in business continuity management that identifies vital business functions and their dependencies.

These dependencies may include suppliers, people, other business processes, IT services etc.

Business impact analysis defines the recovery requirements for IT services.

These requirements include recovery time objectives, recovery point objectives, and minimum service level targets for each IT service. (ITIL Service Strategy) The objective of a business process or of the business as a whole.

Business objectives support the business vision, provide guidance for the IT strategy, and are often supported by IT services. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) An understanding of the service provider and IT services from the point of view of the business and an understanding of the business from the point of view of the service provider.

A process that is owned and carried out by the business.

A business process contributes to the delivery of a product or service to a business customer.

For example, a retailer may have a purchasing process that helps to deliver services to its business customers.

Many business processes rely on IT services. (ITIL Service Strategy) The process responsible for maintaining a positive relationship with customers.

Business relationship management identifies customer needs and ensures that the service provider is able to meet these needs with an appropriate catalog of services.

This process has strong links with service level management.

A service that is delivered to business customers by business units.

For example, delivery of financial services to customers of a bank, or goods to the customers of a retail store.

Successful delivery of business services often depends on one or more IT services.

A business service may consist almost entirely of an IT service – for example, an online banking service or an external website where product orders can be placed by business customers.

See also customerfacing service. (ITIL Service Strategy) A segment of the business that has its own plans, metrics, income, and costs.

Each business unit owns assets and uses these to create value for customers in the form of goods and services. business impact analysis (BIA) business objective business perspective business process business relationship management business service business unit Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 339 Term call centre Definition (ITIL Service Operation) An organization or business unit that handles large numbers of incoming and outgoing telephone calls.

See also service desk. (ITIL Service Operation) A category that is used to distinguish incoming requests to a service desk.

Common call types are incident, service request, and complaint. (ITIL® Service Strategy) The ability of an organization, person, process, application, IT service, or other configuration item to carry out an activity.

Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization.

See also resource.

Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A process improvement approach developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University, US.

CMMI provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes.

It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division or an entire organization.

CMMI helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes.

See www.sei.

Cmu.edu/cmmi for more information.

See also maturity. (ITIL® Service Design) The maximum throughput that a configuration item or IT service can deliver.

For some types of CIs, capacity may be the size or volume—for example, a disk drive. (ITIL® Service Design) A set of tools, data, and information that is used to support capacity management.

See also service knowledge management system.

Issuing a certificate to confirm compliance to a standard.

Certification includes a formal audit by an independent and accredited body.

The term is also used to mean awarding a certificate to provide evidence that a person has achieved a qualification. (ITIL® Service Transition) The addition, modification, or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT services.

The scope should include changes to all architectures, processes, tools, metrics, and documentation, as well as changes to IT services and other configuration items. call type capability capacity capacity management information system (CMIS) certification change 339 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 340 — (ITIL® Service Strategy) (ITIL® Service Transition) A document that includes a high level description of a potential service introduction or significant change, along with a corresponding business case and an expected implementation schedule.

Change proposals are normally created by the service portfolio management process and are passed to change management for authorization.

Change management will review the potential impact on other services, on shared resources, and on the overall change schedule.

Once the change proposal has been authorized, service portfolio management will charter the service. (ITIL® Service Transition) A record containing the details of a change.

Each change record documents the lifecycle of a single change.

A change record is created for every request for change that is received, even those that are subsequently rejected.

Change records should reference the configuration items that are affected by the change.

Change records may be stored in the configuration management system or elsewhere in the service knowledge management system.

See request for change. change record change request Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 341 Term change schedule Definition (ITIL® Service Transition) A document that lists all authorized changes and their planned implementation dates, as well as the estimated dates of longer-term changes.

A change schedule is sometimes called a forward schedule of change, even though it also contains information about changes that have already been implemented. (ITIL® Service Transition) A regular, agreed time when changes or releases may be implemented with minimal impact on services.

Change windows are usually documented in service level agreements. (ITIL® Service Strategy) Requiring payment for IT services.

Charging for IT services is optional and many organizations choose to treat their IT service provider as a cost centre. (ITIL Service Operation) A technique used to help identify possible causes of problems.

All available data about the problem is collected and sorted by date and time to provide a detailed timeline.

This can make it possible to identify which events may have been triggered by others. (ITIL® Service Transition) A category that is used to classify configuration items.

The CI type identifies the required attributes and relationships for a configuration record.

Common CI types include hardware, document, user, etc.

The act of assigning a category to something.

Classification is used to ensure consistent management and reporting.

Configuration items, incidents, problems, changes, etc.

Are usually classified. (ITIL Service Operation) The final status in the lifecycle of an incident, problem, change, etc.

When the status is closed, no further action is taken. (ITIL Service Operation) The act of changing the status of an incident, problem, change, etc.

To closed. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) Control OBjectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) provides guidance and best practice for the management of IT processes.

COBIT is published by ISACA in conjunction with the IT Governance Institute (ITGI).

See www.isaca.org for more information.

A guideline published by a public body or a standards organization, such as ISO or BSI.

Many standards consist of a code of practice and a specification.

The code of practice describes recommended best practice. 341 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 change window charging chronological analysis CI type classification closed closure COBIT — configuration baseline configuration identification configuration item (CI) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 343 Term configuration management database (CMDB) Definition (ITIL® Service Transition) A database used to store configuration records throughout their lifecycle.

The configuration management system maintains one or more configuration management databases, and each database stores attributes of configuration items and relationships with other configuration items. (ITIL® Service Transition) A set of tools, data, and information that is used to support service asset and configuration management.

The CMS is part of an overall service knowledge management system and includes tools for collecting, storing, managing, updating, analyzing, and presenting data about all configuration items and their relationships.

The CMS may also include information about incidents, problems, known errors, changes, and releases.

The CMS is maintained by service asset and configuration management and is used by all IT service management processes.

See also configuration management database.

Configuration record (ITIL® Service Transition) A record containing the details of a configuration item.

Each configuration record documents the lifecycle of a single configuration item.

Configuration records are stored in a configuration management database and maintained as part of a configuration management system. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A stage in the lifecycle of a service.

Continual service improvement ensures that services are aligned with changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to IT services that support business processes.

The performance of the IT service provider is continually measured and improvements are made to processes, IT services, and IT infrastructure in order to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness.

Continual service improvement includes the seven-step improvement process.

Although this process is associated with continual service improvement, most processes have activities that take place across multiple stages of the service lifecycle.

See also Plan-Do-Check-Act.

A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.

A means of managing a risk, ensuring that a business objective is achieved or that a process is followed.

Examples of control include policies, procedures, roles, RAID, door locks, etc.

A control is sometimes called a countermeasure or safeguard.

Control also means to manage the utilization or behaviour of a configuration item, system, or IT service. 343 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 configuration management system (CMS) continual service improvement (CSI) contract control 344 Term ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION Definition The ISO/IEC 20000 process group that includes change management and configuration management.

A measure of the balance between the effectiveness and cost of a service, process, or activity.

A cost-effective process is one that achieves its objectives at minimum cost.

Can be used to refer to any type of control.

The term is most often used when referring to measures that increase resilience, fault tolerance, or reliability of an IT service.

Something that must happen if an IT service, process, plan, project, or other activity is to succeed.

Key performance indicators are used to measure the achievement of each critical success factor.

For example, a critical success factor of ‘protect IT services when making changes’ could be measured by key performance indicators such as ‘percentage reduction of unsuccessful changes’, ‘percentage reduction in changes causing incidents’, etc. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) A database or structured document used to record and manage improvement opportunities throughout their lifecycle.

Someone who buys goods or services.

The customer of an IT service provider is the person or group who defines and agrees the service level targets.

The term is also sometimes used informally to mean user, for example, ‘This is a customer-focused organization.’ Any resource or capability of a customer.

See also asset. — failure fast recovery 348 Term fault ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION Definition See error. (ITIL Service Design) The ability of an IT service or other configuration item to continue to operate correctly after failure of a component part. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) A technique that can be used to determine a chain of events that has caused an incident or may cause an incident in the future.

Fault tree analysis represents a chain of events using Boolean notation in a diagram. (ITIL® Service Strategy) The ability to meet an agreed level of utility.

Fit for purpose is also used informally to describe a process, configuration item, IT service, etc.

That is capable of meeting its objectives or service levels.

Being fit for purpose requires suitable design, implementation, control, and maintenance. (ITIL® Service Strategy) The ability to meet an agreed level of warranty.

Being fit for use requires suitable design, implementation, control, and maintenance. (ITIL® Service Operation) A methodology for using service desks and support groups around the world to provide seamless 24/7 service.

Calls, incidents, problems, and service requests are passed between groups in different timezones.

Performing activities to meet a need or requirement, for example, by providing a new IT service or meeting a service request.

A team or group of people and the tools or other resources they use to carry out one or more processes or activities—for example, the service desk.

The term also has two other meanings: An intended purpose of a configuration item, person, team, process, or IT service.

For example, one function of an email service may be to store and forward outgoing mails, while the function of a business process may be to dispatch goods to customers.

To perform the intended purpose correctly, as in ‘The computer is functioning.’ (ITIL® Service Operation) Transferring an incident, problem, or change to a technical team with a higher level of expertise to assist in an escalation.

Ensures that policies and strategy are actually implemented and that required processes are correctly followed.

Governance includes defining roles and responsibilities, measuring and reporting, and taking actions to resolve any issues identified. fault tolerance fault tree analysis (FTA) fit for purpose fit for use follow the sun fulfilment function functional escalation governance — information security (ITIL® Service Design) The policy that governs the organization’s policy approach to information security management.

Information technology (IT) The use of technology for the storage, communication, or processing of information.

The technology typically includes computers, telecommunications, applications, and other software.

The information may include business data, voice, images, video, etc.

Information technology is often used to support business processes through IT services. (ITIL Service Operation) A form of automatic call distribution that accepts user input, such as key presses and spoken commands, to identify the correct destination for incoming calls. (ITIL® Service Design) A recovery option that is also known as warm standby.

Intermediate recovery usually uses a shared portable or fixed facility that has computer systems and network components.

The hardware and software will need to be configured and data will need to be restored as part of the IT service continuity plan.

Typical recovery times for intermediate recovery are one to three days.

A customer who works for the same business as the IT service provider.

See also external customer; internal service provider.

Internal service provider (ITIL® Service Strategy) An IT service provider that is part of the same organization as its customer.

An IT service provider may have both internal and external customers.

See also Type I service provider; Type II service provider. interactive voice response (IVR) intermediate recovery internal customer Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 351 Term internet service provider (ISP) Ishikawa diagram Definition An external service provider that provides access to the internet.

Most ISPs also provide other IT services, such as web hosting. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Operation) A technique that helps a team to identify all the possible causes of a problem.

Originally devised by Kaoru Ishikawa, the output of this technique is a diagram that looks like a fishbone.

All of the hardware, software, networks, facilities, etc.

That are required to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control, or support applications and IT services.

The term includes all of the information technology but not the associated people, processes, and documentation. (ITIL® Service Operation) Activities carried out by IT operations control, including console management/operations bridge, job scheduling, backup and restore, and print and output management.

IT operations is also used as a synonym for service operation. (ITIL® Service Operation) The function responsible for monitoring and control of the IT services and IT infrastructure.

See also operations bridge.

IT operations management (ITIL Service Operation) The function within an IT service provider that performs the daily activities needed to manage IT services and the supporting IT infrastructure.

IT operations management includes IT operations control and facilities management.

A service provided by an IT service provider.

An IT service is made up of a combination of information technology, people, and processes.

A customer-facing IT service directly supports the business processes of one or more customers, and its service level targets should be defined in a service level agreement.

Other IT services, called supporting services, are not directly used by the business but are required by the service provider to deliver customer-facing services.

See also service; service package.

IT service continuity (ITIL® Service Design) A plan defining the steps required to recover plan one or more IT services.

The plan also identifies the triggers for invocation, people to be involved, communications, etc.

The IT service continuity plan should be part of a business continuity plan. IT infrastructure IT operations IT operations control IT service 351 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 352 Term — manageability Management of Risk (M_o_R®) manual workaround (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) A workaround that requires manual intervention.

Manual workaround is also used as the name of a recovery option in which the business process operates without the use of IT services.

This is a temporary measure and is usually combined with another recovery option.

Maturity level A named level in a maturity model, such as the Carnegie Mellon Capability Maturity Model Integration. mean time between (ITIL Service Design) A metric for measuring and reporting reliability.

Failures (MTBF) MTBF is the average time that an IT service or other configuration item can perform its agreed function without interruption.

This is measured from when the configuration item starts working until it next fails.

Mean time between (ITIL Service Design) A metric used for measuring and reporting service incidents reliability.

It is the mean time from when a system or IT service (MTBSI) fails until it next fails.

MTBSI is equal to MTBF plus MTRS.

Mean time to repair (MTTR) The average time taken to repair an IT service or other configuration item after a failure.

MTTR is measured from when the configuration item fails until it is repaired.

MTTR does not include the time required to recover or restore.

It is sometimes incorrectly used instead of mean time to restore service. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 355 Term mean time to restore service (MTRS) metric Definition The average time taken to restore an IT service or other configuration item after a failure.

MTRS is measured from when the configuration item fails until it is fully restored and delivering its normal functionality.

See also maintainability; mean time to repair. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) Something that is measured and reported to help manage a process, IT service, or activity.

See also key performance indicator.

A representation of a system, process, IT service, configuration item, etc.

That is used to help understand or predict future behaviour. (ITIL Service Operation) Monitoring the output of a task, process, IT service, or other configuration item; comparing this output to a predefined norm; and taking appropriate action based on this comparison. (ITIL Service Operation) Repeated observation of a configuration item, IT service, or process to detect events and to ensure that the current status is known. (ITIL® Service Transition) A change that is not an emergency change or a standard change.

Normal changes follow the defined steps of the change management process. (ITIL Service Operation) An operational state where services and configuration items are performing within their agreed service and operational levels.

The outcomes required from a process, activity, or organization in order to ensure that its purpose will be fulfilled.

Objectives are usually expressed as measurable targets.

The term is also informally used to mean a requirement.

OGC (former owner of Best Management Practice) and its functions have moved into the Cabinet Office as part of HM Government.

See www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk To perform as expected.

A process or configuration item is said to operate if it is delivering the required outputs.

Operate also means to perform one or more operations.

For example, to operate a computer is to do the day-to-day operations needed for it to perform as expected. (ITIL Service Operation) Day-to-day management of an IT service, system, or other configuration item.

Operation is also used to mean any predefined activity or transaction, for example, loading a magnetic tape, accepting money at a point of sale, or reading data from a disk drive. 355 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 model monitor control loop monitoring normal change normal service operation objective Office of Government Commerce (OGC) operate operation 356 — service level management (SLM) (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for negotiating achievable service level agreements and ensuring that these are met.

It is responsible for ensuring that all IT service management processes, operational level agreements, and underpinning contracts are appropriate for the agreed service level targets.

Service level management monitors and reports on service levels, holds regular service reviews with customers, and identifies required improvements.

See service option. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL® Service Design) A customer requirement for an aspect of an IT service.

Service level requirements are based on business objectives and used to negotiate agreed service level targets. service level package (SLP) service level requirement (SLR) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 367 Term service level target Definition (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) A commitment that is documented in a service level agreement.

Service level targets are based on service level requirements and are needed to ensure that the IT service is able to meet business objectives.

They should be SMART and are usually based on key performance indicators.

An approach to IT service management that emphasizes the importance of coordination and control across the various functions, processes, and systems necessary to manage the full lifecycle of IT services.

The service lifecycle approach considers the strategy, design, transition, operation, and continual improvement of IT services.

Also known as service management lifecycle. (ITIL Service Operation) The expected time that a configuration item will be unavailable due to planned maintenance activity. (ITIL® Service Operation) The expected time that a configuration item will be unavailable due to planned maintenance activity.

A generic term for any manager within the service provider.

Most commonly used to refer to a business relationship manager, a process manager, or a senior manager with responsibility for IT services overall. (ITIL® Service Strategy) A model that shows how service assets interact with customer assets to create value.

Service models describe the structure of a service (how the configuration items fit together) and the dynamics of the service (activities, flow of resources, and interactions).

A service model can be used as a template or blueprint for multiple services. (ITIL Service Operation) A stage in the lifecycle of a service.

Service Operation coordinates and carries out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers.

Service operation also manages the technology that is used to deliver and support services.

Service operation includes the following processes: event management, incident management, request fulfilment, problem management, and access management.

Service operation also includes the following functions: service desk, technical management, IT operations management, and application management.

Although these processes and functions are associated with service operation, most processes and functions have activities that take place across multiple stages of the service lifecycle. 367 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 service lifecycle service maintenance objective (SMO) service management service manager service model service operation 368 Term ITIL® OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION KIT BOOK—THIRD EDITION — A management system, including the framework of policy, processes, functions, standards, guidelines, and tools that are planned and managed together, for example, a quality management system • A database management system or operating system that includes many software modules that are designed to perform a set of related functions. technical management (ITIL® Service Operation) The function responsible for providing technical skills in support of IT services and management of the IT infrastructure.

Technical management defines the roles of support groups, as well as the tools, processes, and procedures required. (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Operation) A technique used in service improvement, problem investigation, and availability management.

Technical support staff meet to monitor the behaviour and performance of an IT service and make recommendations for improvement.

See technical management. (ITIL® Service Operation) The third level in a hierarchy of support groups involved in the resolution of incidents and investigation of problems.

Each level contains more specialist skills, or has more time or other resources.

A threat is anything that might exploit a vulnerability.

Any potential cause of an incident can be considered a threat.

For example, a fire is a threat that could exploit the vulnerability of flammable floor coverings.

This term is commonly used in information security management and IT service continuity management but also applies to other areas, such as problem and availability management.

The value of a metric that should cause an alert to be generated or management action to be taken.

For example, ‘Priority 1 incident not solved within four hours’, ‘More than five soft disk errors in an hour’, or ‘More than 10 failed changes in a month’. technical observation (TO) technical support third-line support threat threshold Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 373 Term transition Definition (ITIL® Service Transition) A change in state, corresponding to a movement of an IT service or other configuration item from one lifecycle status to the next. (ITIL Service Transition) The process responsible for planning all service transition processes and coordinating the resources that they require. (ITIL® Continual Service Improvement) Analysis of data to identify time-related patterns.

Trend analysis is used in problem management to identify common failures or fragile configuration items and in capacity management as a modeling tool to predict future behavior.

It is also used as a management tool for identifying deficiencies in IT service management processes. (ITIL® Service Strategy) An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit.

There may be several Type I service providers within an organization. (ITIL® Service Strategy) An internal service provider that provides shared IT services to more than one business unit.

Type II service providers are also known as shared service units. (ITIL® Service Strategy) A service provider that provides IT services to external customers. (ITIL® Service Design) A contract between an IT service provider and a third party.

The third party provides goods or services that support delivery of an IT service to a customer.

The underpinning contract defines targets and responsibilities that are required to meet agreed service level targets in one or more service level agreements. (ITIL® Service Design) (ITIL® Service Transition) A measure of how long it will be until an incident, problem, or change has a significant impact on the business.

For example, a high-impact incident may have low urgency if the impact will not affect the business until the end of the financial year.

Impact and urgency are used to assign priority.

A person who uses the IT service on a day-to-day basis.

Users are distinct from customers, as some customers do not use the IT service directly. (ITIL® Service Strategy) The functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need.

Utility can be summarized as ‘what the service does’ and can be used to determine whether a service is able to meet its required outcomes or is fit for purpose.

The business value of an IT service is created by the combination of utility and warranty. 373 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: [email protected] Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055

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