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External references • UC Santa Cruz:ITSM:OLAs ( • ITSM Foundation (pdf) ( Utility Computing.pdf) • Forsythe:ITSM Glossary ( glossaryofitsmterms/ITSMtermslp) • HP:ITSM Explained ( Information Technology Infrastructure Library The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of concepts and practices for Information Technology Services Management (ITSM), Information Technology (IT) development and IT operations.

ITIL gives detailed descriptions of a number of important IT practices and provides comprehensive checklists, tasks and procedures that any IT organisation can tailor to its needs.

ITIL is published in a series of books, each of which covers an IT management topic.

The names ITIL and IT Infrastructure Library are registered trademarks of the United Kingdom’s Office of Government Commerce (OGC).

History Responding to growing dependence on IT, the UK Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency in the 1980s developed a set of recommendations.

It recognised that without standard practices, government agencies and private sector contracts were independently creating their own IT management practices.

The IT Infrastructure Library originated as a collection of books, each covering a specific practice within IT Service Management.

ITIL was built around a process-model based view of controlling and managing operations often credited to W.

Edwards Deming and his plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle.[1] After the initial publication in 1989–1996, the number of books quickly grew within ITIL v1 to over 30 volumes.

In 2000/2001, to make ITIL more accessible (and affordable), ITIL v2 consolidated the publications into 8 logical “sets” that grouped related process-guidelines to match different aspects of IT management, applications, and services.

However, the main focus was known as the Service Management sets (Service Support and Service Delivery) which were by far the most widely used, circulated, and understood of ITIL v2 publications.

• In April 2001 the CCTA was merged into the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), an office of the UK [2] Treasury.

• In 2006, the ITIL v2 glossary was published.

• In May 2007, this organisation issued the version 3 of ITIL (also known as the ITIL Refresh Project) consisting of 26 processes and functions, now grouped under only 5 volumes, arranged around the concept of Service lifecycle structure.

• In 2009, the OGC officially announced that ITIL v2 certification would be withdrawn and launched a major consultation as per how to proceed.[3] Information Technology Infrastructure Library 8 Overview of the ITIL v2 library The eight ITIL version 2 books and their disciplines are: The IT Service Management sets 1.

Service Support 2.

Service Delivery Other operational guidance 3.

ICT Infrastructure Management 4.

Security Management 5.

The Business Perspective 6.

Application Management 7.

Software Asset Management To assist with the implementation of ITIL practices a further book was published (Apr 9, 2002) providing guidance on implementation (mainly of Service Management): 8.

Planning to Implement Service Management And this has more recently (Jan 26, 2006) been supplemented with guidelines for smaller IT units, not included in the original eight publications: 9.

ITIL Small-Scale Implementation Service Support The Service Support[4] ITIL discipline focuses on the User of the ICT services and is primarily concerned with ensuring that they have access to the appropriate services to support the business functions.

To a business, customers and users are the entry point to the process model.

They get involved in service support by: • • • • Asking for changes Needing communication, updates Having difficulties, queries Real process delivery The service desk functions as the single contact-point for end-users’ incidents.

Its first function is always to “create” an incident.

If there is a direct solution, it attempts to resolve the incident at the first level.

If the service desk cannot solve the incident then it is passed to a 2nd/3rd level group within the incident management system.

Incidents can initiate a chain of processes: Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Release Management and Configuration Management.

This chain of processes is tracked using the Configuration Management Database (CMDB), which records each process, and creates output documents for traceability (Quality Management).

Information Technology Infrastructure Library Service Desk / Service Request Management Tasks include handling incidents and requests, and providing an interface for other ITSM processes.

Features include: • • • • • • single point of contact (SPOC) and not necessarily the first point of contact (FPOC) single point of entry single point of exit easier for customers data integrity streamlined communication channel 9 Primary functions of the Service Desk include: • incident control: life-cycle management of all service requests • communication: keeping the customer informed of progress and advising on workarounds The Service Desk function can have various names, such as: • Call Center: main emphasis on professionally handling large call volumes of telephone-based transactions • Help Desk: manage, co-ordinate and resolve incidents as quickly as possible at primary support level • Service Desk: not only handles incidents, problems and questions but also provides an interface for other activities such as change requests, maintenance contracts, software licenses, service-level management, configuration management, availability management, financial management and IT services continuity management The three types of structure for consideration: • Local Service Desk: to meet local business needs – practical only until multiple locations requiring support services are involved • Central Service Desk: for organisations having multiple locations – reduces operational costs and improves usage of available resources • Virtual Service Desk: for organisations having multi-country locations – can be situated and accessed from anywhere in the world due to advances in network performance and telecommunications, reducing operational costs and improving usage of available resources Incident Management Incident Management aims to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimise the adverse effect on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service-quality and -availability are maintained.

‘Normal service operation’ is defined here as service operation within Service Level Agreement (SLA) limits.

Incident Management can be defined as : An ‘Incident’ is any event which is not part of the standard operation of the service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption or a reduction of the quality of the service.

The objective of Incident Management is to restore normal operations as quickly as possible with the least possible impact on either the business or the user, at a cost-effective price.

Problem Management Problem Management aims to resolve the root causes of incidents and thus to minimise the adverse impact of incidents and problems on business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors.

A ‘problem’ is an unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents, and a ‘known error’ is a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which either a work-around or a permanent resolution has been identified.

The CCTA(Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) defines problems and known errors as follows Information Technology Infrastructure Library A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple incidents that exhibit common symptoms.

Problems can also be identified from a single significant incident, indicative of a single error, for which the cause is unknown, but for which the impact is significant.

A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, and the subsequent development of a work-around.

Problem management differs from incident management.

The principal purpose of problem management is to find and resolve the root cause of a problem and thus prevent further incidents; the purpose of incident management is to return the service to normal level as soon as possible, with smallest possible business impact.

The problem-management process is intended to reduce the number and severity of incidents and problems on the business, and report it in documentation to be available for the first-line and second line of the help desk.

The proactive process identifies and resolves problems before incidents occur.

Such processes include: • Trend analysis; • Targeting support action; • Providing information to the organisation The Error Control Process iteratively diagnoses known errors until they are eliminated by the successful implementation of a change under the control of the Change Management process.

The Problem Control Process aims to handle problems in an efficient way.

Problem control identifies the root cause of incidents and reports it to the service desk.

Other activities are: • Problem identification and recording • Problem classification • Problem investigation and diagnosis A technique for identifying the root cause of a problem is to use an Ishikawa diagram, also referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram, tree diagram, or fishbone diagram.

Alternatively, a formal Root Cause Analysis method such as Apollo Root Cause Analysis can be implemented and used to identify causes and solutions.

An effective root cause analysis method and/or tool will provide the most effective/efficient solutions to address problems in the Problem Management process.

Change Management Change Management aims to ensure that standardised methods and procedures are used for efficient handling of all changes, A change is “an event that results in a new status of one or more configuration items (CIs)” approved by management, cost effective, enhances business process changes (fixes) – with a minimum risk to IT infrastructure.

The main aims of Change Management include: • Minimal disruption of services • Reduction in back-out activities • Economic utilisation of resources involved in the change 10 Information Technology Infrastructure Library Change Management Terminology • Change: the addition, modification or removal of CIs • Request for Change (RFC) or in older terminology Change Request (CR): form used to record details of a request for a change and is sent as an input to Change Management by the Change Requestor • Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC): schedule that contains details of all forthcoming Changes.

Release Management Release Management is used by the software migration team for platform-independent and automated distribution of software and hardware, including license controls across the entire IT infrastructure.

Proper software and hardware control ensures the availability of licensed, tested, and version-certified software and hardware, which functions as intended when introduced into existing infrastructure.

Quality control during the development and implementation of new hardware and software is also the responsibility of Release Management.

This guarantees that all software meets the demands of the business processes.

The goals of release management include: • Planning the rollout of software • Designing and implementing procedures for the distribution and installation of changes to IT systems • Effectively communicating and managing expectations of the customer during the planning and rollout of new releases • Controlling the distribution and installation of changes to IT systems Release management focuses on the protection of the live environment and its services through the use of formal procedures and checks.

A Release consists of the new or changed software and/or hardware required to implement approved changes.

Release categories include: • Major software releases and major hardware upgrades, normally containing large amounts of new functionality, some of which may make intervening fixes to problems redundant.

A major upgrade or release usually supersedes all preceding minor upgrades, releases and emergency fixes.

• Minor software releases and hardware upgrades, normally containing small enhancements and fixes, some of which may have already been issued as emergency fixes.

A minor upgrade or release usually supersedes all preceding emergency fixes.

• Emergency software and hardware fixes, normally containing the corrections to a small number of known problems.

Releases can be divided based on the release unit into: • Delta Release: a release of only that part of the software which has been changed.

For example, security patches.

• Full Release: the entire software program is deployed—for example, a new version of an existing application.

• Packaged Release: a combination of many changes—for example, an operating system image which also contains specific applications.

— 13 IT service continuity management IT service continuity management covers the processes by which plans are put in place and managed to ensure that IT Services can recover and continue even after a serious incident occurs.

It is not just about reactive measures, but also about proactive measures – reducing the risk of a disaster in the first instance.

Continuity management is regarded by the application owners as the recovery of the IT infrastructure used to deliver IT Services, but as of 2009 many businesses practice the much further-reaching process of Business Continuity Planning (BCP), to ensure that the whole end-to-end business process can continue should a serious incident occur (at primary support level).

Continuity management involves the following basic steps: • Prioritising the activities to be recovered by conducting a Business Impact Analysis (BIA) • Performing a Risk Assessment (aka risk analysis) for each of the IT Services to identify the assets, threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures for each service.

• Evaluating the options for recovery • Producing the Contingency Plan • Testing, reviewing, and revising the plan on a regular basis Availability Management Availability Management targets allowing organisations to sustain the IT service-availability to support the business at a justifiable cost.

The high-level activities are Realise Availability Requirements, Compile Availability Plan, Monitor Availability, and Monitor Maintenance Obligations.

Availability Management addresses the ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level over a period of time.

• Reliability: Ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level at described conditions.

• Maintainability: The ability of an IT component to remain in, or be restored to an operational state.

• Serviceability: The ability for an external supplier to maintain the availability of component or function under a third-party contract.

• Resilience: A measure of freedom from operational failure and a method of keeping services reliable.

One popular method of resilience is redundancy.

• Security: A service may have associated data.

Security refers to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of that data.

Availability gives a clear overview of the end-to-end availability of the system.

Information Technology Infrastructure Library Financial Management for IT Services IT Financial Management comprises the discipline of ensuring that the IT infrastructure is obtained at the most effective price (which does not necessarily mean cheapest) and calculating the cost of providing IT services so that an organisation can understand the costs of its IT services.

These costs may then be recovered from the customer of the service.

This is the 2nd component of service delivery process.

14 ICT Infrastructure Management ICT Infrastructure Management[6] (“ICT” is an acronym for “Information and Communication Technology”) processes recommend best practice for requirements analysis, planning, design, deployment and ongoing operations management and technical support of an ICT Infrastructure.

The Infrastructure Management processes describe those processes within ITIL that directly relate to the ICT equipment and software that is involved in providing ICT services to customers.

• • • • ICT Design and Planning ICT Deployment ICT Operations ICT Technical Support These disciplines are less well understood than those of Service Management and therefore often some of their content is believed to be covered ‘by implication’ in Service Management disciplines.

ICT Design and Planning ICT Design and Planning provides a framework and approach for the Strategic and Technical Design and Planning of ICT infrastructures.

It includes the necessary combination of business (and overall IS) strategy, with technical design and architecture.

ICT Design and Planning drives both the Procurement of new ICT solutions through the production of Statements of Requirement (“SOR”) and Invitations to Tender (“ITT”) and is responsible for the initiation and management of ICT Programmes for strategic business change.

Key Outputs from Design and Planning are: • • • • ICT Strategies, Policies and Plans The ICT Overall Architecture & Management Architecture Feasibility Studies, ITTs and SORs Business Cases ICT Deployment Management ICT Deployment provides a framework for the successful management of design, build, test and roll-out (deploy) projects within an overall ICT programme.

It includes many project management disciplines in common with PRINCE2, but has a broader focus to include the necessary integration of Release Management and both functional and non functional testing.

ICT Operations Management ICT Operations Management provides the day-to-day technical supervision of the ICT infrastructure.

Often confused with the role of Incident Management from Service Support, Operations has a more technical bias and is concerned not solely with Incidents reported by users, but with Events generated by or recorded by the Infrastructure.

ICT Operations may often work closely alongside Incident Management and the Service Desk, which are not-necessarily technical, to provide an ‘Operations Bridge’.

Operations, however should primarily work from documented processes and procedures and should be concerned with a number of specific sub-processes, such as: Output Management, Job Scheduling, Backup and Restore, Network Monitoring/Management, System Monitoring/Management, Database Monitoring/Management Storage Monitoring/Management.

Operations are responsible for the following: Information Technology Infrastructure Library • • • • • • A stable, secure ICT infrastructure A current, up to date Operational Documentation Library (“ODL”) A log of all operational Events Maintenance of operational monitoring and management tools.

Operational Scripts Operational Procedures 15 ICT Technical Support ICT Technical Support is the specialist technical function for infrastructure within ICT.

Primarily as a support to other processes, both in Infrastructure Management and Service Management, Technical Support provides a number of specialist functions: Research and Evaluation, Market Intelligence (particularly for Design and Planning and Capacity Management), Proof of Concept and Pilot engineering, specialist technical expertise (particularly to Operations and Problem Management), creation of documentation (perhaps for the Operational Documentation Library or Known Error Database).

There are different levels of support under the ITIL structure, these being primary support level, secondary support level and tertiary support level, higher-level administrators being responsible for support at primary level.

Security Management The ITIL-process Security Management[7] describes the structured fitting of information security in the management organisation.

ITIL Security Management is based on the code of practice for information security management now known as ISO/IEC 27002.

A basic goal of Security Management is to ensure adequate information security.

The primary goal of information security, in turn, is to protect information assets against risks, and thus to maintain their value to the organisation.

This is commonly expressed in terms of ensuring their confidentiality, integrity and availability, along with related properties or goals such as authenticity, accountability, non-repudiation and reliability.

Mounting pressure for many organisations to structure their Information Security Management Systems in accordance with ISO/IEC 27001 requires revision of the ITIL v2 Security Management volume, and indeed a v3 release is in the works.

Application Management ITIL Application Management[8] set encompasses a set of best practices proposed to improve the overall quality of IT software development and support through the life-cycle of software development projects, with particular attention to gathering and defining requirements that meet business objectives.

This volume is related to the topics of Software Engineering and IT Portfolio Management.

Software Asset Management Software Asset Management (SAM) is the practice of integrating people, processes and technology to allow software licenses and usage to be systematically tracked, evaluated and managed.

The goal of SAM is to reduce IT expenditures, human resource overhead and risks inherent in owning and managing software assets.

SAM practices include: • Maintaining software license compliance • Tracking inventory and software asset use • Maintaining standard policies and procedures surrounding definition, deployment, configuration, use, and retirement of software assets and the Definitive Software Library.

Information Technology Infrastructure Library SAM represents the software component of IT asset management.

This includes hardware asset management because effective hardware inventory controls are critical to efforts to control software.

This means overseeing software and hardware that comprise an organisation’s computers and network.

16 Planning to Implement Service Management The ITIL discipline – Planning to Implement Service Management[9] attempts to provide practitioners with a framework for the alignment of business needs and IT provision requirements.

The processes and approaches incorporated within the guidelines suggest the development of a Continuous Service Improvement Program (CSIP) as the basis for implementing other ITIL disciplines as projects within a controlled program of work.

Planning to Implement Service Management focuses mainly on the Service Management processes, but also applies generically to other ITIL disciplines.

Components include: • • • • creating vision analyzing organisation setting goals implementing IT service management Small-Scale Implementation ITIL Small-Scale Implementation[10] provides an approach to ITIL framework implementation for smaller IT units or departments.

It is primarily an auxiliary work that covers many of the same best practice guidelines as Planning to Implement Service Management, Service Support, and Service Delivery but provides additional guidance on the combination of roles and responsibilities, and avoiding conflict between ITIL priorities.

Overview of the ITIL v3 library ITIL v3 is an extension of ITIL v2 and will fully replace it following the completion of the withdrawal period on 30 June 2011 [11].

ITIL v3 provides a more holistic perspective on the full life cycle of services, covering the entire IT organisation and all supporting components needed to deliver services to the customer, whereas v2 focused on specific activities directly related to service delivery and support.

Most of the v2 activities remained untouched in v3, but some significant changes in terminology were introduced in order to facilitate the expansion.

Five volumes comprise the ITIL v3, published in May 2007: 1.

ITIL Service Strategy[12] 2.

ITIL Service Design[13] 3.

ITIL Service Transition[14] 4.

ITIL Service Operation[15] 5.

ITIL Continual Service Improvement[16] Service Strategy As the center and origin point of the ITIL Service Lifecycle, the ITIL Service Strategy volume[12] provides guidance on clarification and prioritisation of service-provider investments in services.

More generally, Service Strategy focuses on helping IT organisations improve and develop over the long term.

In both cases, Service Strategy relies largely upon a market-driven approach.

Key topics covered include service value definition, business-case development, service assets, market analysis, and service provider types.

List of covered processes: • Service Portfolio Management [17] • Demand Management • IT Financial Management [18] Information Technology Infrastructure Library 17 Service Design The ITIL Service Design volume[13] provides good-practice guidance on the design of IT services, processes, and other aspects of the service management effort.

Significantly, design within ITIL is understood to encompass all elements relevant to technology service delivery, rather than focusing solely on design of the technology itself.

As such, Service Design addresses how a planned service solution interacts with the larger business and technical environments, service management systems required to support the service, processes which interact with the service, technology, and architecture required to support the service, and the supply chain required to support the planned service.

Within ITIL v2, design work for an IT service is aggregated into a single Service Design Package (SDP).

Service Design Packages, along with other information about services, are managed within the service catalogues.

List of covered processes: • • • • • • • • • • Service Catalogue Management Service Level Management Risk Management Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management Information Security Management Compliance Management IT Architecture Management Supplier Management Service Transition Service transition, as described by the ITIL Service Transition volume,[14] relates to the delivery of services required by a business into live/operational use, and often encompasses the “project” side of IT rather than “BAU” (Business as usual).

This area also covers topics such as managing changes to the “BAU” environment.

List of processes: • • • • • • Service Asset and Configuration Management Service Validation and Testing Evaluation Release Management Change Management Knowledge Management Service Operation Best practice for achieving the delivery of agreed levels of services both to end-users and the customers (where “customers” refer to those individuals who pay for the service and negotiate the SLAs).

Service operation, as described in the ITIL Service Operation volume,[15] is the part of the lifecycle where the services and value is actually directly delivered.

Also the monitoring of problems and balance between service reliability and cost etc.

are considered.

The functions include technical management, application management, operations management and Service Desk as well as, responsibilities for staff engaging in Service Operation.

List of processes: • • • • Event Management Incident Management Problem Management Request Fulfilment Information Technology Infrastructure Library • Access Management 18 Continual Service Improvement (CSI) Aligning and realigning IT services to changing business needs (because standstill implies decline).

Continual Service Improvement, defined in the ITIL Continual Service Improvement volume,[16] aims to align and realign IT Services to changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to the IT services that support the Business Processes.

The perspective of CSI on improvement is the business perspective of service quality, even though CSI aims to improve process effectiveness, efficiency and cost effectiveness of the IT processes through the whole lifecycle.

To manage improvement, CSI should clearly define what should be controlled and measured.

CSI needs to be treated just like any other service practice.

There needs to be upfront planning, training and awareness, ongoing scheduling, roles created, ownership assigned,and activities identified to be successful.

CSI must be planned and scheduled as process with defined activities, inputs, outputs, roles and reporting.

List of processes: • Service Level Management • Service Measurement and Reporting • Continual Service Improvement Criticisms of ITIL ITIL has been criticised on several fronts, including: • The books are not affordable for non-commercial users • Accusations that many ITIL advocates think ITIL is “a holistic, all-encompassing framework for IT governance” • Accusations that proponents of ITIL indoctrinate the methodology with ‘religious zeal’ at the expense of pragmatism • Implementation and credentialing requires specific training • Debate over ITIL falling under BSM or ITSM frameworks Rob England (also known as “IT Skeptic”) has criticised the protected and proprietary nature of ITIL [19].

He urges the publisher, OGC, to release ITIL under the the Open Government Licence (OGL)[20] CIO Magazine columnist Dean Meyer has also presented some cautionary views of ITIL,[21] including five pitfalls such as “becoming a slave to outdated definitions” and “Letting ITIL become religion.” As he notes, “…it doesn’t describe the complete range of processes needed to be world class.

It’s focused on …

managing ongoing services.” In a 2004 survey designed by Noel Bruton (author of “How to Manage the IT Helpdesk” and “Managing the IT Services Process”), organisations adopting ITIL were asked to relate their actual experiences in having implemented ITIL.

Seventy-seven percent of survey respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that “ITIL does not have all the answers”.

ITIL exponents accept this, citing ITIL’s stated intention to be non-prescriptive, expecting organisations to engage ITIL processes with existing process models.

Bruton notes that the claim to non-prescriptiveness must be, at best, one of scale rather than absolute intention, for the very description of a certain set of processes is in itself a [22] form of prescription.

While ITIL addresses in depth the various aspects of Service Management, it does not address enterprise architecture in such depth.

Many of the shortcomings in the implementation of ITIL do not necessarily come about because of flaws in the design or implementation of the Service Management aspects of the business, but rather the wider architectural framework in which the business is situated.

Because of its primary focus on Service Management, ITIL has limited utility in managing poorly designed enterprise architectures, or how to feed back into the design of the enterprise architecture.

Information Technology Infrastructure Library Closely related to the Architectural criticism, ITIL does not directly address the business applications which run on the IT infrastructure; nor does it facilitate a more collaborative working relationship between development and operations teams.

The trend toward a closer working relationship between development and operations is termed: DevOps.

This trend is related to increased application release rates and the adoption of Agile software development methodologies.

Traditional service management processes have struggled to support increased application release rates – due to lack of automation – and/or highly complex enterprise architecture.

Some researchers group ITIL with Lean, Six Sigma and Agile IT operations management.

Applying Six Sigma techniques to ITIL brings the engineering approach to ITIL’s framework.

Applying Lean techniques promotes continuous improvement of the ITIL’s best practices.

However, ITIL itself is not a transformation method, nor does it offer one.

Readers are required to find and associate such a method.

Some vendors have also included the term Lean when discussing ITIL implementations, for example “Lean-ITIL”.

The initial consequences of an ITIL initiative tend to add cost with benefits promised as a future deliverable.

ITIL does not provide usable methods “out of the box” to identify and target waste, or document the customer value stream as required by Lean, and measure customer satisfaction.

19 Frameworks Related to ITIL A number of frameworks exist in the field of IT Service Management alongside ITIL.

ITIL Descendants The Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) is based on ITILv2.

While ITIL deliberatly aims to be platform agnostic, MOF is designed by Microsoft to provide a common management framework for its products.

Microsoft has mapped MOF to ITIL as part of their documentation of the framework.[23] The British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA) used ITIL as the basis for their development of Framework for ICT Technical Support [24] (FITS).

Their aim was to develop a framework appropriate for British schools which often have very small IT departments.

FITS became independent from BECTA in 2009.

Other Frameworks ITIL is generally equivalent to the scope of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard (previously BS 15000).


While it is not possible for an organization to be certified as being ITIL compliant, certification of an organisation is available for ISO20000 [26].

COBIT is an IT governance framework and supporting toolset developed by ISACA.

ISACA view ITIL as being complimentory to COBIT.

They see COBIT as providing a governance and assurance role while ITIL providing guidance for service management.[27] The enhanced Telecom Operations Map eTOM published by the TeleManagement Forum offers a framework aimed at telecommunications service providers.

In a joined effort, TM Forum and itSMF developed an Application Note to eTOM (GB921) that shows how the two frameworks can be mapped to each other.

It addresses how eTom process elements and flows can be used to support the processes identified in ITIL.[28] [29] IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) is aligned with ITIL, but is presented as a complete, integrated process model compatible with IBM’s products.

[25] Information Technology Infrastructure Library 20 Certification Individuals The certification scheme differs between ITIL v2 and ITIL v3 and bridge examinations let v2 certification owners transfer to the new program.

ITIL v2 offers 3 certification levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.

These should be progressively discontinued in favour of the new ITIL v3 scheme.

ITIL v3 certification levels are: Foundation, Intermediate, Expert and Master.

The ITIL v3 certification scheme offers a modular approach.

Each qualification is assigned a credit value; so that upon successful completion of the module, the candidate is rewarded with both a certification and a number of credits.

At the lowest level – Foundation candidates are awarded a certification and 2 credits.

At the Intermediate level, a total of 15 credits must be earned.

These credits may be accumulated in either a “Lifecycle” stream or a “Capability” stream; or combination thereof.

Each Lifecycle module and exam is 3 An ITIL Foundation certificate pin.


Each Capability module and corresponding exam is 4 credits.

A candidate wanting to achieve the Expert level will have, among other requirements, to gain the required number of credits (22).

That is accomplished with two from Foundations, then 15 from Intermediate, and finally 5 credits from the “Managing Across the Lifecycle” exam.

Together, the total [30] of 22 earned credits designates one as ITIL v.

3 Expert.

The ITIL Certification Management Board (ICMB) manages ITIL certification.

The Board includes representatives from interested parties within the community around the world.

Members of the Board include (though are not limited to) representatives from the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC), APM Group (APMG), The Stationery Office (TSO), V3 Examination Panel, Examination Institutes (EIs) and the IT Service Management Forum International (itSMF) as the recognised user group.[31] Since the early 1990s, EXIN and ISEB have been setting up the ITIL based certification program, developing and providing ITIL exams at three different levels: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.

EXIN[32] and BCS/ISEB[33] (the British Computer Society) have from that time onwards been the only two examination providers in the world to develop formally acknowledged ITIL certifications, provide ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers worldwide.

These rights were obtained from OGC, the British government institution and owner of the ITIL trademark.

OGC signed over the management of the ITIL trademark and the accreditation of examination providers [32] , BCS/ISEB and other certification bodies, including to APMG in 2006.

Now, after signing a contract with EXIN [34] PEOPLECERT Group , APMG is accrediting them as official examination bodies, to offer ITIL exams and accredit ITIL training providers.

On July 20, 2006, the OGC signed a contract with the APM Group [35] to become its commercial partner for ITIL accreditation from January 1, 2007.[36] APMG manage the ITIL Version 3 exams.

APMG maintains a voluntary register of ITIL Version 3-certified practitioners at their Successful Candidate Register.[37] A voluntary registry of ITIL Version 2-certified practitioners is operated by the ITIL Certification Register.[38] Information Technology Infrastructure Library 21 ITIL® pins It has been a well-known tradition for years that passing an EXIN exam in IT Service Management (based on ITIL®) does not only result in a certificate, but is also accompanied by the presentation of a metal pin which can be attached to a shirt or jacket.

This distinguishing badge with basic gold colour is set in the form of the internationally well-known ITIL®-logo.

The ITIL® pins consist of small diamond like structure that is accepted worldwide.

The meaning and the shape of the diamond depicts coherence in the IT industry (infrastructure as well).

The four corners of the pin symbolises service support, service delivery, Infrastructure Management and IT Management.

There are three colours of ITIL® V2 pins: 1.

green, for the Foundation Certificate 2.

blue, for the Practitioner’s Certificate 3.

red, for the Manager’s Certificate Exam candidates who have successfully passed the examinations for ITIL® version 2 will receive their appropriate pin from EXIN, PEOPLECERT Group or their certification provider, their EXIN, PEOPLECERT Group or their certification provider regional office, or an EXIN,PEOPLECERT Group or certification agent.

With the arrival of ITIL® V3, there are several new pins to display your achievements.

As of July 2008, EXIN and all certification providers such as PEOPLECERT Group will also provide ITIL® pins to exam candidates who have obtained ITIL® version 3 certificates.

The new pins are very similar to ITIL® V2 pins, but every level has a different color corresponding to the ITIL® V3 core books.

Organisations Organisations and management systems cannot claim certification as “ITIL-compliant”.

An organisation that has implemented ITIL guidance in IT Service Management (ITSM), may however, be able to achieve compliance with and seek certification under ISO/IEC 20000.

Note that there are some significant differences between ISO/IEC20000 and ITIL Version 3[39] • ISO20000 only recognises the management of financial assets, not assets which include “management, organisation, process, knowledge, people, information, applications, infrastructure and financial capital”, nor the concept of a “service asset”.

So ISO20000 certification does not address the management of ‘assets’ in an ITIL sense.

• ISO20000 does not recognise Configuration Management System (CMS) or Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS), and so does not certify anything beyond Configuration Management Database (CMDB).

• An organisation can obtain ISO20000 certification without recognising or implementing the ITIL concept of Known Error, which is usually considered essential to ITIL.

References [1] David Clifford, Jan van Bon (2008).

Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap.

ITSM Library.

Van Haren Publishing.

ISBN 908753082X.

[2] Office of Government Commerce (UK) CCTA and OGC (http:/ / www.



uk/ index.


Retrieved May 5, 2005.

[3] Office of Government Commerce (UK) (http:/ / www.



uk/ guidance_itil.


Retrieved August 19, 2009.

[4] Office of Government Commerce (2000).

Service Support.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300158.

[5] Office of Government Commerce (2001).

Service Delivery.

IT Infrastructure Library.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300174.

[6] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

ICT Infrastructure Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308655.

[7] Cazemier, Jacques A.; Overbeek, Paul L.; Peters, Louk M.


Security Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 011330014X.

[8] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Application Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308663.

[9] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Planning to Implement Service Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308779.

[10] Office of Government Commerce (2005).

ITIL Small Scale Implementation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113309805.

[11] http:/ / www.



uk/ itil_ogc_withdrawal_of_itil_version2.

asp [12] Majid Iqbal and Michael Nieves (2007).

ITIL Service Strategy.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310456.

[13] Vernon Lloyd and Colin Rudd (2007).

ITIL Service Design.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310470.

Information Technology Infrastructure Library [14] Shirley Lacy and Ivor Macfarlane (2007).

ITIL Service Transition.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310487.

[15] David Cannon and David Wheeldon (2007).

ITIL Service Operation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310463.

[16] George Spalding and Gary Case (2007).

ITIL Continual Service Improvement.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310494.

[17] http:/ / wiki.



com/ index.

php/ Service_Portfolio_Management [18] http:/ / wiki.



com/ index.

php/ Financial_Management [19] http:/ / www.


org/ free-itil [20] http:/ / www.



uk/ doc/ open-government-licence/ open-government-licence.

htm [21] Meyer, Dean, 2005.

“Beneath the Buzz: ITIL” (http:/ / web.


org/ web/ 20050404165524/ http:/ / www.


com/ leadership/ buzz/ column.

html?ID=4186), CIO Magazine, March 31, 2005 [22] Survey: “The ITIL Experience – Has It Been Worth It”, author Bruton Consultancy 2004, published by Helpdesk Institute Europe, The Helpdesk and IT Support Show, and Hornbill Software.

[23] Microsoft Operations Framework; Cross Reference ITIL V3 and MOF 4.0 (http:/ / go.


com/ fwlink/ ?LinkId=151991).

Microsoft Corporation.

May 2009.


[24] http:/ / www.


org [25] Van Bon, Jan; Verheijen, Tieneke (2006), Frameworks for IT Management (http:/ / books.


com/ books?id=RV3jQ16F1_cC), Van Haren Publishing, ISBN 9789077212905, [26] http:/ / www.


com/ newsletters/ DITYvol2iss3.

htm [27] ISACA (2008), COBIT Mapping: Mapping of ITIL V3 With COBIT 4.1 (http:/ / www.


org/ Knowledge-Center/ Research/ ResearchDeliverables/ Pages/ COBIT-Mapping-Mapping-of-ITIL-V3-With-COBIT-4-1.

aspx), ITGI, ISBN 9781604200355, [28] Brooks, Peter (2006), Metrics for IT Service Management (http:/ / books.


com/ books?id=UeWDivqKcm0C), Van Haren Publishing, pp. 76–77, ISBN 9789077212691, [29] Morreale, Patricia A.; Terplan, Kornel (2009), “ Matching ITIL to eTOM” (http:/ / books.


com/ books?id=VEp0aMmH3iQC), CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications, Second Edition (2 ed.), CRC Press, ISBN 9781420078008, [30] ITIL V3 Qualification Scheme (http:/ / www.


com/ Qualifications/ ITILV3QualificationScheme.


OGC Official Site.


Retrieved 2011-05-02.

[31] APMG (2008).

“ITIL Service Management Practices: V3 Qualifications Scheme” (http:/ / www.


com/ nmsruntime/ saveasdialog.

asp?lID=572& sID=86).


Retrieved 24 February 2009.

[32] “EXIN Exams” (http:/ / www.


com/ ).

EXIN Exams.


Retrieved 2010-01-14.

[33] “ISEB Professionals Qualifications, Training, Careers BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT” (http:/ / www.


org/ server.





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org [35] http:/ / www.


com/ [36] Office of Government Commerce (2006).

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uk/ About_OGC_news_4906.



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[37] http:/ / www.



uk/ ITILSCRquery.

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org/ [39] Office of Government Commerce (2008).

“Best Management Practice: ITIL V3 and ISO/IEC 20000” (http:/ / www.


com/ gempdf/ ITIL_and_ISO_20000_March08.



Retrieved 24 February 2009.

22 External links • Official ITIL Website ( • The OGC website ( IT service management 23 IT service management IT service management (ITSM or IT services) is a discipline for managing information technology (IT) systems, philosophically centered on the customer’s perspective of IT’s contribution to the business.

ITSM stands in deliberate contrast to technology-centered approaches to IT management and business interaction.

The following represents a characteristic statement from the ITSM literature: Providers of IT services can no longer afford to focus on technology and their internal organization[;] they now have to consider the quality of the services they provide and focus on the relationship with customers.[1] No one author, organization, or vendor owns the term “IT service management” and the origins of the phrase are unclear.

ITSM is process-focused and in this sense has ties and common interests with process improvement movement (e.g., TQM, Six Sigma, Business Process Management, CMMI) frameworks and methodologies.

The discipline is not concerned with the details of how to use a particular vendor’s product, or necessarily with the technical details of the systems under management.

Instead, it focuses upon providing a framework to structure IT-related activities and the interactions of IT technical personnel with business customers and users.

ITSM is generally concerned with the “back office” or operational concerns of information technology management (sometimes known as operations architecture), and not with technology development.

For example, the process of writing computer software for sale, or designing a microprocessor would not be the focus of the discipline, but the computer systems used by marketing and business development staff in software and hardware companies would be.

Many non-technology companies, such as those in the financial, retail, and travel industries, have significant information technology systems which are not exposed to customers.

In this respect, ITSM can be seen as analogous to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) discipline for IT – although its historical roots in IT operations may limit its applicability across other major IT activities, such as IT portfolio management and software engineering.

Context IT Service Management is frequently cited as a primary enabler of information technology governance (or information management) objectives.

The concept of “service” in an IT sense has a distinct operational connotation, but it would be incorrect then to assume that IT Service Management is only about IT operations.

However, it does not encompass all of IT practice, and this can be a controversial matter.

It does not typically include project management or program management concerns.

In the UK for example, the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), a government-developed ITSM framework, is often paired with the PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2) project methodology and Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method for systems development.

ITSM is related to the field of Management Information Systems (MIS) in scope.

However, ITSM has a distinct practitioner point of view, and is more introspective (i.e.

IT thinking about the delivery of IT to the business) as opposed to the more academic and outward facing connotation of MIS (IT thinking about the ‘information’ needs of the business).

IT Service Management in the broader sense overlaps with the disciplines of business service management and IT portfolio management, especially in the area of IT planning and financial control.

IT service management 24 Frameworks There are a variety of frameworks and authors contributing to the overall ITSM discipline.[2] There are a variety of proprietary approaches available.[3] Professional organizations There is an international, chapter-based professional association, the IT Service Management Forum (ITSMF), which has a semi-official relationship with ITIL and the ITSM audit standard ISO/IEC 20000.

There is also a global professional association, the IT Service Management Professionals Association (IT-SMPa).

Information Technology Infrastructure Library IT Service Management is often equated with the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, (ITIL) an official publication of the Office of Government Commerce in the United Kingdom.

However, while a version of ITSM is a component of ITIL, ITIL also covers a number of related but distinct disciplines and the two are not synonymous.

The current version of the ITIL framework is version 3.

It was upgraded from version 2 in mid-2007.

The next update of the framework is envisaged to be mid-2011.

The “Service Management” section of ITIL version 2 was made up of eleven different disciplines, split into two sections, Service Support and Service Delivery.

This use of the term “Service Management” is how many in the world interpret ITSM, but again, there are other frameworks, and conversely, the entire ITIL library might be seen as IT Service Management in a larger sense.

Other frameworks and concern with the overhead Analogous to debates in software engineering between agile and prescriptive methods, there is debate between lightweight versus heavyweight approaches to IT service management.

Lighter weight ITSM approaches include: • ITIL Small-scale Implementation[4] colloquially called “ITIL Lite” is an official part of the ITIL framework.

• FITS [5] was developed for UK schools.

It is a simplification of ITIL.

• Core Practice [6] (CoPr or “copper”) calls for limiting Best Practice to areas where there is a business case for it, and in other areas just doing the minimum necessary.

[7] • A Creative Commons ITSM/SDLC Framework Wiki Governance and audit Several benchmarks and assessment criteria have emerged that seek to measure the capability of an organization and the maturity of its approach to service management.

Primarily, these alternatives provide a focus on compliance and measurement and therefore are more aligned with corporate governance than with IT service management per se.

• ISO/IEC 20000 (and its ancestor BS15000).

This standard is not identical in taxonomy to ITIL and includes a number of additional requirements not detailed within ITIL and some differences.

Adopting ITIL best practices is therefore a good first step for organizations wishing to achieve ISO 20000 certification for their IT Service Management processes.

• COBIT (or the lighter COBIT Quickstart) is comprehensive and widely embraced.

It incorporates IT Service Management within its Control Objectives for Support and Delivery.

IT service management 25 References [1] IT Service Management Forum (2002).

van Bon, J..


IT Service Management: An Introduction.

Van Haren Publishing.

ISBN 9080671347.

Emphasis added.

[2] van Bon, J.(Editor) (2002).

The guide to IT service management.

Addison Wesley.

ISBN 0201737922.

[3] For a (somewhat dated but comprehensive) discussion of frameworks visit (http:/ / hci-itil.

com/ options_frameworks.

html) [4] Sharon Taylor and Ivor Macfarlane (2005).

ITIL Small Scale Implementation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113309805.

[5] http:/ / becta.


uk/ fits [6] http:/ / www.


org [7] http:/ / OpenSDLC.

org Further reading • Eric J.

Feldman (30 July 2007).

“The Eight Essential Elements of an IT Service Lifecycle” (www.

Retrieved 15 December 2007.

• Peter O’Neill (20 October 2006).

“Topic Overview: IT Service Management” ( go?docid=40558).

Forrester Research.

Retrieved 6 June 2007.

External links • The OGC website ( • IT Service Management Forum – UK ( • IT Service Management Forum – USA ( • Open Source ITSM Software – Community ( • Open Source ITSM Software – Services ( Call centre A call centre or call center[1] is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone.

A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers.

Outgoing calls for telemarketing, clientele, product services, and debt collection are also made.

In addition to a call centre, collective handling of letters, faxes, live chat, and e-mails at one location is known as a contact centre.

A call center is often operated through an extensive open workspace A very large collections call centre in Lakeland, for call centre agents, with work stations that include a computer for Florida.

each agent, a telephone set/headset connected to a telecom switch, and one or more supervisor stations.

It can be independently operated or networked with additional centres, often linked to a corporate computer network, including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs.

Increasingly, the voice and data pathways into the centre are linked through a set of new technologies called computer telephony integration (CTI).

Most major businesses use call centres to interact with their customers.

Examples include utility companies, mail order catalogue retailers, and customer support for computer hardware and software.

Some businesses even service internal functions through call centres.

Examples of this include help desks, retail financial support, and sales support.

Call centre A contact centre, also known as customer interaction centre is a central point of any organization from which all customer contacts are managed.

Through contact centres, valuable information about company are routed to appropriate people, contacts to be tracked and data to be gathered.

It is generally a part of company’ s customer relationship management (CRM).

Today, customers contact companies by calling, emailing, chatting online, visiting websites, faxing, and even instant messaging.

A typical call center worker’s desk environment in Lakeland, Florida, United States.

26 Technology Call centre technology is subject to improvements and innovations.

Some of these technologies include speech recognition software to allow computers to handle first level of customer support, text mining and natural language processing to allow better customer handling, agent training by automatic mining of best practices from past interactions, support automation and many other technologies to improve agent productivity and customer satisfaction.[2] Automatic Call centre worker at a very small lead selection or lead steering is also intended to improve [3] workstation/booth, using CallWeb, an internet efficiencies, both for inbound and outbound campaigns, whereby based survey software.

inbound calls are intended to quickly land with the appropriate agent to handle the task, whilst minimizing wait times and long lists of irrelevant options for people calling in, as well as for outbound calls, where lead selection allows management to designate what type of leads go to which agent based on factors including skill, socioeconomic factors and past performance and percentage likelihood of closing a sale per lead.

The concept of the Universal Queue standardizes the processing of communications across multiple technologies such as fax, phone, and email whilst the concept of a Virtual queue provides callers with an alternative to waiting on hold when no agents are available to handle inbound call demand.

Premise-based Call Centre Technology Historically, call centres have been built on PBX equipment that is owned and hosted by the call centre operator.

The PBX might provide functions such as Automatic Call Distribution, Interactive Voice Response, and skills-based routing.

The call centre operator would be responsible for the maintenance of the equipment and necessary software upgrades as released by the vendor.

[4] Virtual Call Centre Technology With the advent of the Software as A typical call centre telephone.

Note: no handset, a service technology delivery model, the virtual call centre has phone is for headset use only.


In a virtual call centre model, the call centres operator does not own, operate or host the equipment that the call centre runs on.

Instead, they subscribe to a service for a monthly or annual fee with a service provider that hosts the call centre telephony equipment in their own data centre.

Such a vendor may host many call centres on their equipment.

Agents connect to the vendor’s equipment through traditional PSTN telephone lines, or over Voice over IP.

Calls to and — 31 Further reading • Kennedy I., Call centres, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, 2003.

• Masi D.M.B., Fischer M.J., Harris C.M., Numerical Analysis of Routing Rules for Call centres, Telecommunications Review, 1998. • HSE Web site at ( for guidelines about call centre working * practices.

• Reena Patel, Working the Night Shift: Women in India’s Call Center Industry (Stanford University Press; 2010) 219 pages; traces changing views of “women’s work” in India under globalization.

• Fluss, Donna, “The Real-Time Contact centre”, 2005 AMACOM • Wegge, J., van Dick, R., Fisher, G., Wecking, C., & Moltzen, K.

(2006, January).

Work motivation, organisational identification, and well-being in call centre work.

Work & Stress, 20(1), 60-83.

Service Desk (ITSM) 32 Service Desk (ITSM) A Service Desk is a primary IT service called for in IT service management (ITSM) as defined by the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL).

It is intended to provide a Single Point of Contact (“SPOC”) to meet the communication needs of both Users and IT employees.

But also to satisfy both Customer and IT Provider objectives.

“User” refers to the actual user of the service, while “Customer” refers to the entity that is paying for service.

Service desk types Many organizations have implemented a central point of contact for handling Customer, User and other issues.

The Service Desk types are based on the skill level and resolution rates for service calls.

The different service desk types include: • Call center • Contact center • Help desk ITIL approach The ITIL approach considers the Service Desk to be the central point of contact between service providers and users/customers on a day-to-day basis.

It is also a focal point for reporting Incidents (disruptions or potential disruptions in service availability or quality) and for users making Service Requests (routine requests for services).

Other activities The Service Desk handles incidents and service requests, as well as providing an interface to users for other ITSM activities such as: 1.

Incident Management 2.

Problem Management 3.

Configuration Management 4.

Change Management 5.

Release Management 6.

Service Level Management 7.

Availability Management 8.

Capacity Management 9.

Financial Management 10.

IT Service Continuity Management 11.

Security Management Differences from a call center, contact center, help desk The Service Desk differs from a call center, contact center and a help desk by offering a more broad and user-centred approach, which seeks to provide a user with an informed single point of contact for all of their IT requirements.

A Service Desk seeks to facilitate the integration of business processes into the Service Management infrastructure.

In addition to actively monitoring and owning Incidents and user questions, and providing the communications channel for other Service Management disciplines with the user community, a Service Desk also provides an interface for other activities such as customer Change requests, third parties (e.g.

maintenance contracts), and software licensing.

Service Desk (ITSM) 33 External links • Service Desk Objectives in ITIL Foundation [1] References [1] http:/ / www.


org/ Service-Desk-Objectives-in-ITIL-Foundation_43.

html Uptime Uptime is a measure of the time a machine has been up without any downtime.

It is often used as a measure of computer operating system reliability or stability, in that this time represents the time a computer can be left unattended without crashing, or needing to be rebooted for administrative or maintenance purposes.

Conversely, long uptime may indicate negligence, because some critical updates can require reboots on some platforms.[1] Records In 2005, Novell reported a server with a 6 year uptime.

[2] [3] Netcraft maintains the uptime records for many thousands of web hosting computers.[4] Determining system uptime Microsoft Windows NT Using systeminfo Users of Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003 and Windows Vista systems can type systeminfo at the Command Prompt to display all system information, including the System Up Time.[5] C:\> systeminfo | find “Time:” System Up Time: 0 Days, 8 Hours, 7 Minutes, 19 Seconds Note: Windows Vista Business 64-bit and Windows 7 do not return a “System Up Time” but “System Boot Time” instead.

Using net statistics server Another method works in nearly all versions of Windows, including Windows 7: C:\> net statistics server | find “since” Server Statistics for \\COMPUTERNAME Statistics since 8/31/2009 8:52:29 PM The line that start with “Statistics since …” provides the time that the server was up from.

The command “net stats srv” can be used instead.[6] Uptime Using Uptime.exe Microsoft has also provided a downloadable Uptime.exe utility [7]: C:\> Uptime SYSTEMNAME has been up for: 2 day(s), 4 hour(s), 24 minute(s), 47 second(s) Using WMI Another way to determine the uptime for a server is by using VBScript and Windows Management Instrumentation.[8] [9] Using Windows Task Manager Users of Windows Vista and Windows 7 can see uptime in Windows Task Manager under the tab Performance.

— References [1] “Sourcing Interests Group” (http:/ / www.


org/ ).


Retrieved 2008-01-21.

[2] Corbett, Michael (2004).

The Outsourcing Revolution: Why It Makes Sense and How to Do It Right.

Kaplan Publishing.

pp. 44–48.

ISBN 9780793192144.

[3] IBM Global Business Services (2006).

“Expanding the Innovation Horizon: IBM Global CEO Study 2006” (http:/ / www-935.


com/ services/ us/ gbs/ bus/ pdf/ ceostudy.

pdf) (pdf).



[4] “Wanted: Outsourcing Relationship Managers” (http:/ / www.


com/ action/ article.

do?command=viewArticleBasic& articleId=73335& pageNumber=1).


Retrieved 2007-12-31.

[5] “Outsourcing’ s Hidden Career Opportunity” (http:/ / www.


com/ dmdirect/ 20071102/ 10000158-1.



Retrieved 2007-12-31.

[6] “eSourcing Capability Model” (http:/ / itsqc.


edu/ models/ escm-cl/ index.



Retrieved 2007-12-31.

[7] “Outsourcing Forum” (http:/ / www.



edu/ News/ 229/ ).

Ann Arbor, MI.


Retrieved 2007-12-31.

[8] “Cutting costs with multiple outsourcers” (http:/ / www.


com/ article/ 107856/ Cutting_Costs_with_Multiple_Outsourcers).


Retrieved 2007-12-31.

[9] “The Seven Deadly Sins of Outsourcing” (http:/ / www.


com/ action/ article.

do?command=viewArticleBasic& articleId=111167).


Retrieved 2007-12-31.

[10] http:/ / www.


com [11] http:/ / www.


com [12] http:/ / www.


com/ [13] http:/ / www.


com/ us/ products/ detail/ ca-oblicore-guarantee.

aspx#overview [14] “Vantage Research Finds Direct Link Between the Value of Outsourcing and the Strength of the Buyer/Provider Relationship” (http:/ / www.


com/ aboutus/ news_detail.



Retrieved 2007-12-31.

[15] Cohen, Linda; Allie Young (2005).

Multisourcing: Moving Beyond Outsourcing to Achieve Growth And Agility.

Harvard Business School Press.

pp. 198–203.

ISBN 1-5913-9797-9.

Solutions for Vendor Managers ( IT cost transparency 103 IT cost transparency IT cost transparency is a new category of information technology management software and systems and that enables enterprise IT organizations to model and track the total cost to deliver and maintain the IT Services they provide to the business.

It is increasingly a task of management accounting.

IT cost transparency solutions integrate financial information such as labor, software licensing costs, hardware acquisition and depreciation, data center facilities charges, from general ledger systems and combines that with operational data from ticketing, monitoring, asset management, and project portfolio management systems to provide a single, integrated view of IT costs by service, department, GL line item and project.

In addition to tracking cost elements, IT Cost Transparency tracks utilization, usage and operational performance metrics in order to provide a measure of value or ROI.

Costs, budgets, performance metrics and changes to data points are tracked over time to identify trends and the impact of changes to underlying cost drivers in order to help managers address the key drivers in escalating IT costs and improve planning.

IT cost transparency combines elements of activity based costing, business intelligence, operational monitoring and performance dashboards.

It provides the system on which to implement ITIL v3 Financial Management guidelines to assist with Financial Management for IT services and is closely related to IT Service Management.

Capabilities While specific solutions vary, capabilities can include: • • • • • • • • Simplified or automated collection of key cost driver data An allocation or cost modeling interface Custom reporting and analysis of unit cost drivers, including CIO dashboards Ability to track operational metrics such as utilization, service levels, support tickets along with cost Bill of IT reports for chargeback or service allocation to Lines of Business Forecast and budget tracking versus actual and over time Hypothetical scenario planning for new project ROI analysis Cost benchmarking against industry averages or common metrics Analysts’ take “Globalization, consumerization, new competitors and new service models are radically ‘changing the shape of IT’.

IT leaders must develop greater transparency into the costs, utilization and operations of their IT services in order to optimize their IT investments and evolve from being technology managers to being stewards of business technology.” [1] — Barbara Gomolski [2], Research Vice President, Gartner “By making these costs transparent, the IT organization can fundamentally change the way business units consume IT resources, drive down total enterprise IT costs, and focus on IT spending that delivers real business value.

The CIO who leads this change can usher in a new era of strategic IT management–and true partnership with the business.” [3] –Andrew M.

Appel, Neeru Arora, and Raymond Zenkich.

McKinsey & Company.

“Companies can get an understanding of the best candidates for virtualization or consolidation, for instance, and further reduce the cost of resources.

IT organizations consistently try to become more efficient, and this type of [4] detailed information enables visibility, billing and chargeback in the future,” — IT cost transparency 104 References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.


com/ news/ 2008/ 110308-mgmt-cos.

html?page=2 http:/ / www.


com/ AnalystBiography?authorId=14850 http:/ / www.


com/ Unraveling_the_mystery_of_IT_costs_1651 CIOs seek IT cost transparency in 2010 by Denise Dubie, comment on IT cost optimization (http:/ / www.


com/ products/ it-cost-optimization) by Yisrael Dancziger, president and CEO of Digital Fuel • Unraveling the Mystery of IT Costs ( Unraveling_the_mystery_of_IT_costs_1651) Andrew M.

Appel, Neeru Arora, and Raymond Zenkich.

The McKinsey Quarterly, August 2005.

• Taking Control of IT Costs.

Nokes, Sebastian.

( London (Financial Times / Prentice Hall): March 20, 2000.

ISBN: 978-0-273-64943-4 • IT Cost Transparency: Optimizing ITIL v3 Service and Financial Management ( solutions/resources/whitepapers/) Kurt Shubert, IT Manager, Certified ITIL v2 and v3.

July 2008.

• The Changing Face of Asset Management: Merging Asset, Service, and Financial Management (www. Lisa EricksonHicks, Research Director, Enterprise Management Associates.

June 2008.

IT Financial Management ( • Know Your Costs: The Key to IT Business ( Business-Intelligence-and-Information-Management/informed-cio-it-cost-transparency.html) David Stodder.

April 2010.

• Leveraging IT Chargeback as a Cost-Cutting Tool ( Rob Mischianti, CEO Nicus Software, IFTMA Presenter.


External links • How to cut IT costs without Hemorrhaging (

html?page=1) • Scalpel or Cleaver: CIOs Can Show CFOs the Light ( Scalpel_or_Cleaver_CIOs_Can_Show_CFOs_the_Light_34973684.html) • Unraveling the Mystery of IT Costs ( 2030-1069_3-5841812.html) • Can IT Spending Shift from Reactive to Proactive? ( • Avoid spending more ‘just in case’ (

html?nclick_check=1) Management as a Service 105 Management as a Service Management as a service ([MaaS]) is when Management is offered as an outsourced service to organizations.

With MaaS, an organization may decide that a particular management function is not core to their business and can be entrusted to an expert service provider.

Another motivation for Management as a Service is when an organization is in transition between management incumbents and then contracts an interim candidate to fulfil the function while a new incumbent is recruited.

A third application relates to organizations that require a spread of management capability without the ability to employ said scope (due to cost or scale constraints), and therefore contracts management services where the service provider makes available parts of a skilled management labour force to oversee the client’s management requirements.

The client pays for what is used, but has access to the whole management landscape.

The acronym for Management as a Service relates to a similar offering in the I.T.

industry called Software as a Service (Saas) that is known for business service outcomes on a pay-as-you-go model.

The organization contracting SaaS, and similarly MaaS does not have to provision the supporting infrastructure, or in the case of management, the supporting systems for delivering a desired outcome.

It can be contracted on an as needed basis in part or in full as a complete outcome with supporting requirements included.

Sales outsourcing Full sales outsourcing is observed where companies have an external third party sales force.

It is differentiated from value added reselling or distribution in that the business model can be based on shared risk, although there are models where the outsourcer is paid for all of their activity – just as with a hired direct sales force, but the outsourcer provides rapidity, flexibility and experience.

Full sales outsourcing is also differentiated from telemarketing in that it requires direct recruitment of sales personnel with specific backgrounds for each sales campaign.

Usually the sales executives will be part of a team that may include telemarketing, marketing, tools systems and methodologies as well as sales management.

Sales outsourcing firms provide accountability regarding all sales results and activities while representing the brand of the client.

For the end-customer, it usually appears as if the sales team sold the product themselves rather than the sales outsourcing firm.

The outsourcing firm is, in essence, an extension of the client but is responsible for all operations associated with direct sales activities, often receiving sales engineering and initial product/service training support from the client.

The sole purpose of a contract sales organization is to provide sales resource to its clients, without taking title to their products.

Sales outsourcing providers include manufacturers’ representatives, contract sales organizations, sales agents or sales outsourcing consultants.

One way of organising the sales effort, especially when product delivery is erratic, is to replace or supplement internal resources with functionality and expertise brought in from contract sales organisations.

Sales outsourcing is quite different from large-scale service outsourcing, which has its advantages but also requires pro-active contract and relationship management.

Books by Novick, (2000) and Anderson and Trinkle (2005) are useful guides.

In addition to full sales outsourcing, many partial models are observed, particularly in large firms (Rogers, 2009).

A variety of sales activities may be outsourced such as: • outsourcing part of the sales process, e.g.

lead qualification or lead nurturing • outsourcing management of particular customer segments, e.g.

niche segments, geographies or sectors that are difficult to reach or are culturally very different • outsourcing of sales of particular product or service lines (e.g.

parts, maintenance), or product-related activities Sales outsourcing such as product launches.

Any of the following may also be considered as partial sales outsourcing or sales out-tasking: • Integrating contractors into in-house sales teams for coverage of long-term absences such as maternity leave, or general vacancy management • Syndicated sales – where the contracted salesperson presents complementary products from different companies on a single call to a customer Companies who outsource sales may have a variety of imperatives for doing so.

The advantages of lower selling costs feature on the website of the Manufacturers’ Representatives Educational Research Foundation ( and has been observed by authors, researchers and consultants (Anderson and Trinkle, 2005; Ross et al., 2005; Landry and Pendrangi, 2005).

Sales outsourcing is expected to be cheaper than the fully loaded cost of employing salespeople, but calculating the cost comparison over time is far from straightforward.

Nevertheless, replacing fixed costs with variable costs is attractive to budget-holders (Rogers, 2009).

However, unlike many forms of outsourcing the advantages of sales outsourcing does not often come from saving costs but rather increasing revenue or providing speed of response or flexibility.

The business case for sales outsourcing should also include consideration of the cost of controlling the contract.

Difficulty in measuring the link between sales activity and sales performance leads to a preference for employed salespeople (Anderson, 1985; Krafft et al., 2004).

However, the isses internally are often the same and the internal hire has many other corporate “distractions” that do not occur with external resources.

Companies may also choose sales outsourcing as a means of accessing the best sales skills (Anderson and Trinkle, 2005).

Although the pejorative term “rent-a-rep” is still used, there is some evidence that contractors are perceived as good performers against qualitative as well as quantitative performance criteria (Anderson and Trinkle, 2005; Rogers,2009).

Even so, the reputational risk of third parties handling customer relationships has been observed as a factor restricting sales outsourcing (Weiss et al., 1999).

One could argue that an employee is often using a company to gain 2–3 years salary and experience whreas a sales outsourcing firm would usually be looking at a long term contract even though the staff may change during that time.

So the aims of an outsourcer can be closely aligned with the aims and objectives of the contracting company.

A recent study has highlighted flexibility as an important driver for outsourcing sales (Rogers, 2009).

Uncertain business environments accentuate the need to turn sales resource on and off quickly.

Industries and companies undergoing rapid change may need to avoid hiring and firing costs and risks (Downey, 1995).

Contract sales organizations can absorb employment risk, enabling their clients to respond to short-term opportunities or competitor activity.

However, an outsourcer may build in more of a premium to the rate or commission if excessive flexibility is required on a contract.

Contract sales organizations are growing in volume and influence, able to provide both tactical activity and long-term strategic support to their clients (Rogers, 2008).

Speed of response is seen as a key reason to use an outsourcer.

if a company was looking to enter a market it may take several months to recruit the local manager which then takes several months to find and office and build a team.

With an outsourcer, once selected often a full working team can be operational within a matter of days or weeks.

(Poulter 2005) — 141 References [2] “information technology (subscription required)” (http:/ / dictionary.


com/ ), Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.), Oxford University Press, 1989, , retrieved 20 November 2010 [3] ABET (http:/ / www.


org/ forms.

shtml#For_Computing_Programs_Only) [4] Isbell, Charles; Impagliazzo, John; Stein, Lynn; Proulx, Viera; Russ, Steve; Forbes, Jeffrey; Thomas, Richard; Fraser, Linda et al.

(December 2009), (Re)Defining Computing Curricula by (Re)Defining Computing, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM, pp. 203–225, ISBN 978-1-60558-886-5 [5] ACM-SIGITE (http:/ / www.


org/ ) [6] “Gartner Says Worldwide IT Services Revenue Declined 5.3 Percent in 2009” (http:/ / www.


com/ it/ page.

jsp?id=1363713), Gartner, , retrieved 20 November 2010 [1] Longley, Dennis; Shain, Michael (1985), Dictionary of Information Technology (2 ed.), Macmillan Press, p. 164, ISBN 0-333-37260-3 Further reading • Adelman, C.


A Parallel Post-secondary Universe: The Certification System in Information Technology.

Washington, D.C.: U.S.

Department of Education.

• Allen, T., and M.S.

Morton, eds.


Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s.

New York: Oxford University Press.

• Shelly, Gary, Cashman, Thomas, Vermaat, Misty, and Walker, Tim.


Discovering Computers 2000: Concepts for a Connected World.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: Course Technology.

• Webster, Frank, and Robins, Kevin.


Information Technology—A Luddite Analysis.

Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

• The Global Information Technology Report 2008–2009 ( gitr09fullreport.pdf), World Economic Forum and INSEAD, 2009, ISBN 978-92-95044-19-7 External links • The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) ( Inshoring 142 Inshoring Inshoring may be thought of as the ‘opposite’ of Offshoring.

It is the business process outsourcing work domestically.

This process typically applies to the US and the UK.

It is argued that successful inshoring takes advantage of cost disparities within the domestic market.

For example, for software companies not located in metropolitan areas with high costs of living, there is a real opportunity to compete on price with other domestic software companies.

It simply costs less to do business in the Midwest than it does in New York or Los Angeles.

A Midwest company can charge more than it does locally and yet still undercut the competition on the coasts.

If work can be shipped overseas, it can just as easily be shipped across the Mississippi.[1] In the media “Amen said the center hopes to broaden the study to get a handle on foreign-based companies moving work to the United States.

This less-publicized form of globalization is known in corporate America as ‘inshoring’.” —Michael Sasso, “USF To Study Export Of Jobs And Its Effect On Bay Area,” Tampa Tribune (Florida), May 4, 2004[2] “The business of finding low-cost substitutes for American workers is getting more complex — and so is the terminology.

They don’t just call it ‘offshoring’ anymore.

At a recent conference in the palatial Venetian resort, the people who help U.S.

companies shift white-collar work overseas offered potential clients a Vegas buffet of outsourcing options: ‘nearshoring,’ for those willing to stray no farther than Canada or Mexico; ‘inshoring,’ for those who prefer to bring foreign workers to America, and ‘rightshoring,’ for those desiring a custom package of in-house and offsite, foreign and domestic.” —Warren Vieth, “Outsourcing Variations Have Some Appeal,” Los Angeles Times, April 27, 2004 [2] “It’s ‘inshoring’ for Japanese autos.

Amid the furor over the loss of U.S.

jobs overseas, a movement is under way in the opposite direction, fueled by the foreign companies blamed for employment migration decades ago.

Steadily, the three big Japanese auto companies — Toyota, Honda and Nissan — are expanding their U.S.

operations and adding workers.

Honda is hiring 2,000 in Alabama to build sport-utility vehicles, and Nissan will add more than 2,000 in plant expansions in Tennessee and Mississippi.” —”In context,” Saint Paul Pioneer Press (Minnesota), March 7, 2004[2] References [1] “Surviving and Thriving as an Inshoring Software Company” (http:/ / spin.


com/ 2006/ 12/ 08/ surviving-and-thriving-as-an-inshoring-software-company).

Mike Karlesky.



Retrieved 2008-07-29.

[2] “Inshoring” (http:/ / www.


com/ words/ inshoring.


Mike Karlesky.



Retrieved 2008-07-31.

Intelligent customer — References [1] http:/ / www.


com/ public/ ram/ issues/ ram42/ ram42_hp_story01.

html/ Service level objectives 208 Service level objectives Service level objectives (SLOs) are a key element of a service level agreement (SLA) between a service provider and a customer.

SLOs are agreed as a means of measuring the performance of the Service Provider and are outlined as a way of avoiding disputes between the two parties based on misunderstanding.

There is often confusion in the use of SLA and SLO.

The SLA is the entire agreement that specifies what service is to be provided, how it is supported, times, locations, costs, performance, and responsibilities of the parties involved.

SLOs are specific measurable characteristics of the SLA such as availability, throughput, frequency, response time, or quality.

The SLO may be composed of one or more quality-of-service measurements that are combined to produce the SLO achievement value.

As an example, an availability SLO may depend on multiple components, each of which may have a QOS availability measurement.

The combination of Quality of Service (QOS) measures into an SLO achievement value will depend on the nature and architecture of the service.

In Foundations of Service Level Management (2000), Rick Sturm and Wayne Morris argue that SLOs must be: • • • • • • • • Attainable Repeatable Measurable Understandable Meaningful Controllable Affordable Mutually acceptable SLOs should generally be specified in terms of an achievement value or service level, a target measurement, a measurement period, and where and how measured.

As an example, “90% of calls to the helpdesk should be answered in less than 20 seconds measured over a one month period as reported by the ACD system”.

Results can be reported by the percent of time that the target answer time was achieved compared to the desired service level (90%).

The term SLO is deprecated in ITIL V3 to Service Level Target, not to be confused with Service Level Requirement defined in the service design.

Service review 209 Service review A service review is a review of an organisation’s services designed to identify potential service delivery improvements.

A Service Review can be used to improve the organisation’ s efficiency and effectiveness, and assists in addressing financial sustainability.

Local government is one of the largest providers of services for the community.

Councils have progressively taken on greater responsibilities for delivering services as community expectations have grown and other levels of government have devolved various functions.

By systematically reviewing its services, a council can redesign its mix of services, achieve efficiency gains and generate additional income.

Options that can be explored under a Service Review System [1] • • • • • • • Changing outputs and levels of service Sharing services and resources Forming strategic relationships or joint ventures Rationalising and making better use of assets Outsourcing services or activities Internal operational changes e.g.

processes, work practices & technology Adding or modifying user charges References • Hutt City Council Core Services Review Resource Document, 1991 • LMCC Resource Booklet on Review Processes, Professor Brian Dollery, University of New England, 2008 • Process Change versus Structural Change – An Analysis of Internal Review Process, Professor Brian Dollery, University of New England, 2010 References — Article Sources and Contributors Socially responsible outsourcing  Source:  Contributors: Cerebellum, CutOffTies, Dru of Id, Edward, Leilacwiki, OSborn, RJFJR, Zro, 1 anonymous edits Software testing outsourcing  Source:  Contributors: Algebraist, Dawn Bard, Discospinster, Elagatis, Hu12, Kirk Hilliard, Lolawrites, NewbieIT, Piano non troppo, Pinecar, Pratheepraj, Promoa1, Robofish, TastyPoutine, Tedickey, Tesstty, Woohookitty, 15 anonymous edits Sourcing advisory  Source:  Contributors: Kevinparikh, Kuru, Mmuxlow, SiobhanHansa, Starpeak, 2 anonymous edits Strategic sourcing  Source:  Contributors: AN(Ger), Alai, Asocall, Brodger3, Brossow, ChristianBk, Daniel.b.wroblewski, EagleFan, Esourcerer, Exec2701, GSSUser, Gaius Cornelius, Gguinney, Goldenrowley, Haexel, Hdau, Hdrinkuth, Hmca2f, Hu12, Iridescent, Ivansanchez, JurajVonAirport, Jvlock, Kdridder, Kudret abi, Kuru, Leszek Ja?czuk, LizardJr8, Longhair, Markperera, Mean as custard, Michelhp, Modify, NextLevelPurchasing, Pascal.Tesson, Perfecto, Piwinger, Positivepurchaser, Pperera, R’n’B, Rallu pm, Reinyday, Rkopylkov, Ronz, Sameershriyan, Slurpey, Starpeak, Stilwebm, Streetglide27450, SueHay, Supersean, SupplyManager, TheSeer, TheoClarke, Tim Laseter, Tony Fox, 52 anonymous edits Technical support  Source:  Contributors: Abilitynet, Abune, Access24hour, Aitias, Alansohn, Aleahey, AlexNet, Allen3, Alpha Quadrant, Arushi sp, BENNYSOFT, Bdolicki, Beland, BenFrantzDale, Bichok, Boberto11, Bobo192, Bonadea, Brodger3, Brookie, Bwrs, Cander0000, Carolynh 98, Cctt24, ChillyWillySF, Chocolateboy, Christopher Kraus, Clubvista, Cmfactor, Cnbrb, Coma28, Cool Hand Luke, Coolcaesar, Cwolfsheep, Dagonet, Dave unit, Diamondland, Drahgo, Edward, Elcapitane, Elfknowsit, Ericwest, Escape Orbit, Excirial, Ezhiki, FJPB, Fanatix, Faust6, Fedorl, Fieldday-sunday, FisherQueen, Fordman, Fourohfour, Fubar Obfusco, Gayleclark, Glenn.isaac, GraemeL, Grim Revenant, Gwalker ne8, Gzkn, Haakon, Haham hanuka, Helpsta, Henrymrx, HighKing, Hm2k, Hu12, ITGradStudent, Idont Havaname, Imguni, Indon, Itsluy, JHunterJ, Jace7929, JackLumber, Jibjibjib, Joey.dale, John Snow, Johnlee13, Johnstamos7, Johnthek, Jose.salsan, Jpbowen, Jæs, Kitty1983, KnowBuddy, Kslotte, Kuru, Laurinavicius, Law, Leonator, Lliberto, Lokiasan, MER-C, MMuzammils, Marcy954, Marvelly, Matthew Platts, Michael Devore, Michaelmccallister, Mnajib, Moverton, MrOllie, Mwoan, Neilacharya, Netcreative, Netoholic, Nick Watts, Nihiltres, Norm, Ohnoitsjamie, Old Moonraker, PM Poon, Phatom87, Piano non troppo, Pmedema, Poindexter Propellerhead, Psychonaut, R’n’B, Reisio, Relemar, Renesis, RexNL, Rjwilmsi, Ronz, Rukifelth, Ryan1371, Ryan1joseph, SF007, SMC, SQGibbon, ST47, SchuminWeb, Sennetor, Sfacility, Shadowjams, Shyranis, Sietse Snel, Smkolins, SnappingTurtle, SpaceFlight89, SusanLesch, Tazpa, Tdada, The Filmaker, The JPS, The KZA, The Rambling Man, The Thing That Should Not Be, TheTrojanHought, Travis99, Triddle, Tschild, Tu13erhead, Twistmyarm, Txomin, Veinor, Vlad, Voyagerfan5761, Wmahan, Woohookitty, Xpclient, Xyzzyplugh,, Yintan, Zhen-Xjell, 330 anonymous edits Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006  Source:  Contributors: Ahsen, Badanagram, Brodger3, David Haslam, Debresser, Disclaw, Dzsi, Eastlaw, Fake User, Grafen, Greekcats, Hu12, Jkball, John of Reading, Merope, NLB, Nalexandrou, Pearle, Steven J.

Anderson, Thryduulf, Wikidea, Woodman1977, Woohookitty, 37 anonymous edits Transformational Outsourcing  Source:  Contributors: Anouk 12345, Awillems IL, Informationguru117, Nyenrode1234, Triwbe Transition methodology  Source:  Contributors: Sashattuck Virtual airline (economics)  Source:  Contributors: Anthony Appleyard, Arsenikk, Icemotoboy, PatrickFlaherty, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, TurningWork, Vegaswikian, WhisperToMe VSoft Corporation  Source:  Contributors: Angamk, Bearcat, Funezn, Khangrah, Mean as custard, RadioFan, Rich Farmbrough, Takamaxa, 12 anonymous edits VSoft Technologies Private Limited  Source:  Contributors: Chonchonr Website Management Outsourcing  Source:  Contributors: D6, Freshgreg, Lightsup55, PirateMink, R’n’B, Sunil1234b, Tinasilvee, Tminfo, Versageek, 4 anonymous edits 237 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 238 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors Image:Time between failures.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Ferdna Image:Wearer of an ITIL Foundation Certificate pin.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:IIVQ File:callcentre.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: IP 84.5, Nessa File:Call centre desk lakeland florida.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Petiatil File:Callcentreterminal.JPG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Earl Andrew File:Aspect Tel-set telephone call centre.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Petiatil File:Predictive dialer end campaign prompt.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Petiatil File:Telemarketoffice.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Johnskate17 at en.wikipedia File:Eis report2.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Achim Hering Image:Win7-tskman-perf.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Fergie4000 File:webservices.png  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: H.

Voormann File:SOA Detailed Diagram.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:JamesLWilliams2010 Image:webservice xrpc.png  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Krauss File:WSDL 11vs20.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Cristcost File:Cloud computing.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Sam Johnston File:CloudComputingSampleArchitecture.svg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Sam Johnston, Australian Online Solutions Pty Ltd File:Cloud Computing Stack.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: User:SamJohnston File:Cloud computing types.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Sam Johnston Image:Soa-layers.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Own Work Image:SOA Elements.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: User:SuperFLoh Image:SOA Metamodel.svg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Cnb Image:SOMF V 2.0.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AngelaMartin2008 Image:ORM.JPG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Accelrus Image:Avasant Logo.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Malo, Perpetualspirit, Skier Dude, 2 anonymous edits Image:Flag of the United States.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn, User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370 File:Editing Hoxne Hoard at the British Museum.ogv  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Trustees of the British Museum Image:2005ICT.PNG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mdd, Shushruth, 1 anonymous edits File:LEO III computer circuit board.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Geni File:target diagram.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: James Duckenfield File:MITIE_logo_wiki.png  Source:  License: Trademarked  Contributors: MITIE Group PLC File:Flag of the United States.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn, User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370 File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Denmark.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Madden File:Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bean49, David Descamps, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Fry1989, Gabriel trzy, Howcome, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Oreo Priest, Rocket000, Sir Iain, ThomasPusch, Warddr, Zscout370, 4 anonymous edits File:Flag of Spain.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pedro A.

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