ITIL ITIL Planning To Implement Service Management : Contents Articles Configuration management Comparison of open source configuration management….

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped.combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books.

A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally.

The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers.

Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information.

Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong.

The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here.

If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area.

Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”.

Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners. Contents Articles Configuration management Comparison of open source configuration management software Accelops AccuRev SCM Augeas (software) Baseline (configuration management) Bcfg2 Belarc CA Software Change Manager CFEngine Chef (software) Component repository management Configuration item Engineering support Granular Configuration Automation ISconf LCFG M23 software distribution system Merge (revision control) MSConfig Opsi Physical configuration audit Professional Systems Associates Puppet (software) Quattor RANCID (software) Rational Synergy Security Technical Implementation Guide SmartFrog Software configuration management Sysedit Method engineering Axios Systems Competitive Engineering 1 5 14 16 17 18 20 22 23 25 28 29 31 32 33 35 35 35 37 40 42 45 46 48 49 52 53 54 55 56 58 59 65 66 Fagan inspection IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP) Information Services Procurement Library Information Technology Infrastructure Library ITIL Planning to implement service management Market analysis for product software Marketing decision support systems Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures Technical architecture 66 70 75 87 102 109 112 112 113 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 118 120 Article Licenses License 121 Configuration management 1 Configuration management Configuration management (CM) is a field of management that focuses on establishing and maintaining consistency of a system or product’s performance and its functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life.[1] For information assurance, CM can be defined as the management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the life cycle of an information system.[2] CM — [1] David Clifford, Jan van Bon (2008).

Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap.

ITSM Library.

Van Haren Publishing.

ISBN 908753082X. [2] Office of Government Commerce (UK) CCTA and OGC (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ index.


Retrieved May 5, 2005. [3] Office of Government Commerce (UK) (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ guidance_itil.


Retrieved August 19, 2009. [4] Office of Government Commerce (2000).

Service Support.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300158. [5] Office of Government Commerce (2001).

Service Delivery.

IT Infrastructure Library.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113300174. [6] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

ICT Infrastructure Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308655. [7] Cazemier, Jacques A.; Overbeek, Paul L.; Peters, Louk M. (2000).

Security Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 011330014X. [8] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Application Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308663. [9] Office of Government Commerce (2002).

Planning to Implement Service Management.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113308779. [10] Office of Government Commerce (2005).

ITIL Small Scale Implementation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 0113309805. [11] http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ itil_ogc_withdrawal_of_itil_version2.

Asp [12] Majid Iqbal and Michael Nieves (2007).

ITIL Service Strategy.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310456. [13] Vernon Lloyd and Colin Rudd (2007).

ITIL Service Design.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310470. [14] Shirley Lacy and Ivor Macfarlane (2007).

ITIL Service Transition.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310487. [15] David Cannon and David Wheeldon (2007).

ITIL Service Operation.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310463. Information Technology Infrastructure Library [16] George Spalding and Gary Case (2007).

ITIL Continual Service Improvement.

The Stationery Office.

ISBN 9780113310494. [17] http:/ / wiki.

En. index.

Php/ Service_Portfolio_Management [18] http:/ / wiki.

En. index.

Php/ Financial_Management [19] http:/ / free-itil [20] http:/ / www.nationalarchives.


Uk/ doc/ open-government-licence/ open-government-licence.

Htm [21] Meyer, Dean, 2005. “Beneath the Buzz: ITIL” (http:/ / web. web/ 20050404165524/ http:/ / leadership/ buzz/ column.

Html?ID=4186), CIO Magazine, March 31, 2005 [22] Survey: “The ITIL Experience – Has It Been Worth It”, author Bruton Consultancy 2004, published by Helpdesk Institute Europe, The Helpdesk and IT Support Show, and Hornbill Software. [23] Microsoft Operations Framework; Cross Reference ITIL v3 and MOF 4.0 (http:/ / go. fwlink/ ?LinkId=151991).

Microsoft Corporation.

May 2009. . [24] http:/ / [25] Van Bon, Jan; Verheijen, Tieneke (2006), Frameworks for IT Management (http:/ / books. books?id=RV3jQ16F1_cC), Van Haren Publishing, ISBN 9789077212905, [26] http:/ / newsletters/ DITYvol2iss3.

Htm [27] ISACA (2008), COBIT Mapping: Mapping of ITIL V3 With COBIT 4.1 (http:/ / Knowledge-Center/ Research/ ResearchDeliverables/ Pages/ COBIT-Mapping-Mapping-of-ITIL-V3-With-COBIT-4-1.

Aspx), ITGI, ISBN 9781604200355, [28] Brooks, Peter (2006), Metrics for IT Service Management (http:/ / books. books?id=UeWDivqKcm0C), Van Haren Publishing, pp. 76–77, ISBN 9789077212691, [29] Morreale, Patricia A.; Terplan, Kornel (2009), “ Matching ITIL to eTOM” (http:/ / books. books?id=VEp0aMmH3iQC), CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications, Second Edition (2 ed.), CRC Press, ISBN 9781420078008, [30] ITIL V3 Qualification Scheme (http:/ / Qualifications/ ITILV3QualificationScheme.


OGC Official Site. .

Retrieved 2011-05-02. [31] APMG (2008). “ITIL Service Management Practices: V3 Qualifications Scheme” (http:/ / nmsruntime/ saveasdialog.

Asp?lID=572& sID=86). .

Retrieved 24 February 2009. [32] “EXIN Exams” (http:/ / ).

EXIN Exams. .

Retrieved 2010-01-14. [33] “ISEB Professionals Qualifications, Training, Careers BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT” (http:/ / server.

Php?show=nav. 5732).

BCS. .

Retrieved 2010-01-14. [34] http:/ / [35] Office of Government Commerce (2006). “Best Practice portfolio: new contracts awarded for publishing and accreditation services” (http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ About_OGC_news_4906.

Asp). .

Retrieved 19 September 2006. [36] http:/ / www.apmgroup.


Uk/ ITILSCRquery.

Asp [37] http:/ / [38] Office of Government Commerce (2008). “Best Management Practice: ITIL V3 and ISO/IEC 20000” (http:/ / gempdf/ ITIL_and_ISO_20000_March08.

Pdf). .

Retrieved 24 February 2009. 101 External links • Official ITIL Website ( • The OGC website ( ITIL Planning to implement service management 102 ITIL Planning to implement service management The planning to implement service management is a set in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework.

This set is about the alignment of business needs and IT provision requirements.

Besides, this set describes how to implement or improve IT Service Management within an organization and it describes steps to ensure that business needs and IT provision requirements will be met.

Furthermore, the planning to implement service management set is mainly focused on the service management processes, but also generically applicable to other ITIL sets.

An approach to implement or improve service management is the Continuous Service Improvement Programme (CSIP).

A CSIP is defined as: “an ongoing formal programme undertaken within an organization to identify and introduce measurable improvements within a specified work area or work process.” OGC_book All the activities within a CSIP regarding one single improvement can be visualized generically by using the meta-modeling technique.

This results in a process-data diagram (figure 1), which does not describe the continuous improvement activity of the programme.

The process-data diagram shows the relationship between processes and artifacts and this diagram consists of two integrated diagrams.

The left-hand side of the process-data diagram describes the activities (processes) and is based on the UML activity diagram.

The right-hand side describes the data (artifacts) and is based on the UML class diagram.

Meta_modeling The table of concepts and the activity description regarding the process-data diagram can be found in the paragraph Process-data diagram descriptions.

The process-data diagram shows the following activities: • • • • • create vision analyze organization set goals implement IT service management measure goals First, a vision has to be created and the IT and business strategies should be aligned.

The second step consists of analyzing the organization and its current position.

In this step an answer has to be found on the question ‘where are we now?’ The following step is about setting goals and priorities regarding the improvement process.

The fourth step is the improvement of the service provision itself and during the fifth and final step the improvement will be measured to examine whether the goals have been met. ITIL Planning to implement service management 103 The planning to implement service management set Every activity in the planning to implement service management set, as depicted in figure 1, will be further explained. Create vision As figure 1 shows, the first step that needs to be taken in the process is creating a vision statement for a CSIP.

The vision statement describes the aim and purpose of the CSIP on a high level and should align the different strategies of business and IT.

Additionally, the vision statement should be well communicated to the stakeholder, to create commitment and buy-in for the CSIP. Figure 1: process-data diagram Analyze organization After having created a vision an IT organization should analyze itself, wherein the question ‘where are we now?’ has to be answered.

A useful technique to determine the current position is the IT organization growth model.

This model determines the maturity level of the IT organization and is based on the Process Maturity Framework (PMF), as well as on the Capability Maturity Model (CMM).

The maturity of the organization will be determined in terms of vision and strategy, steering, processes, people, technology and culture.

It is also required to understand who the stakeholders are, because stakeholders have an impact on the CSIP.

This can be achieved by defining, identifying and mapping the stakeholders.

Additionally, the specific needs of the stakeholders have to be identified and this can result in a stakeholder assessment report.

The third step of the organizational analysis in figure 1, consists of assessing the current report and measurement system.

Knowing the current way of using and producing reports, facts and figures gives insight in how well the organization is steered, but it also provides information about the next activity ‘set goals’.

The last step in analyzing the organization is conducting benchmarks.

A benchmark is a useful management technique to improve performance.

In a benchmark different parts of the organization can be compared, like units or processes.

But also organizations as a whole can be compared in a benchmark.

It is important to determine whether a service management process should be benchmarked or not.

A focus on the relevant service management processes is essential.

The results of the benchmarks can result in the identification of gaps. ITIL Planning to implement service management 104 Set goals The next activity in the CSIP is about the agreement between business and IT regarding the required and expected future roles and characteristics of the organization, which are based on the current maturity of the organization.

The first step that needs to be taken is the creation of a business case to describe the added value and the justification of the CSIP.

The business case is determined by the current maturity of the organization and the organizational strategy.

A stakeholder assessment, conducted in the previous activity, can also be a contribution to the focus on the results and the aim of the improvement programme.

Furthermore, risks should be identified and managed.

An approach to risk management should be applied during the CSIP.

Mainly the risks related to the business vision, existing processes and the environment and business constraints should be managed to reduce the effects of those risks.

After having created a business case, a gap assessment report should be completed.

A gap assessment report is used to compare the current state with the future state of the organization and this results in gaps to overcome (‘where do we want to be’).

It provides information about gaps, risks and the prioritization on where to start.

Once a gap assessment report has been completed, there is a need for understanding and clarity.

That means that the problems and the following steps have to be presented to the key stakeholders, to establish creditability for the assessment and support concerning the change.

The following step is the creation of a plan for quick wins.

A quick win is an early success during an improvement programme.

In the plan for quick wins short term wins should be identified and attained to keep the improvement programme running and to keep the commitment level high during the improvement programme.

The last step is setting the goals regarding the improvement programme in relation to the earlier defined stakeholder needs.

A management tool for setting goals and measuring performance is the balanced scorecard. Implement IT service management The first thing to consider regarding implementing or improving service management is finding an answer on where to start (‘which service management process?’).

Before identifying a process that need to be improved, the first condition that needs to be fulfilled is that the organization should have documented its current and desired state, which includes a completed gap assessment report. ‘Where to start’ also depends on the level of maturity and the strategic goals of the organization.

Besides these dependencies, it is important to understand the interrelationships between all the IT Service Management processes.

Another aspect which should be taken into consideration during the improvement programme is creating awareness of the change.

This can be done by making a communication plan, which will give an explanation about the IT policy to the stakeholders.

The next thing to consider is how the changes are going to be achieved.

Achieving changes requires a reliable change programme.

To prevent a CSIP from missing its intended goals the OGC recommends [1] the approach from J.P.

Kotter, called: ‘Eight steps to transforming your organisation’ in combination with project management such as PRINCE2.

The main reason for using this approach in combination with regular project management, is that this approach also takes the softer sides of change into account like resistance to change and creating commitment.


Kotter studied more than 100 companies with regard to their transformations in the past years.

This has resulted in eight main reasons why transformations succeed.

The duration of the studied transformations was quite long, Transformation_fail about six to eight years.

The eight main reasons why transformations succeed are transformed into eight steps. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Creating a sense of urgency Forming a guiding coalition Creating a vision Communicating the vision ITIL Planning to implement service management 5. 6. 7. 8. ‘Empowering’ to act on the vision Planning for and creating quick wins Consolidating improvements and producing more change Institutionalizing the change 105 These eight steps can be applied equally to a service management improvement programme.

The culture of the organization is a main issue to be taken into account during organizational change, because organizational change could support an implementation, and it can as well lead to resistance.

For that reason the organizational culture should be managed in order to avoid problems like resistance.

A critical success factor for a CSIP is the clear definition of accountability, roles and responsibility in relation to the new processes and the existing organizational structure.

New processes and working practices do often not fit within the existing organizational structure, because processes are often cross functional.

In other words, processes may run through the whole organization.

In this way new processes and working practices may introduce new roles, which may overlap the existing organizational structure.

The last aspect that has to be taken into account regarding the implementation of IT service management is training.

Training can contribute to a higher quality of service management and it can also lead to more productive and responsive employees.

Before setting up a training programme, questions like who to train, when to train, how to train and what to train should be answered.

For ITIL training see: ITIL Certification. Measure goals After the completion of each improvement process a Post Implementation Review (PIR) should be conducted to indicate if the objectives have been achieved.

This can be done by making a comparison between the achievement of the improvement and the goals earlier set in the programme.

When the results of the PIR are confirmed, new targets regarding improvement should be defined.During the improvement programme the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), which are earlier created during setting the goals as a part of the balanced scorecard, are needed to be constantly monitored to confirm the PIR.

Also, the improvement of the customers perception (customer KPIs) during the CSIP needs to be surveyed.

This can be done by conducting a regular statistical survey regarding customer satisfaction, also called a Customer Satisfaction Survey (CSS). Process-data diagram descriptions Table of concepts Concept Assessment Balanced Scorecard Benchmark report Business case Communication plan Cultural change Definition The classification of someone or something with respect to its worth. [6] An aid to organizational Performance management.

It helps to focus, not only on the financial targets but also on the internal processes, customers, and learning and growth issues. [1] A report that contains a comparison of performance between different organizations or between different units within an organization. [1] Information that describes the justification for setting up and continuing a PRINCE2 project.

It provides the reasons (and answers the question ‘Why?’) for the project.

It is updated at key points throughout the project. [7] A plan that describes how the IT policy will be explained to the stakeholders and as a result of this, it will create awareness in the organization. [1] The addition, modification or removal of the whole of the ideas, corporate values, beliefs, practices, expectations about behavior and daily customs that are shared by the employees in an organization. [1] ITIL Planning to implement service management Decision document A document which gives an answer on the question ‘Where should I start’ and depends on the completeness of the assessments conducted in the previous steps, like determining the maturity level of the organization, service processes and strategic goals. [1] A change management model, consisting of eight steps. [9] Gap analysis naturally flows from benchmarking or other assessments.

Once we understand what is the general expectation of performance in industry, we can then compare that with current capabilities, and this becomes the gap analysis. [10] The state of affairs that a plan is intended to achieve and that (when achieved) terminates behavior intended to achieve it. [5] A model that determines the current maturity of the IT organization in terms of vision and strategy, steering, processes, people, technology and culture. [1] The active employment of particular sets of measurement recommendations. [3] Measurable element of a service process or function. [1] Organizational change has two dimensions.

The first, OC involves a transformation of organizations between two points in time.

The second dimensions concerns the way the transformation occurs. [8] Responsibilities, authorities and relations organized in such a way as to enable the organization to perform its functions. [11] One or more reviews held after project closure to determine if the expected benefits have been obtained. [7] The planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of the project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and performance. [7] A plan which describes the quick wins (possible early successes of a project / improvement programme) to be made to keep a change effort on track and help keep the energy and commitment levels high. [1] The identification, selection and adoption of countermeasures justified by the identified risks to assists in terms of their potential impact upon services if failure occurs, and the reduction of those risks to an acceptable level. [1] A change for better services.

Service stands for: one or more IT systems that enable a business process. [1] A statement of the desired future state of the organization within the arena of competition defined in the mission, regarding service management. [2] An assessment which defines and analyses the stakeholders. [1] A goal which is brought in relation with the stakeholder needs. [1] A deliberate plan conceived in advance of the making of specific decisions. [4] A collection of activities that collectively implement skilled behavior. [1] 106 Eight step model Gap assessment report Goal IT Organizational growth model Measurement framework Metric Organizational change Organizational structure Post implementation review Project management Quick wins plan Risk management Service improvement SM (service management) vision statement Stakeholder assessment Stakeholder goal Strategy Training programme Table 1: table of concepts with definitions References of table of concepts 1.

Office of Government Commerce (OGC). (2002).

Planning to Implement Service Management.

London : The Stationery Office. 2.

Raynor, M.E. (1998).

That vision thing: Do we need it?.

Long range planning, 31, 3. 3.

Folan, P., Browne, J. (2005), A review of performance measurement: Towards performance management.computers in industry, 56, 7. 4.

Mintzberg, H. (1978).

Patterns in Strategy Formation.

Management Science, 24, 9. 5.

WordNet Search – 2.1. (2006).

Retrieved March 8, 2006 from Princeton Website: perl/webwn?s=goal 6.

WordNet Search – 2.1. (2006).

Retrieved March 8, 2006 from Princeton Website: ITIL Planning to implement service management 7.

Best practice. (2006).

Retrieved March 8, 2006 from OCG Website: 8.

William P.

Barnett; Glenn R.

Carroll. (1995).

Modeling Internal Organizational Change.

Annual Review of Sociology, 21, pp. 217-236. 9.

Egan, R.W., Fjermestad, J. (2005).

Change and Resistance: Help for the Practitioner of Change.

Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2005 10.

Definitions of Terms. (2006).

Retrieved March 8, 2006 from Balanced Scorecard Institute Website: http:// 11.

Development of Quality Assurance System in Higher Education(QUASYS). (2001).

Retrieved March 10, 2006 from University of Zagreb Website: 107 Activity description Activity Create vision Analyze organization Sub-activity Description Creating a VISION STATEMENT for service management which fits with the organization STRATEGY.

Evaluate current position Evaluating the current position can be done by assessing the , IT ORGANIZATION GROWTH MODEL.

This gives an indication of the maturity of the organization.

Assess stakeholders Assess current report and measure system Conduct benchmark Set goals Create business case Defining and analyzing the stakeholders and their needs, which results in a STAKEHOLDER ASSESSMENT.

Assessing the current report and measure system results in a MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK.

Benchmarking results in a few BENCHMARKS, which can be used as a steering instrument and can be categorised in four categories, which are not further explained.

The IT ORGANIZATION GROWTH MODEL and STRATEGY determine the BUSINESS CASE (current position) which describes not only measurable targets, but also the costs, effort, benefits sense of urgency etc.

Managing risks results the artifact RISKMANAGEMENT, which is required by the BUSINESS CASE.

BENCHMARKS lead to the analyses of gaps to determine the start.

This activity results in a GAP ASSESSMENT REPORT.

A PLAN OF QUICK WINS is based on the GAP ASSESSMENT REPORT and is needed to convince the stakeholders of the changes/implementation.

Results in STAKEHOLDER GOALS, which is a generalization of GOAL Manage risks Conduct gap analysis Create plan for quick wins Set stakeholder goals ITIL Planning to implement service management Implement ITSM Select starting point Selecting a starting point can be done by creating a DECISION DOCUMENT, which initiates ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE.

The decision to start the implementation is based on the completeness of the previous activities see: Non-described rule Awareness can be achieved by creating a COMMUNICATION PLAN that supports ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Managing org.

Change results in ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE and can be done by using the EIGHT STEPS MODEL combined with PROJECT MANAGEMENT Managing cult.

Change results in the artifact CULTURAL CHANGE and is required by ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE.

CULTURAL CHANGE encloses the soft side of the CHANGE.orgANIZATIONAL CHANGE involves the ORGANISATION STRUCTURE, which may change aspects like authority, tasks, functions, roles etc.orgANIZATIONAL CHANGE requires ITIL training (TRAINING PROGRAMME).

Which training is needed, depends on the change.

This activity results in a POST IMPLEMENT.

REVIEW, which includes a comparison of the set and achieved goals/targets 108 Adapt results previous activities Create awareness Manage organizational change Manage cultural change Set roles Train employees Measure goals Table 2: description of activities and sub-activities Non-described rule • This activity will be started if no starting point can be selected.

In that situation, this activity will result in an adaptation of the already delivered incomplete products, such as a gap assessment report. References 1.

Office of Government Commerce (OGC). (2002).

Planning to Implement Service Management.

London : The Stationery Office. 2.

Weerd, I.

Van de (2005).

WEM: A design method for CMS-based web implementations.

UU-CS (Int.

Rep. 2005-043).

UU WINFI Informatica en Informatiekunde. 3.

Kotter, J.P. (1995).

Why transformation efforts fail.

Harvard Business Review, 59–67 In: Journal of Product Innovation Management. 13, 2 , March 1996, 170 4.

Hochtstein, A., Tamm, G., Brenner, W. (2005).

Service oriented IT management: benefit, cost and success factors.

Proceedings 13 European conference on information systems (ECIS 2005), Regensburg, Germany. External links • • • • • • The OGC website [1] IT Service Management Forum [2] The ITIL definition site [3] The ITIL Forum [4] The OGC successful delivery toolkit [5] OGC get best practice [6] ITIL Planning to implement service management 109 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www.itil.


Uk/ http:/ / http:/ /

Uk/ http:/ / http:/ / www.ogc.


Uk/ sdtoolkit/ deliveryteam/ briefings/ ITIL/ index.

Html http:/ / www.get-best-practice.


Uk Market analysis for product software Market analysis for product software consists of a number of techniques that allow an organization to collect and disseminate information from their external environment of software products for use in determining their market strategy and actions.

For example, market analysis helps to determine critical strategies for new software products such as time-to-market length, creating product differentiation, creating and preserving supplier credibility, developing effective distribution channels, forming relationships with large customers, and managing market efforts (Igel & Islam, 2001).

This topic has its roots in marketing discipline.

Many types of market research techniques are used to gather this information.

Market analysis plays a large part in explaining the current situation of a marketing plan.

Marketing is very important to new product development because software products have a short average lifespan of five years and incur 75% of the costs during the research and development phase (Atkinson et al., 2004).

Therefore, including market analysis information early on in the product lifecycle can ensure resources are not wasted.

It’s a wide field so this article is a sample of scientific work that has linked the fields of marketing and product software.

This consists of research in the fields of general market, customer, and competitor analysis which can be seen as processes that are hierarchically grouped under market analysis in the meta-process model from the figure below.

There are many processes that can be used for each of these three processes to acquire information from the market.

This article only lists a selected few for each. General Market Characteristics for Product Software Analysis of general market characteristics should lead to information about the market such as definition, size, trends, and market segmentation.

This analysis is needed to help develop and maintain marketing strategies for product software and overall business strategies.

The covered methods and techniques to obtain this information are Porter’s five forces model, risk analysis, marketing intelligence, and marketing decision support systems.Porter’s five forces analysis is useful for software since it highlights many important factors that will be discussed in customer and competitor analysis such as switching costs, brand equity, product differentiation, and price of total purchase. • risk analysis for product software*marketing intelligence • marketing decision support systems Customer analysis for product software Customer analysis is needed to predict behavior and create demand forecasts for product software.

It is also necessary in the development of new products to help select the most profitable choice.

To analyze customers, aspects such as demographics, buying motivation, and expectations are studied.

Besides basing behavior on software only, customers also look at the network externalities from software packages, such as manuals, add-ons, and training courses, to make purchase decision.All of these subjects are useful for determining target groups (also known as market segments). — • Len Bass, Paul Clements, Rick Kazman, “Software Architecture in Practice”, Addison Wesley, 1998 ISBN 0-201-19930-0 • Tony Shan and Winnie Hua (2006).

Solution Architecting Mechanism ( 1109/EDOC.2006.54).

Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International EDOC Enterprise Computing Conference (EDOC 2006), October 2006, p23-32. • Barbacci, M.

R., S.


Carriere, P.


Feiler, R.

Kazman, M.


Klein, H.


Lipson, T.


Longstaff, and C.


Weinstock, “Steps in an Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method: Quality Attribute Models and Analysis” • Ogush, M., D.

Coleman, and D.

Beringer, “A Template for Documenting Software Architectures”, March 2000. • Youngs, R., D.

Redmond-Pyle, P.

Spaas, and E.

Kahan, “A Standard for Architecture Description”, IBM Systems Journal, Vol 38 No 1. Article Sources and Contributors 118 Article Sources and Contributors Configuration management  Source:  Contributors: .digamma, ALMGuru, AbsolutDan, Ahoerstemeier, AlistairMcMillan, Altenmann, AndrewLighten, Assadchaudhry, Bartosz, Becky 55, Bestofcm, Billscottmorri, Bonwag, CanisRufus, Capricorn42, [email protected], Chowbok, ChrisG, ChristianBk, Cloudz1, ComputerGeezer, Cuttysc, Danipen, David Biddulph, Dchem, DoBBers, DonYonce8912, Douga, Druiloor, DynamSoft, Ebyabe, Emanhattan, Encoreopus, Ericlee748, Esdaniel, Everything counts, Exexpat, Fleminra, Flockmeal, Fstop22, Geraldo Medrano, Gleesona 7, Gtewallace, Gurch, HBowie, Haakon, Harald Hansen, Huerlisi, Igfrace, Imroy, JTN, Jaylobb, Jdotscott, JordanSamuels, JoshRyan, Jpalm 98, Julian Mendez, JullyKitty, Keebrook, Kuru, LeeHunter, Lichen0426, Lmarinho, Ludootje, M.e, M4gnum0n, Mandarax, Marc Girod, Marcelo Pinto, Mdd, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mjviscomi, Moreschi, MrOllie, Nixdorf, Ohnoitsjamie, Optimist on the run, Orderud, Ouc, Oveja, Owain.wilson, Pascal666, PatrickEgan, Patrickegan, Pekowski, Pelerin2, Petra.hegarty, Pg133, PhilKnight, Phobius, Project2501a, R.castelo, Raven22, Rickranger, RoySmith, Rwwww, Régis Décamps, SMcCandlish, SQL, Sabri76, Sam Hocevar, Sigma 7, SimonP, Smack, Soarhead77, Stephen1121, SunCreator, The Anome, Tiago simoes, Tom2856, Ttesmer, Ventonegro, Vsion, Wessel 1560, Wile E.

Heresiarch, 287 anonymous edits Comparison of open source configuration management software  Source:  Contributors: Aftereight, Agujero Negro, Alfredodeza, Anastrophe, Antonielly, B2pi, B3rt0h, Carlp101, Dakol, David Gerard, Detlef.oertel, Djbclark, Dparrish, Earthsound, Firsfron, FleetCommand, Gkokmdam, Gudeldar, Haakon, Hugoduncan, Intgr, JLaTondre, Jerryobject, Jheiss, Jrouquie, Keithlard, LanceBrown NC, Larstobi, Lololololol12, Martinwind, Micah, MikhailGusarov, Mjquinn id, Moocha, Mortense, No1shah, Onno Zweers, Ouc, PaulParadise, Philipmather, Plathrop, Ptab, RandyFranklinSmith, Rchanter, Requestion, RobLa, Rouilj, Rrburke, Snarfdubois, Stephan Leeds, SteveLoughran, Stevegt, Swestrup, Thyrsus, Tithrion, Toutoune25, Umeditor, VladV, Zethradon, 133 anonymous edits Accelops  Source:  Contributors: Alpha Quadrant, Auntof6, DanielPharos, Enjaysea, Iqlas, John of Reading, Sadads, Scottgwikip, 2 anonymous edits AccuRev SCM  Source:  Contributors: Bearcat, Cs909, Inks.LWC, Katharineamy, Tedickey, Whimsicalgenius, 5 anonymous edits Augeas (software)  Source:  Contributors: Borkificator, Dawynn, Raphink Baseline (configuration management)  Source:  Contributors: .digamma, Andonic, Andreas Kaufmann, ChrisG, Craigwb, Dcpassarelli, Epolk, Iamatom, Imroy, Largoplazo, Lilac Soul, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mkoval, MrOllie, Nepenthes, Orderud, Scarian, T-dot, Uncle G, Walter Görlitz, 42 anonymous edits Bcfg2  Source:  Contributors: Carlp101, Dawynn, Djbclark, Fabian.a, Favonian, Glenn, Kathleen.wright5, Psychonaut, Rich Farmbrough, 40 anonymous edits Belarc  Source:  Contributors: BD2412, FleetCommand, GardenQuad, Rich Farmbrough, Standardfact, Steamroller Assault, Sumint, 5 anonymous edits CA Software Change Manager  Source:  Contributors: Alansohn, BlueAzure, Bonwag, Cascm, Harvestguy, Pzoxicuvybtnrm, Ric man, RickK, Rossami, SimonP, Uzume, 30 anonymous edits CFEngine  Source:  Contributors: Asav, Ayaham, Carlp101, CeciliaPang, CesarB, Csabo, DerekMorr, Djbclark, Druiloor, Emsearcy, Fiftyquid, Frap, Glenn, HopeSeekr of xMule, Joshr, Joy, Kb, Kenyon, Ketiltrout, Megateuf, MikhailGusarov, Minitrue, Moocha, NapoliRoma, NorwegianWikiMan, Ouc, Plasticity, RAFPeterM, Raffen, Rich Farmbrough, Shd, Tabletop, 51 anonymous edits Chef (software)  Source:  Contributors: Arto B, Carlp101, David Gerard, Fabrictramp, Jeffq, Jtimberman, Malcolma, Moocha, Moreati, Rayyung, Thomei08, 7 anonymous edits Component repository management  Source:  Contributors: Antonielly, BlueAzure, ChrisG, Cmdrjameson, Dtremenak, Ericnelson1, Hu Gadarn, Jpbowen, Lichen0426, Noveltyghost, R’n’B, RichardVeryard, Smack, Zscout370, 5 anonymous edits Configuration item  Source:  Contributors: BenFrantzDale, Bentogoa, Dasreiman, FuzzyBSc, Gonchibolso12, Haakon, JLaTondre, L Gran Gato, M.e, Nickcarr, Pearle, Persian Poet Gal, Ryanmcdaniel, Subash.chandran007, 29 anonymous edits Engineering support  Source:  Contributors: Canis Lupus, ChrisG, Esanchez7587, Everyking, Henry Delforn, Lichen0426, Lkinkade, Lord babba, Nick Number, Nycrdeary, The Thing That Should Not Be, Triploid, Truthanado, 3 anonymous edits Granular Configuration Automation  Source:  Contributors: Bearcat, Fetchcomms, Fstop22, Grafen, Jpbowen, My76Strat, Nick Number, SteveLoughran, 2 anonymous edits ISconf  Source:  Contributors: Carlp101, Dawynn, Moocha, Rwwww, Ukexpat, Wikiisawesome, Zethradon, 2 anonymous edits LCFG  Source:  Contributors: Bill37212, Carlp101, Cynical, Dawynn, Djbclark, Favonian, JonHarder, Nevilley, 7 anonymous edits M23 software distribution system  Source:  Contributors: Byramm, Charles Matthews, Detlef.oertel, FleetCommand, Hgsgh, Hhabermann, Ixfd64, Mboverload, Pissant, SF007, Tmassey, 8 anonymous edits Merge (revision control)  Source:  Contributors: .digamma, AllanBz, Amux, Btwied, Bulgrien, Chairman S., Deltawalker, Dneades, Dspattison, Geneffects, GeorgeBills, Jaxelrod, Jgrahn, Kevins, Liuxin4335, Metiscus, Neilc, Nigelj, Patrickegan, Pmyteh, Puppynose, Qz, Radagast83, RlyehRising, Rstockbower, Starwed, Stevemidgley, Sverdrup, Thomast15, Unenough, Will Beback Auto, 31 anonymous edits MSConfig  Source:  Contributors: [email protected], Ajfweb, Akerans, Anthall1991, Apokrif, Bevo, Bilky asko, Callidior, CliffC, Dfantom, Digita, Dustin gayler, Eightball, Elomis, FleetCommand, GSMR, GTAKIllerEric, Ghettoblaster, Gwern, Ishida639, Jamelan, Jzurbo77, Khinelay, Marshall Williams2, Materialscientist, Mentifisto, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mrzaius, Nbauman, Ngyikp, Niharika kant, Shape84, Silvergoat, Warren, Wasisnt, Xpclient, 38 anonymous edits Opsi  Source:  Contributors: BD2412, Bilbo-the-hobbit, Carlp101, Detlef.oertel, Drpickem, Eumolpo, Favonian, FleetCommand, Frap, GoneriLeBouder, LilHelpa, Mortense, Opsidoc, Tinjaw, Zundark, 3 anonymous edits Physical configuration audit  Source:  Contributors: Auntof6, Malcolma, Mcastellani, Mild Bill Hiccup, PamD, 3 anonymous edits Professional Systems Associates  Source:  Contributors: Emma.roach, MrOllie, Sphilbrick, Ukexpat, 3 anonymous edits Puppet (software)  Source:  Contributors: Ale jrb, Arto B, Brandorr, Carlp101, DanielPharos, David Gerard, DavidDouthitt, Demonkoryu, Gacq, Hulten, Joannaspark, Jonik, Kennethbarber, Klokie, Larstobi, Martarius, Martin Dluhos, Mike.lifeguard, Moreati, NoridelZeus, Ranamalo, SncBlue, Stephan Leeds, SteveLoughran, Stwalkerster, Thomei08, Thyrsus, Zundark, 25 anonymous edits Quattor  Source:  Contributors: Anrie Nord, Djbclark, Geniac, Ianpcollier, Jrha, Mattg82, Mjouvin, SteveTraylen, 17 anonymous edits RANCID (software)  Source:  Contributors: Ace Class Shadow, Adamathefrog, AlasdairM, BD2412, Druiloor, Icereaper, Kl4m-AWB, Krazycev13, Rjaf29, Sartan, ShakataGaNai, SiD3WiNDR, Totallygeek, Woohookitty, 14 anonymous edits Rational Synergy  Source:  Contributors: Bwpach, Chrylis, Condor77, Etaekema, GregHolmberg, Jancikotuc, Janesteeves, Llamascout, RHaworth, Willeyl, 9 anonymous edits Security Technical Implementation Guide  Source:  Contributors: Delmundo.averganzado, Ebyabe, Huns0004, Imaginary Pi Slicer, Marjomercado, Mortense, Munst, SouthLake, Woohookitty, 6 anonymous edits SmartFrog  Source:  Contributors: Aftereight, Akhilleus, Carlp101, D6, Julguinet, Malcolma, Moocha, Oscarthecat, SteveLoughran, 3 anonymous edits Article Sources and Contributors Software configuration management  Source:  Contributors: .digamma, Aaxiler, Adamantios, Andreas Kaufmann, Ankur.anil, Antaeus Feldspar, Arpit88dawda, Asdaqamin, Ashishapathak, Assadchaudhry, Bert.Roos, CMYanko, Casimir, Chris Wood, ClementSeveillac, Cloudz1, Craigwb, Danesaw, David Biddulph, David.alex.lamb, Dmsar, DougCuthbertson, ERcheck, Electrobins, Evarlast, Everything counts, Flopster2, GazRideGuide, Gil mo, Guruduttmallapur, Haakon, Hebrides, Huazheng, Imroy, Imz, JGFichte, JLaTondre, JTN, Jamelan, JoshRyan, Keebrook, M.e, M4gnum0n, Marc Girod, Marudubshinki, Master Bigode, Matt Crypto, Mav, Mdd, Mi.avataar, Michael Hardy, Michael Irwin, MrOllie, Nixdorf, PatrickEgan, Pedant17, Poccil, RHaworth, Rajeshkumarwiki, Rmbalk, RossPatterson, Ruud Koot, Sardanaphalus, Schaapr, Scottb1978, Shanem-vic-au, Simoncpu, SimplifyComplexity, Smee30, Starrymessenger, Stevertigo, Suruena, Techdoer, Technobadger, Tedickey, The Thing That Should Not Be, ThomasOwens, Thumperward, Typofixer76, Vipinhari, VladV, Wmahan, Zapraki, Zhenqinli, Zorgon7, ????????? ???????, 151 anonymous edits Sysedit  Source:  Contributors: Andrewpmk, Darklilac, Dawynn, Digita, Efitu, Elomis, Flarn2006, MDGx, Mrzaius, PamD, Warren, Wewsnu, Yutsi, 9 anonymous edits Method engineering  Source:  Contributors: CesarGon, DonFiresmith, Mdd, SEI Publications, 3 anonymous edits Axios Systems  Source:  Contributors: Aaditya 7, Cander0000, MGS1978, R’n’B, 8 anonymous edits Competitive Engineering  Source:  Contributors: ARAJ, Bwpach, ComputerGeezer, Elonka, Karpinski, R24in, SueHay, 2 anonymous edits Fagan inspection  Source:  Contributors: Altenmann, Arthena, Ash, Attilios, Bigbluefish, Can’t sleep, clown will eat me, ChrisG, Courcelles, Drbreznjev, Epeefleche, Gaff, Gaius Cornelius, Gimmetrow, Hockeyc, Icarusgeek, Iwearavolcomhat, JIP, Kezz90, MacGyverMagic, Mjevans, Mkjadhav, Nick Number, Okok, Pedro.haruo, Slightsmile, Tagishsimon, Talkaboutquality, Tassedethe, The Font, The Letter J, Zundark, 43 anonymous edits IBM Tivoli Unified Process (ITUP)  Source:  Contributors: Chowbok, Eustress, Giraffedata, IDefx, Kubanczyk, MikeDogma, MrOllie, Palbright, WeisheitSuchen, Woohookitty, 6 anonymous edits Information Services Procurement Library  Source:  Contributors: Betacommand, ChrisG, ESkog, Grenavitar, Greyskinnedboy, Jorrit, Jstruve, Malo, Mcalukin, Mdd, Niteowlneils, R’n’B, Ravedave, Spiritofdeaddog, Tagishsimon, The Thing That Should Not Be, Uncle G, 10 anonymous edits Information Technology Infrastructure Library  Source:  Contributors: A.

B., A3RO, AMe, Aberdeenwaters, Acm, Acpt22, ActiveSelective, Adrian.benko, Aerotheque, Aitias, Akbradford, Alanpc1, AlephGamma, Alexcuervo, Alimozcan, Allen4names, Andrea kempter, Andrzejkrajewski, Ankur onlyur, Anna Frodesiak, Antidoter, Aranel, AreJay, Ash, Aussieaubs, Avr, B Fizz, Barinder hothi, Baseball Bugs, Beland, BenAveling, BibTheLion, Bibikoff, Binarygal, Black Kite, Blehfu, Blroques, Bobrayner, Boekelj, Bradyn12, Brandguru, Brandon, Brianj hill, Butrain, CALR, CPrehn, Cain Mosni, Can’t sleep, clown will eat me, Canderson7, Captain panda, Cblanquer, Ccordray, Cgroberts, Charles T.

Betz, Chowbok, Chris.fischer, ChrisCork, ChrisG, Chzz, Cinfosys01, Cjdavis, Cmdrjameson, Coherers, Cometstyles, Credible58, Cuttysc, Damon, Dancter, Danialshazly, DanielPenfield, DanielVonEhren, Danielgwj, Darinkeir, Darth Panda, DaveWFarthing, Davebremer, David Biddulph, David.T.Bath, Davidbspalding, Dennisc68, Dia^, Discospinster, Dnblack, Dnicolaid, Docu, Doug Alford, Dpv, DragonflySixtyseven, Dritil, Eahiv, Edholden, Ehheh, Emba7 EilertE, Emesis, Epbr123, Estherschindler, Eugene-elgato, Evilmn, Excirial, Firsfron, Fortdj33, Fox, Frank, Freek Verkerk, Fstop22, Fudoreaper, Fustbariclation, Gaius Cornelius, Gcanyon, GerardM, Ghewgill, Ghw777, Goonies, Guigui NYC, Haakon, Halfgoku, Hengeloov, Hennek, Herbys, Hkroger, Hu12, Hulmem, IBM Press, IDefx, IET-Solutions, IIVQ, ITServiceGuy, Iness it, Itbeme, Itildude, Itsgeneb, IvanLanin, J.delanoy, J04n, JT72, Jammus, Jasenlee, JbRIV, Jclemens, Jlmata, JoeSmack, JonHarder, Jonik, Jovianeye, Jowanner, Jspurr01, KKuczko, Kaihsu, Kartisan, Keebrook, Keilana, Kevnosisyx, Kf4bdy, Kinu, Krackpot, Krusch, Kuru, Kycook, KyuuA4, Laug, Lehmannjl, Leirith, Lluinenb, MC MasterChef, MER-C, MMSequeira, Madman37, Magnus Manske, Majid iqbal, Malleus Fatuorum, Malo, Marcelo Pinto, Marcusmccoy, Markhoney, Martey, Martian, Materialscientist, Matthewedwards, Maximaximax, Mboverload, Mcsboulder, Mdd, Mellery, Metagraph, Mgillett, Michael Hardy, Michael J.

Cunningham, Michig, Michigan user, MikeDogma, Moeron, MrOllie, Mrehere, Mserge, Mudgen, Myszliak, Mzrahman, Najeh, Nasnema, NeilN, NickBush24, Nicoatridge, Niteowlneils, Nk, NoticeBored, Nslonim, Nuno Tavares, Nuujinn, Ocaasi, Oleh77, Olivier Debre, Omicronpersei8, OnePt618, OsvaldoCarvalho, Otto ter Haar, PRRfan, Panlm, Pansearch, Patchworker, Paulbruton, Paulbuchanan, Paulseatonsmith, Peterl, Pg133, Phil [email protected], Philip ea, Piano non troppo, Pion, Pocopocopocopoco, Pparazorback, Pukerua, RHaworth, RainbowOfLight, Ralphbk, Raspolsky, Ravizone2000, Raysonho, Rchandra, Rehan20784, Rich Farmbrough, Rnsimmons, Robocoder, Rockfang, Ron Richard, Ronz, Rpeasley, Rugops, Runefrost, Sam Hocevar, SamG1978, SamTheButcher, Sandy ts2k, SaulPerdomo, Sbrumpton, Scott McNay, ScottWAmbler, Sdr, Sharpner, Shawnse, Smulvih2, Snori, Soifranc, Some jerk on the Internet, Somnoliento, Srandaman, Sspecter, Stakfry526, Stephanobianco, Stevegregory79, StoneIsle, StuartR, SunSw0rd, Svetlev, Ta bu shi da yu, Tabletop, Takamaxa, Tandric, Tarun.Varshney, Tassedethe, Tbsdy lives, Tcwilliams, Technobadger, The Anome, The Letter J, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thecheesykid, Thingg, Thumperward, Ticaro, Tiptoety, Tjarrett, Tlaresch, Tobryant, Tpbradbury, TutterMouse, Twirligig, Twostardav, U11720, Uncle G, Vanbregt, Vashtihorvat, Veinor, VerdigrisP, Vince.meulle, VinitAdhopia, Vipinhari, Vlad, WECullen, Waggers, Watroba, Waturuochav, WebCoder11, WeeWillieWiki, West81, Wik, Wiki3 1415, WikiNickEN, Winterst, Woohookitty, Wren337, WxGopher, Xsmith, Zachlipton, Zsh, ???? ??, 1324 anonymous edits ITIL Planning to implement service management  Source:  Contributors: 9Nak, Allstar18, Amatriain, Annafriel, Lluinenb, Mdd, MikeDogma, Raysonho, Rjwilmsi, WeisheitSuchen, 22 anonymous edits Market analysis for product software  Source:  Contributors: Burkestar, ChrisG, Crazykake, JonHarder, Luna Santin, Mailer diablo, Maurreen, Niteowlneils, Pgrieg, Pratheepraj, Pumpkincat, Radagast83, Rich Farmbrough, Rl, Robofish, Rossami, Ruud Koot, Winterst, Woohookitty, 13 anonymous edits Marketing decision support systems  Source:  Contributors: ChrisG, Colonel Warden, Ep.morgan, I dream of horses, Jezhotwells, Pumpkincat, Robofish, TJRC, The Wordsmith, TheGrappler, Unara, 4 anonymous edits Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures  Source:  Contributors: Abductive, DonFiresmith, MLauba, Mdd, Minimac, Miyagawa, Rich Farmbrough Technical architecture  Source:  Contributors: Aasch, Allan McInnes, Aylahs, Barts1a, ChrisG, Dave Barnett, Denisarona, Discospinster, Diturriaga, FreplySpang, Gletiecq, Graham Berrisford, Horatio Huxham, Interested, Iterator12n, JaGa, Jarretinha, Maria C Mosak, Mdd, Mercurywoodrose, Nazrani, Norm”, Oicumayberight, OverlordQ, Promethean, Reade, Shadowjams, Skyezx, Sprigot, Steven Zhang, Svick, Tonyshan, Uncle G, Userid333, Vanished user 39948282, Wikip rhyre, ?, 66 anonymous edits 119 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 120 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors Image:ConfiurationActivityModel.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Department of Defense Handbook Image:ao-logo-whitebg.jpg  Source:  License: Fair Use  Contributors: Iqlas, Melesse File:Cfengine logo.png  Source:  License: Fair Use  Contributors: MikhailGusarov Image:M23-logo.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Hauke Goos-Habermann Image:Client add.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Hauke Goos-Habermann Image:M23 Fdisk-extended0.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Hauke Goos-Habermann File:Three-way-merge-parallelgram.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Dspattison Image:Msconfig icon.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Ishida639, Tuanese Image:MSConfig On Windows_Vista.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Dfantom, Ghettoblaster, Kathleen.wright5, Koman90, MasterProg, RyanGerbil10, SchmuckyTheCat, Warren File:Opsi-4-configed product configuration layout en.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: uib GmbH File:Method engineering process.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Richard J.

Mayer and others Image:Axios Systems logo.svg  Source:  License: Fair Use  Contributors: Aaditya 7 Image:Fagan Inspection Simple flow.gif  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Monkeybait, Okok, 1 anonymous edits Image:Wearer of an ITIL Foundation Certificate pin.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Tijmen Stam (User:IIVQ) Image:Procesdatadiagram planning to implement ITIL.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: L.

Luinenburg (Lluinenb) Original uploader was Lluinenb at en.wikipedia License 121 License

Read more about ITIL Planning To Implement Service Management : Contents Articles Configuration management Comparison of open source configuration management….:

Accredited ITIL Foundation, Intermediate and Expert Certifications

Accredited ITIL Foundation, Intermediate and Expert Certifications, Learn more about ITIL HERE:

ITIL and ITIL Planning To Implement Service Management : Contents Articles Configuration management Comparison of open source configuration management….

ITIL - ITIL Planning To Implement Service Management : Contents Articles Configuration management Comparison of open source configuration management….

ITIL and ITIL Planning To Implement Service Management : Contents Articles Configuration management Comparison of open source configuration management….

ITIL - ITIL Planning To Implement Service Management : Contents Articles Configuration management Comparison of open source configuration management….

Categories: News