NASA GPS Applications
GPS and Human Space Flight
Navigation with GPS: Space-Based Range
Space-based navigation, GPS, and Space Based Range Safety technologies are key components of the next generation launch and test range architecture
Provides a more cost-effective launch and range safety infrastructure while augmenting range flexibility, safety, and operability
Memorandum signed in November 2006 for GPS Metric Tracking (GPS MT) by January 1, 2011 for all DoD, NASA, and commercial vehicles launched at the Eastern and Western ranges

Science Applications of GPS: Blackjack Science Receivers

Search and Rescue with GPS: Distress Alerting Satellite System
Maintaining and Enhancing GPS: Satellite Laser Ranging
Navigation with GPS beyond LEO
GPS Terrestrial Service Volume
Up to 3000 km altitude
Many current applications
GPS Space Service Volume (SSV)
3000 km altitude to GEO
Many emerging space users
Geostationary Satellites
High Earth Orbits (Apogee above GEO altitude)
SSV users share unique GPS signal challenges
Signal availability becomes more limited
GPS first side lobe signals are important
Robust GPS signals in the Space Service Volume needed
NASA GPS Navigator Receiver in development
Navigation with GPS beyond Earth Orbit and on to the Moon
GPS signals effective up to the Earth-Moon 1st Lagrange Point (L1)
322,000 km from Earth
Approximately 4/5 the distance to the Moon
GPS signals can be tracked to the surface of the Moon, but not usable with current GPS receiver technology
Earth-Moon Communications and Navigation Architecture
Options for Communications and/or Navigation:
Earth-based tracking, GPS, Lunar-orbiting communication and navigation satellites with GPS-like signals, Lunar surface beacons and/or Pseudolites
Objective: Integrated Interplanetary Communications, Time Dissemination, and Navigation

Earth-Mars Communication and Navigation Architecture
Architecture can accommodate evolutionary use of science orbiters as relays prior to deployment of any dedicated com/nav satellites at Mars
Surface beacons possible in areas of interest
Use of all available radiometric signals for positioning and navigation through integrated software defined radio (SDR)
SDR combines communications and navigation into a single device
Planetary Time Transfer
GPS as a model for a Common Solar System Time
The Future of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing?

South Pole Outpost
Lunar South Pole selected as location for outpost site
Elevated quantities of hydrogen, possibly water ice (e.g., Shackelton Crater)
Several areas with greater than 80% sunlight and less extreme temperatures
Incremental deployment of systems -one mission at a time
Power system
Concept Outpost Build Up
Notional Shackleton Crater Rim Outpost Location with Activity Zones
Shackleton Crater Rim Size Comparison

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