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Mergers And Acquisitions

Symantec – Mergers and acquisitions

List of mergers and acquisitions by Symantec

Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A) are both an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and management dealing with the buying, selling, dividing and combining of different companies and similar entities that can help an enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of origin, or a new field or new location, without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a joint venture.

Mergers and acquisitions

The distinction between a “merger” and an “acquisition” has become increasingly blurred in various respects (particularly in terms of the ultimate economic outcome), although it has not completely disappeared in all situations

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

An acquisition or takeover is the purchase of one business or company by another company or other business entity

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

Achieving acquisition success has proven to be very difficult, while various studies have shown that 50% of acquisitions were unsuccessful. The acquisition process is very complex, with many dimensions influencing its outcome. “Serial acquirers” appear to be more successful with M&A than companies who only make an acquisition occasionally (see Douma & Schreuder, 2013, chapter 13).

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

Whether a purchase is perceived as being a “friendly” one or a “hostile” depends significantly on how the proposed acquisition is communicated to and perceived by the target company’s board of directors, employees and shareholders

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

“Acquisition” usually refers to a purchase of a smaller firm by a larger one

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

The combined evidence suggests that the shareholders of acquired firms realize significant positive “abnormal returns” while shareholder of the acquiring company are most likely to experience a negative wealth effect

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

There are also a variety of structures used in securing control over the assets of a company, which have different tax and regulatory implications:

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

The buyer buys the shares, and therefore control, of the target company being purchased. Ownership control of the company in turn conveys effective control over the assets of the company, but since the company is acquired intact as a going concern, this form of transaction carries with it all of the liabilities accrued by that business over its past and all of the risks that company faces in its commercial environment.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

The buyer buys the assets of the target company

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

The terms “demerger”, “spin-off” and “spin-out” are sometimes used to indicate a situation where one company splits into two, generating a second company which may or may not become separately listed on a stock exchange.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

As per knowledge-based views, firms can generate greater values through the retention of knowledge-based resources which they generate and integrate. Extracting technological benefits during and after acquisition is ever challenging issue because of organizational differences. Based on the content analysis of seven interviews authors concluded five following components for their grounded model of acquisition:

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

Improper documentation and changing implicit knowledge makes it difficult to share information during acquisition.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

For acquired firm symbolic and cultural independence which is the base of technology and capabilities are more important than administrative independence.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

Detailed knowledge exchange and integrations are difficult when the acquired firm is large and high performing.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

Management of executives from acquired firm is critical in terms of promotions and pay incentives to utilize their talent and value their expertise.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

Transfer of technologies and capabilities are most difficult task to manage because of complications of acquisition implementation. The risk of losing implicit knowledge is always associated with the fast pace acquisition.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

Preservation of tacit knowledge, employees and documentation are often difficult to achieve during and after acquisition. Strategic management of all these resources is a very important factor for a successful acquisition.

Mergers and acquisitions – Acquisition

An increase in acquisitions in the global business environment requires enterprises to evaluate the key stake holders of acquisition very carefully before implementation. It is imperative for the acquirer to understand this relationship and apply it to its advantage. Retention is only possible when resources are exchanged and managed without affecting their independence.

Mergers and acquisitions – Legal structures

Corporate acquisitions can be characterized for legal purposes as either “asset purchases” in which the seller sells business assets to the buyer, or “equity purchases” in which the buyer purchases equity interests in a target company from one or more selling shareholders

Mergers and acquisitions – Legal structures

Mergers, asset purchases and equity purchases are each taxed differently, and the most beneficial structure for tax purposes is highly situation-dependent

Mergers and acquisitions – Documentation

The documentation of an M&A transaction often begins with a letter of intent. The letter of intent generally does not bind the parties to commit to a transaction, but may bind the parties to confidentiality and exclusivity obligations so that the transaction can be considered through a due diligence process involving lawyers, accountants, tax advisors, and other professionals, as well as businesspeople from both sides.

Mergers and acquisitions – Documentation

After due diligence is completed, the parties may proceed to draw up a definitive agreement, known as a “merger agreement,” “share purchase agreement” or “asset purchase agreement” depending on the structure of the transaction. Such contracts are typically 80 to 100 pages long and focus on four key types of terms:

Mergers and acquisitions – Documentation

Conditions, which must be satisfied before there is an obligation to complete the transaction. Conditions typically include matters such as regulatory approvals and the lack of any material adverse change in the business.

Mergers and acquisitions – Documentation

Representations and warranties by the seller with regard to the company, which are claimed to be true at both the time of signing and the time of closing. If the representations and warranties by the seller prove to be false, the buyer may claim a refund of part of the purchase price.

Mergers and acquisitions – Documentation

Covenants, which restrict operation of the business between signing and closing.

Mergers and acquisitions – Documentation

Termination rights, which may be triggered by a breach of contract, a failure to satisfy certain conditions or the passage of a certain period of time without consummating the transaction.

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

The five most common ways to value a business are

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

asset valuation,

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

historical earnings valuation,

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

future maintainable earnings valuation,

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

relative valuation (comparable company & comparable transactions),

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

Professionals who value businesses generally do not use just one of these methods but a combination of some of them, as well as possibly others that are not mentioned above, in order to obtain a more accurate value. The information in the balance sheet or income statement is obtained by one of three accounting measures: a Notice to Reader, a Review Engagement or an Audit.

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

Accurate business valuation is one of the most important aspects of M&A as valuations like these will have a major impact on the price that a business will be sold for

Mergers and acquisitions – Business valuation

As synergy plays a large role in the valuation of acquisitions, it is paramount to get the value of synergies right

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing M&A

Mergers are generally differentiated from acquisitions partly by the way in which they are financed and partly by the relative size of the companies. Various methods of financing an M&A deal exist:

Mergers and acquisitions – Cash

Payment by cash. Such transactions are usually termed acquisitions rather than mergers because the shareholders of the target company are removed from the picture and the target comes under the (indirect) control of the bidder’s shareholders…

Mergers and acquisitions – Stock

Payment in the form of the acquiring company’s stock, issued to the shareholders of the acquired company at a given ratio proportional to the valuation of the latter.

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

There are some elements to think about when choosing the form of payment

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

Cash on hand: it consumes financial slack (excess cash or unused debt capacity) and may decrease debt rating. There are no major transaction costs.

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

It consumes financial slack, may decrease debt rating and increase cost of debt. Transaction costs include underwriting or closing costs of 1% to 3% of the face value.

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

Issue of stock: it increases financial slack, may improve debt rating and reduce cost of debt. Transaction costs include fees for preparation of a proxy statement, an extraordinary shareholder meeting and registration.

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

If the buyer pays with stock, the financing possibilities are:

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

Issue of stock (same effects and transaction costs as described above).

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

Shares in treasury: it increases financial slack (if they don’t have to be repurchased on the market), may improve debt rating and reduce cost of debt. Transaction costs include brokerage fees if shares are repurchased in the market otherwise there are no major costs.

Mergers and acquisitions – Financing options

In general, stock will create financial flexibility. Transaction costs must also be considered but tend to have a greater impact on the payment decision for larger transactions. Finally, paying cash or with shares is a way to signal value to the other party, e.g.: buyers tend to offer stock when they believe their shares are overvalued and cash when undervalued.

Mergers and acquisitions – Specialist M&A advisory firms

Although at present the majority of M&A advice is provided by full-service investment banks, recent years have seen a rise in the prominence of specialist M&A advisers, who only provide M&A advice (and not financing). These companies are sometimes referred to as Merchant Capital Advisors or Advisors, assisting businesses often referred to as “companies in selling.” To perform these services in the US, an advisor must be a licensed broker dealer, and subject to SEC (FINRA) regulation.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

The dominant rationale used to explain M&A activity is that acquiring firms seek improved financial performance. The following motives are considered to improve financial performance:

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Economy of scale: This refers to the fact that the combined company can often reduce its fixed costs by removing duplicate departments or operations, lowering the costs of the company relative to the same revenue stream, thus increasing profit margins.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Economy of scope: This refers to the efficiencies primarily associated with demand-side changes, such as increasing or decreasing the scope of marketing and distribution, of different types of products.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Increased revenue or market share: This assumes that the buyer will be absorbing a major competitor and thus increase its market power (by capturing increased market share) to set prices.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Cross-selling: For example, a bank buying a stock broker could then sell its banking products to the stock broker’s customers, while the broker can sign up the bank’s customers for brokerage accounts. Or, a manufacturer can acquire and sell complementary products.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Synergy: For example, managerial economies such as the increased opportunity of managerial specialization. Another example is purchasing economies due to increased order size and associated bulk-buying discounts.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Taxation: A profitable company can buy a loss maker to use the target’s loss as their advantage by reducing their tax liability. In the United States and many other countries, rules are in place to limit the ability of profitable companies to “shop” for loss making companies, limiting the tax motive of an acquiring company.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Geographical or other diversification: This is designed to smooth the earnings results of a company, which over the long term smoothens the stock price of a company, giving conservative investors more confidence in investing in the company. However, this does not always deliver value to shareholders .

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Resource transfer: resources are unevenly distributed across firms (Barney, 1991) and the interaction of target and acquiring firm resources can create value through either overcoming information asymmetry or by combining scarce resources.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Vertical integration: Vertical integration occurs when an upstream and downstream firm merge (or one acquires the other)

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Hiring: some companies use acquisitions as an alternative to the normal hiring process. This is especially common when the target is a small private company or is in the startup phase. In this case, the acquiring company simply hires (“acquhires”) the staff of the target private company, thereby acquiring its talent (if that is its main asset and appeal). The target private company simply dissolves and little legal issues are involved.

Mergers and acquisitions – Improving financial performance

Absorption of similar businesses under single management: similar portfolio invested by two different mutual funds namely united money market fund and united growth and income fund, caused the management to absorb united money market fund into united growth and income fund.

Mergers and acquisitions – Other types

However, on average and across the most commonly studied variables, acquiring firms’ financial performance does not positively change as a function of their acquisition activity. Therefore, additional motives for merger and acquisition that may not add shareholder value include:

Mergers and acquisitions – Other types

Diversification: While this may hedge a company against a downturn in an individual industry it fails to deliver value, since it is possible for individual shareholders to achieve the same hedge by diversifying their portfolios at a much lower cost than those associated with a merger. (In his book One Up on Wall Street, Peter Lynch memorably termed this “diworseification”.)

Mergers and acquisitions – Other types

Manager’s hubris: manager’s overconfidence about expected synergies from M&A which results in overpayment for the target company.

Mergers and acquisitions – Other types

Empire-building: Managers have larger companies to manage and hence more power.

Mergers and acquisitions – Other types

Manager’s compensation: In the past, certain executive management teams had their payout based on the total amount of profit of the company, instead of the profit per share, which would give the team a perverse incentive to buy companies to increase the total profit while decreasing the profit per share (which hurts the owners of the company, the shareholders).

Mergers and acquisitions – Types of M&A by functional roles in market

The M&A process itself is a multifaceted which depends upon the type of merging companies.

Mergers and acquisitions – Types of M&A by functional roles in market

A horizontal merger is usually between two companies in the same business sector. The example of horizontal merger would be if a health care system buys another health care system. This means that synergy can obtained through many forms including such as; increased market share, cost savings and exploring new market opportunities.

Mergers and acquisitions – Types of M&A by functional roles in market

A vertical merger represents the buying of supplier of a business. In the same example as above if a health care system buys the ambulance services from their service suppliers is an example of vertical buying. The vertical buying is aimed at reducing overhead cost of operations and economy of scale.

Mergers and acquisitions – Types of M&A by functional roles in market

Conglomerate M&A is the third form of M&A process which deals the merger between two irrelevant companies. The example of conglomerate M&A with relevance to above scenario would be if health care system buys a restaurant chain. The objective may be diversification of capital investment.

Mergers and acquisitions – Arm’s length mergers

?The two elements are complementary and not substitutes

Mergers and acquisitions – Strategic Mergers

A Strategic merger usually refers to long term strategic holding of target (Acquired) firm. This type of M&A process aims at creating synergies in the long run by increased market share, broad customer base, and corporate strength of business. A strategic acquirer may also be willing to pay a premium offer to target firm in the outlook of the synergy value created after M&A process.

Mergers and acquisitions – So-called ‘Acqui-hires’

An acquisition is sometimes referred to as an acqui-hire when the acquiring company seeks primarily to obtain the target’s staff, which may have expertise in a particular area in which the acquiring company sees itself as weak. This type of acquisition is common in the technology industry.

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A research and statistics for acquired organizations

Given that the cost of replacing an executive can run over 100% of his or her annual salary, any investment of time and energy in re-recruitment will likely pay for itself many times over if it helps a business retain just a handful of key players that would have otherwise left.

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A research and statistics for acquired organizations

Organizations should move rapidly to re-recruit key managers. It’s much easier to succeed with a team of quality players that you select deliberately rather than try to win a game with those who randomly show up to play.

Mergers and acquisitions – Brand considerations

Mergers and acquisitions often create brand problems, beginning with what to call the company after the transaction and going down into detail about what to do about overlapping and competing product brands

Mergers and acquisitions – Brand considerations

Keep one name and discontinue the other. The strongest legacy brand with the best prospects for the future lives on. In the merger of United Airlines and Continental Airlines, the United brand will continue forward, while Continental is retired.

Mergers and acquisitions – Brand considerations

Keep one name and demote the other. The strongest name becomes the company name and the weaker one is demoted to a divisional brand or product brand. An example is Caterpillar Inc. keeping the Bucyrus International name.

Mergers and acquisitions – Brand considerations

Keep both names and use them together. Some companies try to please everyone and keep the value of both brands by using them together. This can create an unwieldy name, as in the case of PricewaterhouseCoopers, which has since changed its brand name to “PwC”.

Mergers and acquisitions – Brand considerations

Discard both legacy names and adopt a totally new one. The classic example is the merger of Bell Atlantic with GTE, which became Verizon Communications. Not every merger with a new name is successful. By consolidating into YRC Worldwide, the company lost the considerable value of both Yellow Freight and Roadway Corp.

Mergers and acquisitions – Brand considerations

The factors influencing brand decisions in a merger or acquisition transaction can range from political to tactical. Ego can drive choice just as well as rational factors such as brand value and costs involved with changing brands.

Mergers and acquisitions – Brand considerations

Beyond the bigger issue of what to call the company after the transaction comes the ongoing detailed choices about what divisional, product and service brands to keep. The detailed decisions about the brand portfolio are covered under the topic brand architecture.

Mergers and acquisitions – History of M&A

Most histories of M&A begin in the late 19th U.S. However, mergers coincide historically with the existence of companies. In 1708, for example, the East India Company merged with an erstwhile competitor to restore its monopoly over Indian trade. In 1784, the Italian Monte dei Paschi and Monte Pio banks were united as the Monti Reuniti. In 1821, the Hudson’s Bay Company merged with the rival North West Company.

Mergers and acquisitions – The Great Merger Movement: 1895–1905

The Great Merger Movement was a predominantly U.S

Mergers and acquisitions – Short-run factors

One of the major short run factors that sparked The Great Merger Movement was the desire to keep prices high. However, high prices attracted the entry of new firms into the industry who sought to take a piece of the total product. With many firms in a market, supply of the product remains high.

Mergers and acquisitions – Short-run factors

A major catalyst behind the Great Merger Movement was the Panic of 1893, which led to a major decline in demand for many homogeneous goods

Mergers and acquisitions – Short-run factors

Another economic model proposed by Naomi R

Mergers and acquisitions – Short-run factors

One strategy to keep prices high and to maintain profitability was for producers of the same good to collude with each other and form associations, also known as cartels

Mergers and acquisitions – Long-run factors

In the long run, due to desire to keep costs low, it was advantageous for firms to merge and reduce their transportation costs thus producing and transporting from one location rather than various sites of different companies as in the past

Mergers and acquisitions – Long-run factors

===Merger The economic history has been divided into Merger Waves based on the merger activities in the business world as:

Mergers and acquisitions – Long-run factors

1981–1989 Fourth Wave Congeneric mergers; Hostile takeovers; Corporate Raiding

Mergers and acquisitions – Long-run factors

2003–2008 Sixth Wave Shareholder Activism, Private Equity, LBO

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A objectives in more recent merger waves

During the third merger wave (1965–1989), corporate marriages involved more diverse companies. Acquirers more frequently bought into different industries. Sometimes this was done to smooth out cyclical bumps, to diversify, the hope being that it would hedge an investment portfolio.

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A objectives in more recent merger waves

Starting in the fifth merger wave (1992–1998) and continuing today, companies are more likely to acquire in the same business, or close to it, firms that complement and strengthen an acquirer’s capacity to serve customers.

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A objectives in more recent merger waves

Buyers aren’t necessarily hungry for the target companies’ hard assets

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A objectives in more recent merger waves

Many companies are being bought for their patents, licenses, market share, name brand, research staff, methods, customer base, or culture. Soft capital, like this, is very perishable, fragile, and fluid. Integrating it usually takes more finesse and expertise than integrating machinery, real estate, inventory and other tangibles.

Mergers and acquisitions – Cross-border M&A

In a study conducted in 2000 by Lehman Brothers, it was found that, on average, large M&A deals cause the domestic currency of the target corporation to appreciate by 1% relative to the acquirer’s local currency.

Mergers and acquisitions – Cross-border M&A

The rise of globalization has exponentially increased the necessity for MAIC Trust accounts and securities clearing services for Like-Kind Exchanges for cross-border M&A

Mergers and acquisitions – Cross-border M&A

Even mergers of companies with headquarters in the same country can often be considered international in scale and require MAIC custodial services. For example, when Boeing acquired McDonnell Douglas, the two American companies had to integrate operations in dozens of countries around the world (1997). This is just as true for other apparently “single-country” mergers, such as the 29 billion-dollar merger of Swiss drug makers Sandoz and Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis).

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A failure

A book by Thomas Straub (2007) “Reasons for frequent failure in Mergers and Acquisitions” develops a comprehensive research framework that bridges different perspectives and promotes an understanding of factors underlying M&A performance in business research and scholarship

Mergers and acquisitions – M&A failure

Employee turnover contributes to M&A failures. The turnover in target companies is double the turnover experienced in non-merged firms for the ten years following the merger.

Mergers and acquisitions – 1990s

Top 10 M&A deals worldwide by value from 1990 to 1999:

Mergers and acquisitions – 1990s

Rank Year Purchaser Purchased Transaction value (in USD)

Mergers and acquisitions – 1990s

1 1999 Vodafone Airtouch PLC Mannesmann 202,000,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 1990s

4 1998 Citicorp Travelers Group 73,000,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 1990s

5 1999 SBC Communications Ameritech Corporation 63,000,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 1990s

6 1999 Vodafone Group AirTouch Communications 60,000,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 1990s

9 1999 Qwest Communications US WEST 48,000,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 2000s

1 2000 Fusion: AOL Inc. (America Online) Time Warner 164,747,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 2000s

3 2004 Royal Dutch Petroleum Company “Shell” Transport & Trading Co. 74,559,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 2000s

4 2006 AT&T Inc. BellSouth Corporation 72,671,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 2000s

10 2008 InBev Inc. Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. 52,000,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 2010–2013

Other notable M&A deals from 2010 to 2013 include:

Mergers and acquisitions – 2010–2013

2011 Berkshire Hathaway Lubrizol 9,220,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – 2010–2013

2013 Microsoft Corporation Nokia Handset & Services Business 7,200,000,000

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Aharon, D.Y., I. Gavious and R. Yosef, 2010. Stock market bubble effects on mergers and acquisitions. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 50(4): p. 456–470.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Cartwright, Susan; Schoenberg, Richard (2006). “Thirty Years of Mergers and Acquisitions Research: Recent Advances and Future Opportunities”. British Journal of Management 17 (S1): S1–S5. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00475.x.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Close, John Weir. A Giant Cow-tipping by Savages: The Boom, Bust, and Boom Culture of M&A. New York: Palgrave Macmilla. ISBN 9780230341814. OCLC 828246072.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

M&A insights: Up front – a fine balance. Deloitte.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

DePamphilis, Donald (2008). Mergers, Acquisitions, and Other Restructuring Activities. New York: Elsevier, Academic Press. p. 740. ISBN 978-0-12-374012-0.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Douma, Sytse & Hein Schreuder (2013). “Economic Approaches to Organizations”, chapter 13. 5th edition. London: Pearson. ISBN 0273735292 ISBN 9780273735298

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Fleuriet, Michel (2008). Investment Banking explained: An insider’s guide to the industry. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-149733-6.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Harwood, I. A. (2006). “Confidentiality constraints within mergers and acquisitions: gaining insights through a ‘bubble’ metaphor”. British Journal of Management 17 (4): 347–359. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00440.x.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Popp, Karl Michael (2013). Mergers and Acquisitions in the Software Industry – foundations of due diligence. Norderstedt: Books on demand. ISBN 978-3-7322-4381-5.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Rosenbaum, Joshua; Joshua Pearl (2009). Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers & Acquisitions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-470-44220-4.

Mergers and acquisitions – Further reading

Scott, Andy (2008). China Briefing: Mergers and Acquisitions in China (2nd ed.).

Red Hat – Mergers and acquisitions

Red Hat’s first major acquisition was Delix Computer GmbH-Linux Div, the Linux based Operating System division of Delix Computer, a German computer company, on July 30, 1999

Red Hat – Mergers and acquisitions

On December 14, 1998, Red Hat made its first divestment, when Intel and Netscape acquired undisclosed minority stakes in the company. The next year, on March 9, 1999, Compaq, IBM, Dell and Novell each acquired undisclosed minority stakes in Red Hat. The company’s largest acquisition was Cygnus Solutions in January 2000 for $674 million. Red Hat made the most acquisitions in 2000 with five: Cygnus Solutions, Bluecurve, Wirespeed Communications, Hell’s Kitchen Systems, and C2Net.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft

‘Microsoft Corporation’ is an American public company|public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington|Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions

List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft

Microsoft has not released financial details for most of these mergers and acquisitions.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft

Since Microsoft’s first acquisition in 1987, it has purchased an average of six companies a year

List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft

Microsoft has also purchased several stakes valued at more than a billion dollars. It obtained an 11.5% stake in Comcast for $1billion, a 22.98% stake in Telewest Communications for $2.263billion, and a 3% stake in ATT Inc. for $5billion. Among Microsoft’s divestments, in which parts of the company are sold to another company, only Expedia, Inc. was sold for more than a billion dollars; USA Networks purchased the company on February 5, 2002 for $1.372billion.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat

‘Red Hat, Inc.’ is an American Multinational corporation|multinational software company providing open-source software products to the enterprise community. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in Raleigh, North Carolina with satellite offices worldwide.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat

Red Hat has become associated to a large extent with its enterprise Operating System Red Hat Enterprise Linux and with the acquisition of open-source enterprise middleware (distributed applications)|middleware vendor JBoss (company)|JBoss. Red Hat provides Operating System platforms, middleware, applications, management products, and support, training, and consulting services.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat

Red Hat creates, maintains, and contributes to many free software projects and has also acquired several proprietary software|proprietary software packages and released their source code mostly under the GNU GPL while holding copyright under a single commercial entity and selling user subscriptions. , Red Hat is the largest corporate contributor to Linux (kernel)|Linux.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

In 1993 Bob Young (businessman)|Bob Young incorporated the ACC Corporation, a mail order|catalog business that sold Linux and Unix software accessories

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

Red Hat Initial public offering|went public on August 11, 1999, achieving the eighth-biggest first-day gain in the history of Wall Street

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

On November 15, 1999, Red Hat acquired Cygnus Solutions. Cygnus provided commercial support for free software and housed maintainers of GNU software products such as the GNU Debugger and GNU Binutils. One of the founders of Cygnus, Michael Tiemann, became the chief technical officer of Red Hat and the vice president of open source affairs. Later Red Hat acquired WireSpeed, C2Net and Hell’s Kitchen Systems.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

In February 2000, InfoWorld awarded Red Hat its fourth consecutive Operating System Product of the Year award for Red Hat Linux 6.1. Red Hat acquired Planning Technologies, Inc in 2001 and AOL’s iPlanet directory and certificate-server software in 2004.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

Red Hat moved its headquarters from Durham, North Carolina, to N.C. State University’s Centennial Campus in Raleigh, North Carolina in February 2002. In the following month Red Hat introduced Red Hat Linux Advanced Server, later renamed Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). Dell, IBM, Hewlett-Packard|HP and Oracle Corporation announced their support of the platform.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

In December 2005 CIO Insight magazine conducted its annual Vendor Value Survey, in which Red Hat ranked #1 in value for the second year in a row. Red Hat stock became part of the NASDAQ-100 on December 19, 2005.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

Red Hat acquired open-source middleware provider JBoss (company)|JBoss on June 5, 2006 and JBoss became a division of Red Hat

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

On March 15, 2007, Red Hat released Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, and in June acquired Mobicents. On March 13, 2008, Red Hat acquired Amentra, a provider of systems integration services for service-oriented architecture, business process management, systems development and enterprise data services. Amentra operates as an independent company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

On July 27, 2009, Red Hat replaced CIT Group in SP 500|Standard and Poor’s 500 stock index, a diversified index of 500 leading companies of the US economy.[ press.redhat.com/2009/07/27/red-hat-included-in-sampp-500-index/ Red Hat Included in SP 500 Index]. Red Hat Press Release. This was reported as a major milestone for Linux.[ linux.slashdot.org/story/09/07/18/1327248/Red-Hat-Is-Now-Part-of-the-SampP-500 Red Hat Is Now Part of the SP 500]. Slashdot.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

On December 15, 2009, it was reported that Red Hat will pay $8.8 million to settle a class action lawsuit related to the restatement of financial results from July 2004. The suit had been pending in US District Court in North Carolina. Red Hat reached the proposed settlement agreement and recorded a one-time charge of $8.8 million for the quarter that ended Nov. 30.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

On January 10, 2011, Red Hat announced that it would expand its headquarters in two phases, adding 540 employees to the Raleigh operation, and investing over $109 million. The state of North Carolina is offering up to $15 million in incentives. The second phase involves expansion into new technologies such as software visualization and technology cloud offerings.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

On August 25, 2011, Red Hat announced it would move about 600 employees from the Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University|N.C. State Centennial Campus to Two Progress Plaza downtown. A ribbon cutting ceremony was held June 24, 2013 in the re-branded Red Hat Headquarters.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – History

In 2012, Red Hat became the first one-billion dollar open source company, reaching $1.13 billion in annual revenue during its fiscal year.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Fedora Project

Red Hat sponsors the Fedora Project, a community-supported open-source project that aims to promote the rapid progress of free and open-source software and content. Fedora aims for rapid innovation using open processes and public forums.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Fedora Project

The Fedora Project Board, which comprises community leaders and representatives of Red Hat, leadership|leads the project and steers the direction of the project and of Fedora (Operating System)|Fedora, the Linux distribution it develops. Red Hat employees work with the code alongside community members, and many innovations within the Fedora Project make their way into new releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Business model

Red Hat partly operates on a professional open-source business model based on open source code|open code, development within a community, professional quality assurance, and subscription-based customer support. They produce open-source code, so more programmers can make further adaptations and improvements.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Business model

Red Hat sells subscriptions for the support, training, and integration services that help customers in using open-source software. Customers pay one set price for unlimited access to services such as Red Hat Network and up to 24/7 support.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – One Laptop per Child

Red Hat engineers work with the One Laptop per Child initiative (a non-profit organization established by members of the MIT Media Lab) to design and produce an inexpensive laptop and provide every child in the world with access to open communication, open knowledge, and open learning. The OLPC XO-1|XO-4 laptop, the machine of this project, runs a slimmed-down version of Fedora (Operating System)|Fedora 17 as its Operating System.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Dogtail

Dogtail, an open-source automated graphical user interface (GUI) test framework initially developed by Red Hat, consists of free software released under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and is written in Python (programming language)|Python. It allows developers to build and test their applications. Red Hat announced the release of Dogtail at the 2006 Red Hat Summit.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – MRG

Red Hat MRG is a cluster (computing)|clustering infrastructure platform intended for integrated high-performance computing (HPC). The acronym MRG stands for Messaging Realtime Grid.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – MRG

Red Hat Enterprise MRG (Messaging, Real-time, and Grid) replaces the Red Hat Enterprise Linux|RHEL kernel in order to provide extra support for real-time computing, together with middleware support for message brokerage and scheduling workload to local or remote virtual machines, grid computing|grid, and cloud computing|cloud infrastructures.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – MRG

Red Hat now works with the Condor High-Throughput Computing System community and also provides support for the software.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – MRG

The platform strives to incorporate all the above aspects of HPC into one IT infrastructure for better performance, reliability, and interoperability. It claims to simplify and automate a range of IT tasks of deployment, operation, managing and monitoring of clustered and distributed infrastructure and applications.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – opensource.com

Red Hat produces the online publication opensource.com. It brings together issues of interest from the open source community, highlighting how open source principles apply beyond software and technology. It covers topics such as business, education, government, law, health, and life, updates readers on public licensing and the Creative Commons, and it features interviews with some computer industry|industry leadership|leaders and open source people.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – opensource.com

The company originally produced a newsletter called Under the Brim. Wide Open magazine first appeared in March 2004 as a means for Red Hat to share technical content with subscribers on a regular basis. The Under the Brim newsletter and Wide Open magazine merged in November 2004 to become Red Hat Magazine. Red Hat Magazine later became opensource.com.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Red Hat Exchange

In 2007 Red Hat announced that it had reached an agreement with some free software and open-source software|open source (FOSS) companies that allowed it to make a distribution portal called Red Hat Exchange, reselling FOSS software with the original branding intact.[ techiqmag.com/2007/03/14/red-hat-launches-business-application-stacks/ Red Hat Prepares Business Application Stacks] However, by 2010 Red Hat had abandoned the Exchange program to focus their efforts more on their Open Source Channel Alliance which began in April 2009.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – OpenShift

Red Hat operates OpenShift, a cloud computing platform as a service, supporting applications written in Node.js, PHP, Perl, Python (programming language)|Python, Ruby (programming language)|Ruby, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition|JavaEE and more.[https://www.redhat.com/openshift/community/faq Redhat.com]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Other projects

Red Hat has some employees working full-time on free and open source software projects, such as two full-time employees working on the free software graphics hardware and FOSS#ATI/AMD|radeon (David Airlie and Jerome Glisse[ www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_itempx=ODg5Nw AMD’s Hiring Another Open-Source Driver Developer] Phoronix, December 11, 2010 (Article by Michael Larabel)) and one full-time employee working on the free software nouveau (graphics)|nouveau graphic drivers.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Utilities and tools

Over and above Red Hat’s major products and acquisitions, Red Hat programmers have produced software programming-tools and utility software|utilities to supplement standard Unix and Linux software. Some of these Red Hat products have found their way from specifically Red Hat operating environments via open-source channels to a wider community. Such utilities include:

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Utilities and tools

* sosreport – gathers system hardware and configuration details

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Utilities and tools

* systemtap – tracing tool for Linux kernels, developed with IBM, Hitachi, Oracle and Intel

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Utilities and tools

The Red Hat website lists the organization’s major involvements in free and open-source software projects.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Utilities and tools

Community projects under the aegis of Red Hat include:

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Utilities and tools

* the Pulp application for software repository management.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Red Hat India

Red Hat, Inc created its subsidiary ‘Red Hat India’ to deliver Red Hat software, support, and services to customers in India

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Red Hat India

In 2006 Red Hat India had a distribution network of more than 70 channel partners spanning 27 cities across India. Red Hat India’s channel partners included Ashtech Infotech Pvt Ltd, Efensys Technologies, Embee Software, Allied Digital Services, and Softcell Technologies. Distributors included Integra Microsystems, Ingram Micro, GT Enterprises, and Sonata Software.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Red Hat – Mergers and acquisitions

Red Hat’s first major acquisition was Delix Computer GmbH-Linux Div, the Linux based Operating System division of Delix Computer, a Germany|German computer company, on July 30, 1999

Facebook, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5million in domain sales income, making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history.

Lenovo smartphones – Mergers and acquisitions

Lenovo sold its mobile phone division in 2008 to focus on its personal computer business and then paid $200 million to buy it back in November 2009. Lenovo re-acquired its mobile division to focus on mobile internet devices such as smart-phones and tablet computers.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Google

Google is a computer software and a web search engine company that has been acquiring, on average, more than one company per week since 2010

List of mergers and acquisitions by Google

Google has acquired over 100 companies, with its largest acquisition being the purchase of Motorola Mobility, a mobile device manufacturing company, for $12.5 billion

List of mergers and acquisitions by Google

Many List of Google products|Google products originated as services provided by companies that Google has since acquired

List of mergers and acquisitions by Google

Following the acquisition of Israel-based startup Waze in June 2013, Google submitted a 10-Q filing with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) that revealed that the corporation spent US$1.3 billion on acquisitions during the first half of 2013, with US$966 million of that total going to Waze.

Competition law – Mergers and acquisitions

The reasons for oversight of economic concentrations by the state are the same as the reasons to restrict firms who abuse a position of dominance, only that regulation of mergers and acquisitions attempts to deal with the problem before it arises, ex ante prevention of market dominance.In the case of [T-102/96] Gencor Ltd v

Competition law – Mergers and acquisitions

No person shall acquire, directly or indirectly, the whole or any part of the stock or other share capital… of the assets of one or more persons engaged in commerce or in any activity affecting commerce, where… the effect of such acquisition, of such stocks or assets, or of the use of such stock by the voting or granting of proxies or otherwise, may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly.Clayton Act Section 7, codified at

Competition law – Mergers and acquisitions

What amounts to a substantial lessening of, or significant impediment to competition is usually answered through empirical study

Software industry – Mergers and acquisitions

The software industry has been subject to a high degree of consolidation over the past couple of decades. From 1988 to 2010, 41,136 mergers and acquisitions have been announced with a total known value of US$1,451 billion ($1.45 trillion). The highest number and value of deals was set in 2000 during the high times of the dot-com bubble with 6,757 transactions valued at $447 billion. In 2010, 1,628 deals were announced valued at $49 billion.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Facebook

Facebook is a social networking company. Each acquisition is for the respective company in its entirety, unless otherwise specified. The Takeover|acquisition date listed is the date of the agreement between Facebook and the subject of the acquisition. The value of each acquisition is listed in US dollars because Facebook’s headquarters is in the United States. If the Facebook service that is derived from the acquired company is known, then it is also listed here.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Facebook

Facebook has acquired 10 companies with its largest acquisition being the purchase of Instagram. It also purchased the defunct company ConnectU in a court settlement and acquired intellectual property formerly held by rival Friendster. The majority of the companies acquired by Facebook are based in the United States, and in turn, a large percentage of these companies are based in or around the San Francisco Bay Area. Facebook has also made investments in LuckyCal and Wildfire Interactive.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Facebook

Most of Facebook’s acquisitions have been ‘Acqui-hire|talent acquisitions’ and acquired products are often shut-down

Rio Tinto Group – Major mergers and acquisitions

Like many major mining companies, the Rio Tinto Group has historically grown through a series of mergers and acquisitions.

Deutsche Börse – Mergers and acquisitions

Since 2007 Deutsche Börse operates the joint venture Scoach with SIX Swiss Exchange to provide a European Derivative (finance)|derivative trading platform.

Deutsche Börse – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2001, Deutsche Börse tried to merge with the London Stock Exchange, followed by a takeover bid in late 2004, both rejected by LSE. After CEO Werner Seifert was forced to resign by the main shareholders in 2005, Deutsche Börse changed plans and entered into advanced negotiations for a merger with Euronext which would have brought two of the biggest stock exchanges in Europe into one holding. The New York Stock Exchange beat out Deutsche Börse’s final bid for Euronext in 2006.

HarperSanFrancisco – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1989, Collins was bought by Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, and the publisher was combined with Harper Row, which NewsCorp had acquired two years earlier. In addition to the simplified and merged name, the logo for HarperCollins was derived from the torch logo for Harper and Row, and the fountain logo for Collins, which were combined into a stylized set of flames atop waves.

HarperSanFrancisco – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1999, News Corporation purchased the Hearst Book Group, consisting of William Morrow Company and Avon Books. These imprints are now published under the rubric of HarperCollins.

HarperSanFrancisco – Mergers and acquisitions

HarperCollins bought educational publisher Letts and Lonsdale in March 2010.

HarperSanFrancisco – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2011, HarperCollins announced they had agreed to acquire the publisher Thomas Nelson (publisher)|Thomas Nelson. The purchase was completed on July 11, 2012 with an announcement that Thomas Nelson would operate independently given the position it has in Christian book publishing.

Deutsche Post – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1999, Deutsche Post World Net acquired the Dutch distribution company Van Gend Loos (est

China Southern Airlines – Mergers and acquisitions

In July 2000, the CAAC announced that the ten airlines under its direct management will be merged into three airline groups, revolving around Air China, China Eastern Airlines and China Southern itself

China Southern Airlines – Mergers and acquisitions

On 29 September 2003, the airline placed an order with Airbus for 4 Rolls-Royce Trent 700|Trent 700-powered Airbus A330|Airbus A330-200s, to be delivered from 2005

China Southern Airlines – Mergers and acquisitions

On the same day, a China Southern Airlines Boeing 777–200 originating from Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport landed in Taipei, becoming the first Mainland China|mainland Chinese to land in the Republic of China since 1949, when the Kuomintang were involved in Chinese Civil War|the war with the Communist Party of China

China Southern Airlines – Mergers and acquisitions

On 6 September 2005, China Southern Airlines along with CASGC placed an order for a further 10 Airbus A330 wide-body airliners: 8 A330-300s and 2 A330-200s

China Southern Airlines – Mergers and acquisitions

In June 2006, China Southern Airlines confirmed another order of 3 Boeing 737-700s and 7 Boeing 737-800s

China Southern Airlines – Mergers and acquisitions

On 20 August 2007, China Southern Airlines announced its intention for an order of 25 Boeing 737|Boeing 737-700s and 30 Boeing 737|Boeing 737-800s, which will be delivered from May 2011 to October 2013

Spansion – Mergers and acquisitions

In October 2007 Spansion announced that it was acquiring Israel-based non-volatile memory provider ‘Saifun Semiconductors Ltd.’ (Nasdaq: SFUN)

Spansion – Mergers and acquisitions

Saifun Semiconductors was founded in 1996 by Boaz Eitan in Netanya, Israel. In March 18, 2008, Saifun Semiconductors Ltd. became a subsidiary of Spansion Inc.

Spansion – Mergers and acquisitions

In April 2013, Spansion announced they would acquire the Microcontroller and Analog Business of Fujitsu Semiconductor for approximately $110 million, plus approximately $65 million for inventory.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; Stonesoft acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On Monday, May 6, 2013 McAfee began a tender offer for Finnish network firewall design company Stonesoft Oyj worth $389 million in cash, or about $6.09 a share.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; ValidEdge acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On February 26, 2013 McAfee announced it had acquired the ValidEdge sandboxing technology.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; NitroSecurity acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On October 4, 2011, McAfee announced its intention to acquire privately owned NitroSecurity, NitroSecurity develops high-performance security information and event management (SIEM) solutions that protect critical information and infrastructure. NitroSecurity solutions reduce risk exposure and increase network and information availability by removing the scalability and performance limitations of security information management. The acquisition closed on November 30, 2011.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; Sentrigo acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On March 23, 2011, McAfee announced its intention to acquire privately owned Sentrigo, a leading provider of database security, including vulnerability management, database activity monitoring, database audit, and virtual patching—which ensure databases are protected without impacting performance or availability. The acquisition enables McAfee to extend its database security portfolio. The acquisition closed on April 6, 2011.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; tenCube acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On July 29, 2010, McAfee announced a definitive agreement to acquire tenCube, a privately held online security company that specialized in anti-theft and data security for mobile devices.[ www.mcafee.com/us/about/news/2010/q3/20100729-02.aspx McAfee, Inc

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On May 25, 2010, McAfee announced a definitive agreement to acquire Trust Digital, a privately held online security company that specialized in security for mobile devices. The acquisition allowed McAfee to extend its services beyond traditional endpoint security and move into the mobile security market. The acquisition closed on June 3, 2010. The price for Trust Digital was not disclosed

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On July 30, 2009, McAfee announced plans to acquire managed email and web security vendor MX Logic. The acquisition provided an enhanced range of SaaS-based security services such as cloud-based intelligence, web security, email security, endpoint security and vulnerability assessment. The deal closed on September 1, 2009 at a price of $140million. MX Logic staff has been integrated into McAfee’s SaaS business unit.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; Solidcore Systems acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On May 15, 2009, McAfee announced its intention acquire Solidcore Systems, a privately held security company, for $33million. Solidcore was a maker of software that helped companies protect ATMs and other specialized computers. The acquisition integrated Solidcore’s whitelisting and compliance enforcement mechanisms into the McAfee product line. The deal closed on June 1, 2009.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; Endeavor acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: In January 2009, McAfee announced plans to acquire Endeavor Security, a privately held maker of IPS/IDS technology. The deal closed in February 2009 for a total purchase price of $3.2million.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; Secure Computing acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On September 22, 2008, McAfee announced an agreement to acquire Secure Computing, a company specializing in network security hardware, services, and software products. The acquisition expanded McAfee’s business in securing networks and cloud computing services to offer a more comprehensive brand of products. The deal closed on November 19, 2008 at a price of $497million.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; Reconnex acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On July 31, 2008, McAfee announced it would acquire Reconnex, a maker of data protection appliances and software. Reconnex sold data loss prevention software, designed to prevent sensitive documents and data from leaving corporate networks. The acquisition added content awareness to McAfee’s data security portfolio. The $46million deal closed on August 12, 2008.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; ScanAlert acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On October 30, 2007, McAfee announced plans to acquire ScanAlert for $51million. The acquisition integrated ScanAlert’s Hacker Safe service and McAfee’s SiteAdvisor rating system to attack website security from both sides. It was the industry’s first service to help consumers stay safe as they searched, surfed and shopped. The deal closed on February 7, 2008.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; SafeBoot Holding B.V. acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On October 8, 2007, McAfee announced it would acquire SafeBoot Holding B.V

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On October 16, 2006, McAfee announced it would acquire Israel based Onigma Ltd for $20million. Onigma provides host-based data leakage protection software that prevents intentional and unintentional leakage of sensitive data by internal users.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; SiteAdvisor acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On April 5, 2006, McAfee bought out SiteAdvisor for a reputed $70million in competition with Symantec, a service that warns users if downloading software or filling out forms on a site may obtain malware or spam.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

; IntruVert Networks acquisition

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On April 2, 2003, McAfee acquired IntruVert Networks for $100million. According to Network World, IntruVert’s technology focus is on intrusion-prevention, which entails not just detecting attacks, but blocking them. The IntruVert product line can be used as a passive intrusion-detection system, just watching and reporting, or it can be used in the intrusion-prevention mode of blocking a perceived attack.

McAfee – Mergers and acquisitions

: On June 9, 1998, Network Associates agreed to acquire Dr Solomon’s Antivirus|Dr Solomon’s Group PLC, the leading European manufacturer of antivirus software, for $642million in stock.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple

Apple had not released the financial details for most of these mergers and acquisitions.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple

Apple’s business philosophy is to acquire small companies that can be easily integrated into existing company projects. For example, Apple acquired Emagic and its professional music software, Logic Pro, in 2002. The acquisition led to the creation of the digital audio workstation software, GarageBand, now part of the iLife software suite.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple

The company made its first acquisition on March 2, 1988 when it purchased Network Innovations

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Acquired by Bain Capital in Sept 2011[http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/breaking-news/bain-capital-confirms-myob-buyout/story-e6frf7jx-1226127680789 Bain Capital confirms MYOB buyout], From: AAP, September 01, 2011

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* ilisys on 28 February 2008

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Comacc Limited on 1 August 2006

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Macquarie Outsource Pty Ltd and Macquarie Outsource Sdn Bhd on 30 March 2006

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Conto Ltd and JumpStart Computer Accounting and Trainers Ltd on 31 January 2006[http://myob.com/servlet/Satellite?blobcol=urlfileblobheader=application%2Fpdfblobheadername1=Content-Dispositionblobheadervalue1=attachment%3B+filename%3D2006_Half_Year_Financial_Statements%2C0.pdfblobkey=idblobnocache=trueblobtable=Downloadblobwhere=1154415704168cachecontrol=*%3A15%2C30%2C45%2C59%3A0+*%2F*%2F*ssbinary=true 2006_Half_Year_Financial_Statements], pdf document.

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Rorquals Business Solutions Limited on 23 November 2000

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* SeaSoft Computer Services Sdn Bhd on 9 October 2000

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

Acquisitions by Solution 6 before merger with MYOB

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Xlon Pty Ltd and parent company Ceedata Holdings on 8 December

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* VIZTOPIA Software Limited and parent company MICL Holdings Limited on 19 September

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

Acquisitions by Data-Tech Software Pty Ltd before changing name to MYOB

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Teletax Systems Pty Ltd on 8 October

MYOB (company) – Mergers and acquisitions

* Bestware in

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM

The following is a partial ‘list of IBM precursors, acquisitions and spinoffs’. IBM has undergone a large number of mergers and acquisitions during a corporate history lasting over a century; the company has also produced a number of Spin out|spinoffs during that time.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM

The Takeover|acquisition date listed is the date of the agreement between IBM and the subject of the acquisition. The value of each acquisition is listed in US$ because IBM is based in the United States. If the value of an acquisition is not listed, then it is undisclosed.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

*1889 Bundy Manufacturing Company incorporated.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

*1891 Computing Scale Company incorporated.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

*1894 Willard Frick Manufacturing Company (Rochester, New York) incorporated.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

**Detroit Automatic Scale Company incorporated.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

**Tabulating Machine Company incorporated.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

*1899 Standard Time Stamp Company acquired by Bundy Manufacturing Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

**International Time Recording Company incorporated, acquiring the time-recording business of the Bundy Manufacturing Company and the Willard Frick Manufacturing Company (Rochester).

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

**Chicago Time-Register Company acquired by International Time Recording Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

**Dayton Moneyweight Scale Company acquired by Computing Scale Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

**Detroit Automatic Scale Company acquired by Computing Scale Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

*1907 Dey Time Register Company acquired by International Time Recording Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Precursors 1889 – 1910

*1908 Syracuse Time Recorder Company acquired by International Time Recording Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Computing Tabulating Recording Company, 1911

The ‘Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR)’,[http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/logo/logo_4.html IBM Archives: Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (1911–1924)]

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Computing Tabulating Recording Company, 1911

*Computing Scale Corporation

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1912 – 1929

**American Automatic Scale Company acquired as International Scale Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1912 – 1929

**C-T-R opens in Canada as International Business Machines Company Limited.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1912 – 1929

**Pierce Accounting Machine Company (asset purchase).

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1930 – 1949

*1930 Automatic Accounting Scale Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1930 – 1949

*1932 National Counting Scale Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1970 – 1989

*1974 CML Satellite Corporation; renamed Satellite Business Systems (SBS).

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1970 – 1989

*1986 RealCom Communications Corporation.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1990 – 1999

**Transarc (Transarc Corporation bought by IBM in 1994, became part of IBM proper in 1999 as the IBM Pittsburgh Lab)

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1990 – 1999

**Lotus Development Corporation for $3.5 billion.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1990 – 1999

**Object Technology International (OTI) is acquired by IBM

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1990 – 1999

**Unison Software.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1990 – 1999

**Dominion Semiconductor (Manassas, VA) is created by forming a 50/50 joint venture with Toshiba to produce 64MB and 256MB DRAM chips. Administrative offices are located in Building 131 the former IBM Federal Systems campus now primarily owned by Lockheed Martin; the new state-of-the-art fabrication facility was built from on adjacent land.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – 1990 – 1999

**Ubique (company)|Ubique Ltd., Israel

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1934 Dayton Scale Division is sold to the Hobart Manufacturing Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1958 Time Equipment Division is sold to the SimplexGrinnell|Simplex Time Recorder Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1972 SAP AG|SAP, world-leader in collaborative business software, founded by five former IBM employees (then System Analyse und Programmentwicklung)

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1974 Service Bureau Corporation sold to Control Data Corporation

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1984 Prodigy (ISP)|Prodigy, formerly a joint venture with Sears, Roebuck and Company.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1985 Satellite Business Systems sold to MCI Communications

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1988 Copier/Duplicator business, including service and support contracts, sold to Eastman Kodak.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*ARDIS mobile packet network, a joint venture with Motorola. Now [http://www.motient.com Motient].

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1991 Lexmark (keyboards, typewriters, and printers). IBM retained a 10% interest. Lexmark has sold its keyboard and typewriter businesses.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1991 Kalieda, a joint Multimedia software venture with Apple Computer.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1992 Taligent, a joint software venture with Apple Computer.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1992 IBM Commercial Multimedia Technologies Group, spun off to form private company Fairway Technologies.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1992 IBM sells its remaining 50 percent stake in the Rolm Company to Siemens A.G. of Germany.[http://www.nytimes.com/1992/05/08/business/company-news-rolm-sale-by-ibm-to-siemens.html] Lohr, S., Rolm Sale By I.B.M. To Siemens, New York Times, May 8, 1992.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1994 [http://www.xyratex.com Xyratex] enterprise data storage subsystems and network technology, formed in a management buy-out from IBM.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1995 Advantis (Advanced Value-Added Networking Technology of IBM Sears), a voice and data network company. Joint Venture with IBM holding 70%, Sears holding 30%. ATT acquires the infrastructure portion of Advantis in 1999, becoming the ATT Global Network. IBM retained business and strategic outsourcing portions of the joint venture.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1994 Federal Systems Division sold to Loral becoming Loral Federal Systems. The Federal Systems Division performed work for NASA. Loral was later acquired by Lockheed Martin.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1996 Celestica, Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS).

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1998 IBM Global Network sold to ATT to form ATT Business Internet.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*1999 Dominion Semiconductor (DSC) IBM sells its 50% share to JV partner Toshiba. DSC becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of Toshiba.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*2001 Information Services Extended department, developer of specialized databases and software for telephone directory assistance, is spun off to form privately held company ISx, Inc (later sold to [http://www.localmatters.com Local Matters]).

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*December 31, 2002 IBM sells its HDD business to Hitachi Global Storage Technologies for approximately $2 billion. Hitachi Global Storage Technologies now provides many of the hardware storage devices formerly provided by IBM, including IBM Harddrives The Hitachi Microdrive|Microdrive. IBM continues to develop storage systems, including Tape Drive|tape backup, storage software and enterprise storage.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*December 2004 Lenovo Group acquires 90% interest in IBM Personal Systems Group, 10,000 employees and $9 billion in revenue.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*April 3, 2006 Web analytics provider Coremetrics acquires SurfAid Analytics, a standalone division of IBM Global Services. The deal was said to be in the eight-figure range, making it worth at least $10 million. (Note: Since then Coremetrics has in turn been acquired by IBM)

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*January 25, 2007 Three-year joint venture with IBM Printing Systems division and Ricoh to form new Ricoh-owned subsidiary, InfoPrint Solutions Company, for $725 million.

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*September 2009 IBM launches online business IT video advice service in association with [http://www.guruonline.tv/it GuruOnline].

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*September 2009 IBM sells its U2 multivalue database and application development products (created by VMark, UniData, System Builder and Prime Computer, obtained via the Informix acquisition) to Rocket Software

List of mergers and acquisitions by IBM – Spinoffs

*April 2012 IBM sells its Retail Store Solutions division (Point-of-Sales) to Toshiba|Toshiba TEC

UUNET – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1996, UUNET was acquired by WorldCom as part of WorldCom’s purchase of MFS Communications Company.

UUNET – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2001, UUNET was fully integrated with WorldCom and the name was dropped from all official documents.

UUNET – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2002, the owner of UUNET at that time (WorldCom) filed for what was then the largest Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in history.

UUNET – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2005, its Internet service and infrastructure, assigned Autonomous system (Internet)|AS701 maintained the highest outdegree of any ISP.

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*In May 2005: Trend Micro acquired InterMute Inc., a developer of anti-spyware products.

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*In June 2005: Acquired Kelkea Inc; an IP filtering and reputation company.[http://us.trendmicro.com/us/about/news/pr/article/20070124151859.html Trend Micro press release announcing Kelkea acquisition]Everett, Cath (2005-06-15) [http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/business/soa/Trend-Micro-tackles-spam-with-Kelkea-buy/0,139023166,139197082,00.htm Trend Micro tackles spam with Kelkea buy] ZDNet

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*In February 2007: Acquired HijackThis, an antispyware program from Merijn Bellekom|Merijn[http://news.cnet.com/Trend-Micro-acquires-HijackThis-antispyware-tool/2100-7355_3-6167308.html Trend Micro acquires HijackThis antispyware tool] CNET

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*On October 25, 2007: Acquired Provilla, Inc; a provider of data loss prevention solutions.[http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Security/Trend-Micro-to-Snap-Up-Provilla-for-DLP/ Trend Micro to Snap Up Provilla for DLP] eWeek

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*On February 25, 2008: Acquired Identum Ltd; a provider of ID-based cryptography (IBE)

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*On April 29, 2009: Acquired Third Brigade; a provider of intrusion detection and prevention (IDS/IPS) systems.

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*On June 10, 2010: Acquired humyo; an online storage and data synchronization company, based in Leeds, UK[http://news.cnet.com/8301-1009_3-20007582-83.html Trend Micro to Buy Cloud Storage Provider Humyo] CNET

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*On November 29, 2010: Acquired Mobile Armor; an innovative encryption specialist based in St. Louis, Missouri, USA[http://us.trendmicro.com/us/partners/strategic-partners/mobile-armor/index.html Mobile Armor to be acquired by Trend Micro for expanded data protection] Trend Micro Inc.

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*On June 16, 2012: Acquired AffirmTrust; a provider of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates needed for secure web-based transactions[http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/blog/mass-high-tech/2012/06/affirmtrust-acquired-by-billion-dollar.html AffirmTrust acquired by billion-dollar Japanese company]

Trend Micro – Mergers and acquisitions

*On October 10, 2013: Acquired Broadweb; a Taiwan-based provider of advanced network security solutions[http://newsroom.trendmicro.com/index.php?s=43year=0type=currentnews_item=1074]

Software Company – Mergers and acquisitions

The software industry has been subject to a high degree of consolidation over the past couple of decades. From 1988 to 2010, 41,136 mergers and acquisitions have been announced with a total known value of US$1,451 billion ($1.45 trillion). The highest number and value of deals was set in 2000 during the high times of the dot-com bubble with 6,757 transactions valued at $447 billion. In 2010, 1,628 deals were announced valued at $49 billion.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Symantec

Symantec has not released the financial details for most of these mergers and acquisitions.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Symantec

Symantec’s first acquisition was CE Software on January 1, 1984, and the founder of CE Software, Gordon Eubanks, became the new chief executive officer of Symantec

Law firm – Mergers and acquisitions between law firms

Mergers, acquisitions, division and reorganizations occur between law firms as in other businesses

Law firm – Mergers and acquisitions between law firms

Law firm mergers tend to be assortative mating|assortative, in that only law firms operating in similar legal systems are likely to merge. For example, U.S. firms will often merge with English law firms, or law firms from other common law jurisdictions. A notable exception is King Wood Mallesons, a multinational law firm that is the result of a merger between an Australian law firm and a Chinese law firm.

Law firm – Mergers and acquisitions between law firms

Though mergers are more common among better economies, slowing down a bit during recessions, big firms sometimes use mergers as a strategy to boost revenue during a recession

Global Crossing – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1999, the company acquired Global Crossing North America|Frontier Corporation, the former Frontier Telephone of Rochester|Rochester Telephone Corporation, and renamed it Global Crossing North America, Inc. It sold its local telephone operations and the Frontier name in 2001 to Citizens Communications, which renamed itself Frontier Communications in 2008.

Global Crossing – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2011, Level 3 Communications announced its intention to purchase Global Crossing.www.theregister.co.uk/2011/04/11/global_crossing_buyout/ On July 27, 2011, the two companies announced their financial data for the second quarter of 2011, and almost all business sectors had a slight increase.Seeking Alpha

US corporate law – Mergers and acquisitions

*Unitrin, Inc. v. American General Corp.

Internal competition – Effects of mergers and acquisitions on self-competition

Self-competition is a common side-effect of mergers and acquisitions, as the new combined business often has similar products and nearby retail locations

European company law – Mergers and acquisitions

*Third Company Law Directive [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31978L0855:EN:NOT 78/855/EEC], on mergers of public limited liability companies, repealed by [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32011L0035:EN:NOT 2011/35/EU]

European company law – Mergers and acquisitions

*Sixth Company Law Directive [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31982L0891:EN:NOT 82/891/EEC], on division of public companies, amended by [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32007L0063:EN:NOT 2007/63/EC]

European company law – Mergers and acquisitions

*Tenth Company Law Directive [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32005L0056:EN:NOT 2005/56/EC], on cross-border mergers of limited liability companies

European company law – Mergers and acquisitions

*Thirteenth Company Law Directive [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32004L0025:EN:NOT 2004/25/EC], on takeover bids

European company law – Mergers and acquisitions

*Merger Tax Directive [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31990L0434:EN:NOT 90/434/EEC], on the common system of taxation applicable to mergers, divisions, transfers of assets and exchanges of shares concerning companies of different Member States, repealed by [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32009L0133:EN:NOT 2009/133/EC]

UK company law – Mergers and acquisitions

The market for corporate control, where parties compete to buy controlling stakes in companies, is seen seen by some as an important, although perhaps limited, mechanism for the board of directors’ accountability.The extent is debated

UK company law – Mergers and acquisitions

Even with the UK’s non-frustration principle directors always still have the option to persuade their shareholders through informed and reasoned argument that the share price offer is too low, or that the bidder may have ulterior motives that are bad for the company’s employees, or for its ethical image

UK company law – Mergers and acquisitions

Beyond rules restricting takeover defences, a series of rules are in place to partly protect, and partly impose obligations on minority shareholders

Private investment in public equity – PIPEs and mergers and acquisitions

Many reverse takeover|reverse mergers are accompanied by a simultaneous PIPE transaction, which is typically undertaken by smaller public companies. Shares are sold at a slight discount to the public market price, and the company typically agrees to use its best efforts to register the resale of those same securities for the benefit of the purchaser.

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law

‘Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law’ refers to a body of law that covers companies, labour, and competition, which is engaged when firms restructure their affairs in the course of business.

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Company law

In company law there are three main areas that regulate mergers and acquisitions (also, reconstructions or takeovers). There are three main areas of law, those to do with schemes of arrangement overseen by a court, those for general Reconstruction (law)|reconstructions, demergers, amalgamations and so on that are not overseen by a court, and takeovers, which concern acquisitions of public companies.

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Scheme of arrangement

*Insolvency Act 1986, ss.110-111, on schemes of arrangement or Reconstruction (law)|reconstructions

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Scheme of arrangement

*Re Anglo-Continental Supply Co Ltd [1922] 2 Ch 723, per Astbury J

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Reconstructions

*Companies Act 2006, Parts 26 (ss.895-901) and Part 27 (special rules for public companies), on arrangements, reconstructions, mergers (or amalgamations) or divisions (demerger or scission). The rules here implement the Third and Sixth EC Company law directives.

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Reconstructions

*Re Alabama, New Orleans, Texas and Pacific Junction Railway Co. [1891] 1 CH 213, per Lindley LJ

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Reconstructions

*Re Hawk Insurance Co Ltd [2001] 2 BCLC 675; [2002] BCC 300, per Chadwick LJ

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Reconstructions

*Re Equitable Life Assurance Society [2002] BCC 319

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

Takeovers refers to acquisitions of one company by another

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

More generally, the City Code on Takeovers and MergersText of the [http://www.thetakeoverpanel.org.uk/new/codesars/DATA/code.pdf City Code on Takeovers and Mergers](also called City Code or Takeover Code) lays down rules for a takeover, found in the so called Blue Book

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

The Code requires that all shareholders in a company should be treated equally, regulates when and what information companies must and cannot release publicly in relation to the bid, sets timetables for certain aspects of the bid, and sets minimum bid levels following a previous purchase of shares.

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

* a shareholder must make an offer when its shareholding, including that of parties acting in concert (a concert party (business)|concert party), reaches 30% of the target (mandatory bid rule);

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

* information relating to the bid must not be released except by announcements regulated by the Code;

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

* the bidder must make an announcement if rumour or speculation have affected a company’s share price;

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

* the level of the offer must not be less than any price paid by the bidder in the three months before the announcement of a firm intention to make an offer;

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

* if shares are bought during the offer period at a price higher than the offer price, the offer must be increased to that price;

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Takeovers

The Rules Governing the Substantial Acquisition of Shares, which used to accompany the Code and which regulated the announcement of certain levels of shareholdings, have now been abolished,see the Takeover Panel’s [http://www.thetakeoverpanel.org.uk/new/consultation/DATA//RS200504.pdf statement] in 2006 because it was viewed to be unnecessarily restrictive of shares between 15% and 29.9% of a company’s voting rights.

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Labour law

The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations came into force in 1981 and implement a European Directive on takeovers.

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Competition law

UK law on merger control follows European Union law. The competence to deal with issues that only affect the UK market falls under the OFT and Competition Commission’s jurisdiction. These two institutions are influential players in the development of European merger law. The term under EC law for merger is concentration, which exists when a…

Mergers and acquisitions in United Kingdom law – Competition law

The reasons for oversight of economic concentrations by the state are the same as the reasons to restrict firms who abuse a position of dominance, only that regulation of mergers and acquisitions attempts to deal with the problem before it arises, ex ante prevention of creating dominant firms

Business corporation – Mergers and acquisitions

*Reconstruction (law)

Airbnb – Mergers and acquisitions

Since mid-2011, Airbnb has acquired several of its competitors. The first of which was Accoleo based out of Hamburg. This became the company’s first international office.

Airbnb – Mergers and acquisitions

Prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics, Airbnb acquired London-based rival CrashPadder, subsequently adding six thousand international listings to its existing inventory. This acquisition made Airbnb the largest peer-to-peer accommodations website in the United Kingdom.

Airbnb – Mergers and acquisitions

Airbnb acquired NabeWise, a city guide that aggregates curated information for specified locations, in November 2012. This acquisition shifted the company focus toward offering hyperlocal recommendations to travelers.

Airbnb – Mergers and acquisitions

In December 2012, Airbnb announced the acquisition of [http://www.localmind.com/ Localmind]. Localmind is a location-based question and answer platform that allows users to post questions about specific locations online. These questions are then answered in real-time by experts on the specified territories.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos)

‘Mergers and Acquisitions’ is the forty-seventh episode of the HBO original series The Sopranos and the eighth of the show’s fourth season. Its teleplay was written by Lawrence Konner from a story by David Chase, Robin Green, Mitchell Burgess and Terence Winter. It was directed by Dan Attias and originally aired on November 3, 2002.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Starring

* Dominic Chianese as Junior Soprano|Corrado Soprano, Jr. *

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Starring

* Tony Sirico as Paulie Gualtieri

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Starring

* Aida Turturro as Janice Soprano

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Starring

* John Ventimiglia as Artie Bucco

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Starring

* Federico Castelluccio as Furio Giunta

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Episode recap

Paulie Walnuts is concerned about his mother’s welfare when she finally makes the move to the Green Grove Retirement Home

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Episode recap

Meanwhile, seeing Pie-O-My at the stables, Tony Soprano meets Ralph Cifaretto’s new girlfriend, the Cuban people|Cuban-Italian people|Italian List of characters from The Sopranos – Friends and Family#Valentina La Paz|Valentina La Paz, who seems to have a penchant for making practical jokes

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Episode recap

As a part of a long-term plan formed a few episodes earlier, Tony starts giving directions to his underlings through pay phone calls to Christopher Moltisanti, and informs his lawyer he is making steps to isolate himself from incriminating discussions.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Episode recap

Carmela Soprano|Carmela, who seems to be infatuated with Furio Giunta, empathizes with him when he leaves for Naples, Italy to attend his father’s funeral

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – First appearances

* ‘List of characters from The Sopranos – Friends and Family#Valentina La Paz|Valentina La Paz’: An art dealer and Ralph’s girlfriend, who quickly falls for Tony.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – First appearances

* ‘List of characters from The Sopranos – Friends and Family#Minn Matrone|Minn Matrone’: Friend of Paulie’s mother, Nucci Gualtieri at Green Grove.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Deceased

* ‘Furio’s father’: Cancer

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Title reference

The phrase mergers and acquisitions refers to the aspect of corporate finance strategy and management dealing with the merging and acquiring of different companies as well as other assets. In the episode it could allude to:

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Title reference

* Carmela’s acquisition of Tony’s cash, putting it into long-term investments

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Title reference

* Tony’s acquisition of Cousin Brian as a financial advisor and involvement of Brian in secrets from Carmela and from Brian’s wife, Janelle Cammarata

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

* Tony watches the 1993 film, The Fugitive (1993 film)|The Fugitive (which includes cast mate Joe Pantoliano) on his new widescreen television

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

* Tony references the movie Hud (film)|Hud, which starred Paul Newman, when Carmela’s cousin mistakenly references the HUD scam to Carmela at dinner.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

* When Tony shows Carmela the new media center he has installed in the pool house, she replies that she will pick up the movie, In the Bedroom, for them to watch.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

* Under the shower Tony sings Another Brick in the Wall by Pink Floyd.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

* In his meeting with Dr

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

*Ralph refers to Valentina as my Chiquita Brands International#Chiquita Banana|Chiquita Banana and the Mambo Queen.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

* A distraught Nucci tells Paulie that in an effort to be friendly, she bought Cookie a card from the gift shop (to no effect.) She says I cared enough, and I sent the very best a reference to the Hallmark Cards|Hallmark slogan.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – References to other media

* Carmela watches the contemporaneous television show Mario Eats Italy. The ponytail of the host, Mario Batali, sends her into reverie about Furio.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Music

* Tony listens to Bell Bottom Blues (Derek and the Dominos song)|Bell Bottom Blues by Derek and the Dominos on his new entertainment center. He comments that it’s like Eric Clapton|Clapton’s sitting right there in your house.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Music

* The bagpipe music Tony listens to on the entertainment system is The Inverness Gathering, performed by the Edinburgh City Police Pipe Band.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Music

* Tony falls asleep in front of his home theater and wakes up as Pink Floyd’s The Dark Side of the Moon approaches its end. The closing track Eclipse (song)|Eclipse is heard when he wakes. Later in the episode, when he is under the shower, he can be heard singing fragments from Another Brick in the Wall#Part II|Another Brick in the Wall part two also by Pink Floyd.

Mergers and Acquisitions (The Sopranos) – Music

* Parts of Vesuvio by Spaccanapoli (previously heard in The Weight (The Sopranos)|The Weight) plays whenever Carmela remembers Furio.

Toronto Dominion Bank – Mergers and acquisitions

*Central Guaranty Trust (acquisition of assets and branches) — 1992

Toronto Dominion Bank – Mergers and acquisitions

*Waterhouse Investor Services — 1996

Toronto Dominion Bank – Mergers and acquisitions

*Toronto-Dominion Bank and Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce announced merger; however Paul Martin, then Finance Minister, declared the merger void as not in the best interest of Canadians

Toronto Dominion Bank – Mergers and acquisitions

*Laurentian Bank retail branches (Ontario-BC) — 2003

Toronto Dominion Bank – Mergers and acquisitions

*Commerce Bancorp — 2007 (This created TD Bank, N.A. due to naming issues)

Toronto Dominion Bank – Mergers and acquisitions

* The South Financial Group Inc. — 2010 (Full Transition completed in June 2011)

Bank of Nova Scotia – Mergers and Acquisitions

The bank has amalgamated with several other Canadian financial institutions through the years, and purchased several other banks overseas:

Bank of Nova Scotia – Mergers and Acquisitions

Many former branches of Montreal Trust and National Trust were rebranded Scotiabank Trust, and continue to operate as such.

European Community competition law – Mergers and acquisitions

Under the authority of Article 82 TEC, the European Commission became able not only to regulate the behaviour of large firms it claims abuse their dominant positions or market power, but also the possibility of firms gaining the position within the market structure that enables them to behave abusively in the first place

European Community competition law – Mergers and acquisitions

A merger or acquisition involves, from a competition law perspective, the concentration of economic power in the hands of fewer than before

European Community competition law – Mergers and acquisitions

Under EU law, a concentration exists when a…

European Community competition law – Mergers and acquisitions

Certain exceptions exist, by which a firm whose conduct may be prima facie anti-competitive can be sanctioned under the reference to technical and economic progress in Art

China Southern Airlines – Mergers and acquisitions

On the same day, a China Southern Airlines Boeing 777–200 originating from Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport landed in Taipei, becoming the first Mainland China|mainland Chinese aircraft to land in the Republic of China since 1949, when the Kuomintang were involved in Chinese Civil War|the war with the Communist Party of China

List of mergers and acquisitions by Twitter

‘Twitter’ is an online social networking service|social networking and microblogging service that enables users to send and read tweets, which are text messages limited to 140 character (computing)|characters. Registered users can read and post tweets but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through the website interface, SMS, or mobile device Application software|app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco and has offices in New York City, Boston, and San Antonio.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo!

Yahoo is a computer software and web search engine company founded on March 1, 1995

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo!

Yahoo’s first acquisition was the purchase of Net Controls, a web search engine company, in September 1997 for US$1.4million

List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple

Apple has not released the financial details for the majority of these mergers and acquisitions.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple

The company made its first acquisition on March 2, 1988, with its purchase of Network Innovations. In its two divestments, both of which were during the 1990s, parts of the company were sold to other companies. In 2013, Apple acquired thirteen companies—more than it has in any other year thus far. Apple’s largest acquisition was that of Beats Electronics in August 2014 for United States dollar|US$3 billion. Of the companies Apple has acquired, 44 were based in the United States.

Economy of Thailand – Mergers and acquisitions

Between 1997 and 2010 4,306 mergers and acquisitions involving Thai businesses were announced, with a total known value of USD81billion

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries – Mergers and acquisitions

On December 23, 2008, Teva acquired Barr Pharmaceuticals for , making Barr and Pliva (which Barr bought earlier) part of Teva.

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries – Mergers and acquisitions

On March 18, 2010, Teva announced that it planned to acquire German generic Ratiopharm for US$5 billion. The deal was completed in August 2010.

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries – Mergers and acquisitions

In May 2011, Teva bought Cephalon for US$6.8 billion. Shortly after this announcement, Teva announced the purchase of a majority stake in the Japanese generic drug company Taiyo Pharmaceutical Industry, a move to secure a Japan-local production facility. Teva completed the $934 million acquisition on July 2011.[http://www.globes.co.il/serveen/globes/docview.asp?did=1000664169fid=1725 Teva completes $934m Taiyo acquisition], Globes, 14 July 11

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries – Mergers and acquisitions

In June 2013 Teva acquired US firm MicroDose for $40 million with as much as $125 million being paid in regulatory and developmental milestones www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-06-17/teva-adds-microdose-to-respiratory-business-in-165-million-deal.html

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries – Mergers and acquisitions

In January 2014, Teva acquired NuPathe after outbidding Endo Health Solutions|Endo for $144 million.

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries – Mergers and acquisitions

In June 2014, Teva acquired Labrys Biologics for up to , the aim being to strengthen the company’s migraine pipeline through addition of LBR-101, an anti-Calcitonin gene-related peptide|CGRP monoclonal antibody therapeutic.

Economy of Vietnam – Mergers and acquisitions

The mergers and acquisitions activities faced many obstacles, lowering the rate of success of the transaction

Alliant Techsystems – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1995, ATK entered the aerospace market with the acquisition of the aerospace division of Hercules Inc. Since then ATK has become a supplier of aerospace industry|aerospace and defense products to the U.S. government and its allies, and to their contractors.

Alliant Techsystems – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2001, ATK acquired Thiokol, renaming it to ATK Launch Systems in 2006 (though it is still known within the industry by its original name). Thiokol was the sole manufacturer of the reusable Solid Rocket Motor used to launch the NASA Space Shuttle, which is being adapted for NASA’s Space Launch System.

Alliant Techsystems – Mergers and acquisitions

Also in 2001, ATK entered the sporting and law enforcement ammunition market with the acquisition of the ammunition businesses of Blount International. This acquisition made ATK the nation’s largest manufacturer of ammunition.

Alliant Techsystems – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2009, ATK acquired Eagle Industries and in 2010 ATK acquired Blackhawk Industries Products Group Unlimited, LLC, diversifying into the security and law enforcement market.

Alliant Techsystems – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2013, ATK acquired Caliber Company, the parent company of Savage Arms|Savage Sports Corporation (Savage), one of the world’s largest manufacturers of hunting rifles and shotguns. Later in 2013, ATK acquired Bushnell Corporation, an outdoor accessories company with 19 iconic brands that specialize in sports optics, hunting/camping accessories and performance eyewear.

Alliant Techsystems – Mergers and acquisitions

On April 29, 2014, ATK announced that its board unanimously approved a plan to create two independent, public companies composed of ATK’s current businesses and Orbital Sciences Corporation

Boddingtons Brewery – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1969 the large Allied Breweries combine initiated a hostile takeover bid for Boddingtons, which valued the company at £5million

Boddingtons Brewery – Mergers and acquisitions

The company’s independence was maintained after Whitbread acted as a white knight (business)|white knight by raising its stake in the company from 13 to 23 per cent, and the family and many small shareholders refused to sell their stakes

Boddingtons Brewery – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1971 Allied Breweries sold its 35 per cent stake in the company, leaving Whitbread 25 per cent and the Boddington family 10 per cent, with the remainder of company shares held by small shareholders in the Manchester area

Boddingtons Brewery – Mergers and acquisitions

In January 1982 Boddingtons bought the Oldham Brewery for £23million, hoping to combine Oldham’s strength in lager and keg bitter with their own expertise in cask ales

Boddingtons Brewery – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1987 the company rejected a £270million reverse takeover bid by Midsummer Leisure. By this time Boddingtons had a tied estate of 520 pubs. In 1988 the company closed the Oldham Brewery with the loss of 70 jobs, and shed 140 transport jobs at Higsons and Strangeways by contracting out delivery work to TNT N.V.|TNT.

Boddingtons Brewery – Mergers and acquisitions

Boddingtons remained independent until November 1989, when Ewart Boddington sold Strangeways Brewery and the Boddingtons brand (but not the tied estate) to Whitbread for £50.7 million.[http://www.barrymcqueen.co.uk/Boddingtons.htm Untitled Document] Whitbread was motivated to plug a gap in its portfolio by owning a credible national cask ale brand

Julius Genachowski – Mergers and acquisitions

Under Genachowski, the FCC approved the Comcast NBC merger in January 2011

Julius Genachowski – Mergers and acquisitions

In November 2011, following an August 2011 announcement by the Department of Justice that the merger would be opposed, the FCC moved to block ATT’s proposed $39 billion bid for rival T-Mobile

AB Electrolux – Mergers and acquisitions

Electrolux has frequently and regularly expanded through mergers and acquisitions.

AB Electrolux – Mergers and acquisitions

While Electrolux had bought several companies before the 1960s, that decade saw the beginnings of a new wave of MA activity. The company bought ElektroHelios, Norwegian Elektra, Danish Atlas, Finnish Slev, and Flymo, et al., in the nine years from 1960 to 1969. This style of growth continued through the 1990s, seeing Electrolux purchase scores of companies including, for a time, Husqvarna AB|Husqvarna.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Systematics, Inc – founded in 1968 by Arkansas investor Jackson T. Stephens. Became Alltel Information Services (AIS), and later sold to Fidelity National Information Services.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Standard Group, Inc. (Cornelia, Georgia|Cornelia, Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia) – merger adds more than 71,000 local telephone lines

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Aliant Communications (Lincoln, Nebraska|Lincoln, Nebraska) – $1.8 billion merger

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Liberty Cellular (Kansas) – $600 million merger

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*360 Communications (Illinois) – wireless properties and assets, merger adds 2.6 million customers in 15 states

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*SBC Communications (Louisiana) – wireless properties

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*GTE Wireless (assets in Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Ohio, New Mexico, South Carolina and Texas), following GTE’s merger with Bell Atlantic to form Verizon

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Verizon (Kentucky) – $1.9 billion for local access lines (Kentucky ALLTEL)

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Cellular XL (Mississippi) – wireless properties

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*U.S. Cellular and TDS Telecom – wireless assets [http://web.archive.org/web/20071102072406/http://www.alltel.com/corporate/media/history_detail.html]

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Cingular Wireless-divested ATT Wireless properties (Oklahoma) (Connecticut) (Kentucky) (Mississippi) – wireless properties

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Public Service Cellular, Inc. of Georgia – wireless properties

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Cellular One brand by Western Wireless (Washington (U.S. state)|Washington) – wireless properties

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Alltel/Valor (merger) – Alltel spins off wireline business and merges it with Valor to form Windstream Communications

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*First Cellular of Southern Illinois (Illinois) – Alltel purchased First Cellular for $14-15 million in cash.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Palmetto MobileNet, L.P. (North Carolina) (South Carolina) – Alltel purchased from Palmetto MobileNet, L.P. wireless partnerships that cover approximately 2.3 million people in North and South Carolina. Alltel already managed and owned 50 percent of each of the 10 partnerships and has purchased the remaining interests from Palmetto. The partnerships include 34 counties across South Carolina and seven counties in Western North Carolina.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Midwest Wireless (Minnesota) – Alltel purchased Midwest Wireless for $1.083 billion in cash, adding 433,000 wireless customers

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*In Summer 2006 Alltel’s ‘Simple Freedom Wireless’, customers were migrated in non-Alltel markets. (see article below)

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Alltel agrees to be acquired by TPG Capital and GS Capital Partners, the private equity division of Goldman Sachs for $27.5 billion.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Simple Freedom Wireless merges with Alltel U Prepaid to form Alltel U Personalized Prepaid.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Verizon Wireless agrees to buy Alltel for $28.1B.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Connecticut RSA 1 (Litchfield, CT) market acquired from ATT Wireless in 2005, was sold to Verizon Wireless. Terms were not disclosed.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Verizon Wireless closes merger on January 9.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*ATT announces acquisition of 79 of the 105 divested markets.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Atlantic Tele-Network announces acquisition of the remaining 26 divested markets.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Atlantic Tele-Network completes acquisition of 26 markets and continues to operate as Alltel in six states.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*Element Mobile buys RSA #7, the remaining Alltel customers in Central Wisconsin.

Alltel – Mergers and acquisitions

:*ATT Mobility completes acquisition of AWCC/Alltel from ATNI on September 30.

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

VTB Bank took over 12 banks over the decade between 2002 and February 2012, including four in Russia, three in Europe and five in the CIS:

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

• Guta Bank (2004), later renamed VTB24 news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3874963.stm Russian banks ‘are not in crisis’ – BBC VTB buys GUTA bank for symbolic price

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

• Eurobank in France (2005), later renamed VTB France en.vtb.fr/about/news/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=51365 VTB became the main shareholder of BCEN-EUROBANK

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

• Evrofinance Mosnarbank in Great Britain (2005), later renamed VTB Europe Plc, and then VTB Capital Plc

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

• Ost-West Handelsbank AG in Germany (2005), later renamed VTB VTB to Buy Out Foreign Banks for the Budget Account

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

• United Georgian Bank (2005), later renamed VTB Georgia en.vtb.ge/about/history/2005/index.php?register=yesssl= VTB in 2005

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

• Mriya in Ukraine (2006), later merged with VTB Ukraine en.rian.ru/russia/20051103/41981233.html Russian VTB buys bank from ex-senior official in Ukraine – paper

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

• Slavneftebank in Belarus (2007), later renamed VTB Belarus business.highbeam.com/407705/article-1G1-161811004/vtb-buys-control-slavneftebank-254-mln VTB buys control of Slavneftebank for $25.4 mln

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

VTB bought a 43.18% stake in TransCreditBank (TCB) from RZD in December 2010.www.finamrus.com/investments/daily00001024FF/default.asp VTB seals primary deals with Transcreditbank

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

In July–August 2011 VTB increased its stake in TCB to 74.48% following a second acquisition, and to 77.79% in February 2012.www.tcb.ru/en/newsroom/news/2012/198/ VTB Bank increases its share in TransCreditBank to 77.79 percent VTB paid 46 billion roubles ($1.5 billion) for the asset, with a capital multiplier of 1.64.

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

In September 2012, VTB bought more TCB stock from RZD, boosting its interest in the lender to 99.6%.www.rbcnews.com/free/20120927113728.shtml VTB targets TransCreditBank takeover

VTB – Mergers and acquisitions

In February 2011, VTB Bank bought a 46.48% stake in Bank of Moscow which was owned by the Moscow government, as well as 25% plus one share of Capital Insurance Group, which owned 17.32% of Bank of Moscow, for a total purchase price of 103 billion rubles (over $3 billion).www.rcbcy.com/newsdetail.php?id=47 VTB acquires stake in the Bank of Moscow and Capital Insurance Group

Lenovo Group – Mergers and acquisitions

Lenovo works to integrate the management of each newly acquired company into its larger culture. Lenovo has dedicated mergers and acquisitions team that tracks the progress of these integrations. Lenovo has an annual meeting where the management of newly acquired companies meet with its top 100 executives. In these meetings, where English is the medium, Lenovo explains its global strategy and how new executives fit in.

ThyssenKrupp – Mergers and acquisitions

During a period of expansion in 1978 Thyssen AG entered the North American automotive industry with the acquisition of Budd Company|Budd’s automotive operations,www.thyssenkrupp.com/en/konzern/geschichte_chronik_t1978.html which became the automotive division of Thyssen and operated in North America as Budd Thyssen, later ThyssenKrupp Budd Co

ThyssenKrupp – Mergers and acquisitions

In 1999 Thyssen (one of the companies of the merger to form ThyssenKrupp Elevator) acquired the American based Dover Corporation|Dover Elevator Company. Four years later ThyssenKrupp acquired the Korean based Dongyang Elevator.

ThyssenKrupp – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2005 ThyssenKrupp acquired Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) in Kiel from One Equity Partners. ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) is now the most important European group of shipbuilders. In addition to HDW Blohm + Voss in Hamburg, as well as Nordseewerke at Emden, also are subsidiaries of TKMS. One Equity Partners holds 25% of the TKMS shares.

ThyssenKrupp – Mergers and acquisitions

In December 2005 ThyssenKrupp acquired 60% of Atlas Elektronik from BAE Systems with EADS acquiring the remaining 40%.

ThyssenKrupp – Mergers and acquisitions

In August 2007 ThyssenKrupp Materials North America acquired [http://www.onlinemetals.com OnlineMetals.com], a small-quantity distributor of semi-finished metals and plastics based in Seattle, WA.

ThyssenKrupp – Mergers and acquisitions

In early 2008 ThyssenKrupp Aerospace acquired Apollo Metals and Aviation Metals, both suppliers to aerospace and defence based in Kent, Washington.

ThyssenKrupp – Mergers and acquisitions

In April 2014, ThyssenKrupp announced it was in talks to sell its Swedish maritime defence unit to Saab Group|Saab after failing to agree deals with the Sweden|Swedish government for a new generation of submarines.

LaSalle Bank Midwest – Mergers and Acquisitions

In 1970, Birmingham Federal Savings (Michigan) merged with Standard Federal. Main offices were moved to Birmingham on Woodward Avenue near 16 Mile Road. Total assets in 1973 reached $1 billion. Also in 1973, Main offices were moved to a larger building in Troy at 2401 Big Beaver Road.

LaSalle Bank Midwest – Mergers and Acquisitions

Wayne Federal Savings (Michigan) was acquired in 1975 and in 1980 First Federal Savings of Niles (Michigan) merged with Standard Federal. In 1981, Landmark Savings and Loan (Saginaw/Bay City, Michigan) and First Savings Association of Dowagiac (Michigan) were taken over.

LaSalle Bank Midwest – Mergers and Acquisitions

In the largest merger in Standard Federal’s history: American Federal Savings of Fort Wayne, First Federal Savings of Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne Federal Savings, and South Bend Federal Savings and Loan Association (all of Indiana) were taken over in November 1983. Assets reached $5 billion in 1984.

LaSalle Bank Midwest – Mergers and Acquisitions

On January 1, 1985, the bank converted from a federally chartered mutual savings and loan association to a federally chartered mutual savings bank and changed its name from Standard Federal Savings and Loan Association to Standard Federal Bank

LaSalle Bank Midwest – Mergers and Acquisitions

The acquisition of Tower Federal Savings Bank of South Bend (Indiana) was completed on June 18, 1988

LaSalle Bank Midwest – Mergers and Acquisitions

On April 25, 1993, Standard Federal celebrated its centenary

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

To expand their line of business, on October 31, 1996 the company acquired Lagasse Bros., Inc., a wholesaler of janitorial and sanitation supplies.

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

As competition in the late 1980s intensified within the office products industry, consolidation at all levels of the industry became commonplace. In June 1992, United Stationers acquired Stationers Distributing Company, a $425 million office products wholesaler in Fort Worth, Texas. This transaction made the Company a $1.5 billion wholesale distributor.

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

On April 3, 1998, United Stationers acquired Azerty, a $350 million wholesaler of computer consumables

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

To broaden the Lagasse division’s reach, the company completed the acquisition of Peerless Paper, a $75 million wholesaler in the janitorial/sanitation industry, in January 2001.

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

In May 2005, Lagasse completed the purchase of Sweet Paper, a $250 million distributor of janitorial/sanitation, paper and food service products. This acquisition expanded Lagasse’s product line and enhanced its scale and infrastructure in key markets.

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

On March 31, 2006, United Stationers decided to sell its Canadian division. In June 2006, the company completed the sale of certain assets associated with its Canadian division.

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

To diversify and expand its product and customer base, United Stationers acquired ORS Nasco, a $285 million wholesale distributor of industrial supplies, on December 21, 2007.www.unitedstationers.com/profile/history.html

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

On March 1, 2010 United Stationers successfully acquired their first technology company, privately owned MBS Dev, a Colorado-based software provider. A Microsoft Certified Partner, MBS Dev will retain its name and operate as a separate unit within the larger company.

United Stationers – Mergers and acquisitions

www.mbsdev.com/documents/Press%20Releases/2010_UnitedAcquires.pdf MBS Dev specializes in implementing Microsoft Dynamics AX software for wholesale distribution companies in vertical markets and was named one of Inc. (magazine)|Inc. Magazine’s 500 Fastest Growing Companies in 2009.www.inc.com/inc5000/profile/mbs-dev

Chicago Mercantile Exchange – Mergers and Acquisitions

In 2006, CME purchased Swapstream, an interest rate swaps electronic trading platform, based in London.

Chicago Mercantile Exchange – Mergers and Acquisitions

On October 17, 2006, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange announced the purchase of the Chicago Board of Trade for $8 billion in stock, rejoining the two financial institutions as ‘CME Group, Inc’

Chicago Mercantile Exchange – Mergers and Acquisitions

On March 17, 2008, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) accepted an offer from CME Group, the parent of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, to purchase NYMEX for $8.9 billion in cash and CME Group Stock. The acquisition was formally completed on August 22, 2008, and the NYMEX systems were fully integrated by September 30, 2009.

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1915: D. Stempel takes over the type foundry Roos Junge, Offenbach (established in 1886).

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1917: D. Stempel acquires a majority share of the type foundry Gebr. Klingspor|Klingspor Bros., Offenbach.

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1918: D. Stempel takes over the type foundry Heinrich Hoffmeister, Leipzig (established in 1898).

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1919: D. Stempel acquires the type division of W. Drugulin, Leipzig (established in 1800) and a share of the type foundry Brötz Glock, Frankfurt (established in 1892).

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1927: D. Stempel acquires a shareholding in the Haas Type Foundry in Basel/Münchenstein (established in 1790) and the two foundries begin to share matrices.

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1933: D. Stempel acquires a shareholding in the type foundry Benjamin Krebs (Successors), Frankfurt (established in 1816).

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1956: D. Stempel AG acquires full ownership of the type foundry Gebr. Klingspor|Klingspor Bros., Offenbach (established in 1906).

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1963: Linotype takes over the type foundry Genzsch + Heyse, Hamburg (established 1833).

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1970: Stempel takes over part of the type collection of C.E. Weber (Stuttgart, est. 1927).

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1972: The Haas’sche type foundry in Basel/Münchenstein takes over the type foundry Deberny Peignot, Paris.

Mondail – Mergers and Acquisitions

* 1978: The Haas’sche type foundry takes over Fonderie Olive, Marseille (established in 1836).[http://cg.scs.carleton.ca/~luc/commercialfonts.html Luc Devroye, Commercial Foundaries]

Mechel – Mergers and Acquisitions

Mechel acquired Posyet Sea Commercial Port on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan in 2004

Mechel – Mergers and Acquisitions

Mechel acquired a controlling stake in Southern Kuzbass GRES|Southern Kuzbass GRES OAO and Kuzbassenergosbyt power sales company in 2007

Mechel – Mergers and Acquisitions

Mechel acquired Oriel Resources Ltd in April 2008, which controls the Tikhvin Ferroalloy Plant (in Leningrad Region), the Shevchenko Nickel Deposit (in Kazakhstan) and the Voskhod Chromite Deposit (in Kazakhstan)

Mechel – Mergers and Acquisitions

Mechel negotiated the acquisition of 100% in US Bluestone Coal in 2008, for an estimated US$4 billion (approximately)

Mechel – Mergers and Acquisitions

Mechel Trans, a Mechel logistics and transportation subsidiary, acquired a controlling stake (55%) in the Vanino Sea Commercial Port for RUB 15.5 billion from the government at an auction in early December 2012

Enterprise Rent-A-Car – Mergers and acquisitions

A planned acquisition of Citer SA was announced in November 2011; this includes the acquisition of subsidiary Atesa. This acquisition would add 30,000 vehicles to the Company’s fleet and provide entry into the French and Spanish markets.

Capital South Coast – Mergers and Acquisitions

In 1992, the station and its sister stations were subsequently merged with Sussex radio station Heart Sussex|Southern Sound to form Southern Radio Group|Southern Radio plc, which was due to its location in a prosperous and commercially attractive area of England. The merger saw Ocean Sound and The Light FM merging to create Ocean Sound – Classic Hits, later Ocean FM, and The Gold AM and Southern Sound’s AM frequencies merging to create South Coast Radio.

JDS Uniphase – Mergers and Acquisitions

A list of mergers and acquisitions since 2005 can be found on the JDSU public website.

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| Musicmatch Jukebox

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| Audio player

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| Inquisitor (search software)|Inquisitor

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;|[http://techcrunch.com/2010/10/05/yahoo-dapper/ Yahoo Nabs Display Ads Startup Dapper]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| News aggregation, summarization

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| Automated Video Production

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| Natural Language Processing

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;|[http://www.nbcbayarea.com/blogs/press-here/Yahoo–Acqui-Hires-Ptch-234996501.html title= Yahoo Acqui-Hires Ptch]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;|[http://pando.com/2013/12/09/yahoo-acquires-quikio-yet-another-startup-to-add-to-its-video-team/|title=Yahoo Acquires Quikio]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;| [http://www.hngn.com/articles/22588/20140122/yahoo-acquires-sparq-deepen-reach-mobile-marketing.htm Yahoo Acquires Sparq To Deepen Its Reach In The Mobile Market]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;| [http://www.hngn.com/articles/22903/20140125/yahoo-takes-over-virtual-gaming-startup-cloud-party-plans-shut.htm Yahoo Takes Over Gaming Startup ‘Cloud Party’; Team to Merge With Yahoo Workforce]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;| [http://techcrunch.com/2014/01/28/yahoo-tomfoolery-bonforte/ Yahoo Has Closed The Tomfoolery Acquisition, Will Shut Down Anchor, Team To Work For Bonforte]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;| [http://techcrunch.com/2014/01/30/incredible-labs-donna-yahoo/ Incredible Labs Acquired By Yahoo, Mobile Assistant App Donna To Be Shut Down]

List of mergers and acquisitions by Yahoo! – Acquisitions

| style=text-align:center;|http://forward.com/articles/204244/yahoo-buys-israeli-start-up-clarityray/

Blackboard, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

Blackboard has used the acquisition of other companies as a strategy to both limit competitors and enter new markets. Between 2006 and 2012, the company spent more than $500 million on acquisitions.

Blackboard, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

In 2001, Blackboard acquired ATT Campuswide and CEI Special Teams, developers of ID cards that can be used for campus commerce and security. The following year, the company purchased George Washington University|George Washington University’s course management software, Prometheus. Blackboard acquired SA Cash, a student ID rewards program developed by Student Advantage, in 2003.

Blackboard, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

In October 2005, the company announced that it was acquiring WebCT Inc., its largest rival in the education software industry

Blackboard, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

Following the purchase of WebCT, Blackboard purchased content management company, Xythos Software, Inc in November 2007

Blackboard, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

In July 2010, the company purchased both Wimba, Inc. and Elluminate, Inc., providers of online and mobile collaboration tools, to form Blackboard Collaborate. The purchase of iStrategy, a data analysis firm, in December 2010 led to the creation of Blackboard Analytics. Blackboard Student Services was developed from Presidium Inc., a provider of administrative and academic support services, which Blackboard acquired in January 2011.

Blackboard, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

The company merged with Edline, a provider of online communications software for K-12 schools, after Edline’s owner, Providence Equity Partners, acquired Blackboard in October 2011. Edline was renamed Blackboard Engage in June 2012. In March 2012, Blackboard acquired two companies based on Moodle’s open-source software: Baltimore-based Moodlerooms Inc. and NetSpot of Adelaide, Australia. The two companies became the basis of Blackboard’s Open Source Services division.

Blackboard, Inc. – Mergers and acquisitions

In January 2014, Blackboard acquired MyEdu, an Austin-based online education company, which provides education and career planning tools for college students

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*Teva acquired Plantex in 1980.www.tapi.com/About-US/WorldWide/Pages/PlantexLtd.aspx

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*Teva acquired Novopharm (Canada) in 2000.[http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/626423/novopharm-limited-becomes-teva-canada-limited “Novopharm Limited becomes Teva Canada Limited”]

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*In Jan 2006, Teva announced completion of its acquisition of IVAX Corporation.www.tevapharm.com/media/news/pages/2006/1557278.aspx The acquisition price was US $7.4 billion.[http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/health/drugs/2005-07-25-teva-ivax_x.htm “Teva Pharmaceuticals to buy Ivax in $7.4 billion deal”]

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*On December 23, 2008, Teva acquired Barr Pharmaceuticals for , making Barr and Pliva (which Barr bought earlier) part of Teva.

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*On March 18, 2010, Teva announced that it planned to acquire German generic Ratiopharm for US$5 billion. The deal was completed in August 2010.

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*In May 2011, Teva bought Cephalon for US$6.8 billion. Shortly after this announcement, Teva announced the purchase of a majority stake in the Japanese generic drug company Taiyo Pharmaceutical Industry, a move to secure a Japan-local production facility. Teva completed the $934 million acquisition on July 2011.[http://www.globes.co.il/serveen/globes/docview.asp?did=1000664169fid=1725 Teva completes $934m Taiyo acquisition], Globes, 14 July 11

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*In June 2013 Teva acquired US firm MicroDose for $40 million with as much as $125 million being paid in regulatory and developmental milestones www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-06-17/teva-adds-microdose-to-respiratory-business-in-165-million-deal.html

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*In January 2014, Teva acquired NuPathe after outbidding Endo Health Solutions|Endo for $144 million.

Teva Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

*In June 2014, Teva acquired Labrys Biologics for up to , the aim being to strengthen the company’s migraine pipeline through addition of LBR-101, an anti-Calcitonin gene-related peptide|CGRP monoclonal antibody therapeutic.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*1998: 44% of Qualitynet was acquired by Batelco in a public offering by Kuwait’s Ministry of Communication, as part of a strategy to privatise Internet and data communications services within the State of Kuwait.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2001: Batelco Jordan was formed following the merger of National Equipment Telecommunications Systems (NETS) and First Telecommunications Group (FTG) with Batelco.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2003: Batelco Egypt Communications (S.A.E.) was established as a wholly owned subsidiary of Batelco Middle East, in Cairo as an Egyptian Joint Stock Closed Company.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2006: Batelco purchases 96% share of Umniah Mobile Communications – Jordan.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2007: Batelco purchased a 20% stake in Yemen’s SabaFon mobile communications company, for USD 144 million in cash.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2008: Consortiums led by Batelco, Hong Kong’s PCCW and U.S. Verizon Communications won final approval to operate a new Saudi fixed-line phone network called Etihad Atheeb Telecom Company (ATHEEB). ATHEEB has since gone public in February 2009, offering 30 million shares at SAR 10 per share (US$2.67) representing 30% of its capital in an IPO; which was 2.5 times oversubscribed. The IPO raised US$80 million.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

Batelco Group offers to purchase the remaining 20 percent shares not already held by the Group in Batelco Jordan, for a total consideration of JD2.126 million ($3m). Through its 96 percent-owned subsidiary Umniah Mobile Communications, Batelco made the offer to all Batelco Jordan shareholders, valuing the company at JD10.629 million.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2009: Batelco partnered with Millennium Private Equity to form Batelco Millennium India Company Limited (BMICL) to purchase 49% stake in Chennai based S Tel Limited, a recently established Indian mobile operator for US$225 million.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2012: Batelco announced its agreement for the sale of its shareholding (42.7% equity) in S Tel|S Tel Private Limited (STel) to its Indian partner, Sky City Foundation Limited for BD 65.8M (US $174.5M).

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2013: Batelco announced the acquisition of Cable Wireless Communications’ (CWC) interest in Dhiraagu (Maldives), Sure (company)|Sure Channel Islands and Isle of Man and CWC operations in Falkland Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha|St Helena, Ascension and Diego Garcia (“SADG”). Total consideration paid for these assets was $570m.

Batelco – Mergers and Acquisitions

*2014: Batelco Group Completes Acquisition of 46% Shareholding in Quality Net.

Enterprise Holdings – Mergers and acquisitions

Enterprise acquired Zimride ride-matching business on July 10, 2013. Terms of the sale were not released.

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In September, Valeant acquired Coria Laboratories, Ltd for $95 million, acquiring the outstanding shares from Corias parent company DFB Pharmaceuticals, Inc. In November, Valeant acquired DermaTech for about $12.6 million. In December Valeant announced their acquisition of Dow Pharmaceutical Sciences, Inc for $285 million.

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In July, Valeant announced its acquisition of Tecnofarma, a Mexican generic company. In December Valeant announced its Canadian subsidiary would acquire the cosmeceutical Canadian company, Laboratoire Dr. Renaud, for C$23 million.

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In March, Valeant announced its acquisition of a Brazilian generics and over the counter company for $28 million and manufacutirng plant for a further $28 million.

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In April Valeant announced that its Canadian subsidiary would acquire Vital Science Corp. for C$10.5 million.

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In May 2010, Valeant announced that it was acquiring Aton Pharmaceuticals for about $318 million.

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

On September 28, 2010, Valeant was purchased by Biovail

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

Since the 2010 merger, Valeant has aggressively expanded through acquisition. It makes about 25 deals a year, according to CEO Mike Pearson, most of which are too small to require financial reporting. Deals usually focus on specialized high-margin markets such as dermatology and eye care. A total of 14 purchases were publicly announced from 2010-early 2013.

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In March, an attempt to buy drugmaker Cephalon Inc. for $5.7 billion was unsuccessful. but Valeant acquired PharmaSwiss S.A.. In August, Valeant acquired 87.2 % of the outstanding shares of Sanitas Group for EUR314 million. In December Valeant acquired iNova for A$625 million with additional milestone payments of up to A$75 million as well as acquiring Dermik, a dermatology unit of Sanofi

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In January Valeant acquired Brazilian sports nutrtion company Probiotica Laboratorios Ltda for R$150 million

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In January, Valeant acquired the Russian company Natur Produkt for $163 million

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

Valeant’s existing eye care businesses will be moved to the Bausch Lomb headquarters in Rochester, New York

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

Valeant CEO Mike Pearson said the company would continue to pursue mergers and acquisitions in the near future, but would need three or four month to get a handle on Bausch Lomb before deciding on its next target

Valeant Pharmaceuticals – Mergers and acquisitions

In January Valeant acquired Solta Medical, Inc. for approximately $250 million. In February, Valeant would acquire PreCision Dermatology Inc for $475 million, a deal aimed at strengthening the firm’s skin products business. In May, it was announced that Nestle would acquire the commercial rights to sell Valeants filler and toxin products for $1.4 billion.

For More Information, Visit:

store.theartofservice.com/the-mergers-and-acquisitions-toolkit.html

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