org/) Certification • ITIL (www
System Administrator Privileges The term system administrator may also be used to describe a privilege which a computer owner must obtain on his/her own computer to perform certain actions even if the computer is not part of a larger system. References      http:/ / nssa.
Edu/ ~nssa/ nssa/ undergrad/ index.
Maml http:/ / www.cs.
Htm http:/ / nssa.
Edu/ ~nssa/ nssa/ grad/ index.
Maml http:/ / www.hio.
No/ Studietilbud/ Masterstudier/ Master-Programme-in-Network-and-System-Administration UvA Master SNE homepage (https:/ / www.os3.
Nl) Further reading • Essential System Administration (O’Reilly), 3rd Edition, 2001, by Æleen Frisch • Principles of Network and System Administration (J.
Wiley & Sons), 2000,2003(2ed), by Mark Burgess • The Practice of System and Network Administration (Addison-Wesley), 2nd Edition (July 5, 2007), by Thomas A.
Limoncelli, Christine Hogan and Strata R.
Chalup • Time Management for System Administrators (O’Reilly), 2005, by Thomas A.
Limoncelli • UNIX and Linux System Administration Handbook (Prentice Hall), 4th Edition, 2010, by Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder, Trent R.
Hein, Ben Whaley External links • MCSA Certification (Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator) (www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/ certification/mcsa.aspx) • Apple Certification Programs (training.apple.com/#it) • BSD Certification (www.bsdcertification.org/) • CompTIA’s (www.CompTIA.org/) Certification • ITIL (www.itil.co.uk/) for ITIL certification (part of Office of Government Commerce) • Red Hat’s Certification Curriculum (www.redhat.com/training/certification/) for RHCE and RHCA • BigAdmin Newsletter (www.sun.com/bigadmin/newsletter/) • Art du web.com : the website of system administrator (www.artduweb.com/) • Administration système : Vie et mort des sysadm 😉 (www.administration-systeme.com/) Telecommunications link 78 Telecommunications link A telecommunications link is generally one of several types of information transmission paths accomplished by communication satellites to connect two points on earth. Uplink An uplink (UL or U/L) is the portion of a communications link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth terminal to a satellite or to an airborne platform.
An uplink is the inverse of a downlink.
An uplink or downlink is distinguished from reverse link or forward link (see below). • Pertaining to data transmission from a data station to the headend. • Pertaining to GSM and cellular networks, the radio uplink is the transmission path from the Mobile Station (Cell Phone) to a Base Station (Cell Site).
Traffic and signalling flows within the BSS and NSS may also be identified as uplink and downlink. Downlink A downlink (DL) is the link from a satellite to a ground station. • Pertaining to cellular networks, the radio downlink is the transmission path from a Base Transceiver Station (Cell Site) to the Mobile Station (Cell Phone).
Traffic and signalling flows within the BSS and NSS may also be identified as uplink and downlink. Forward link — Various monitoring approaches can be used, depending on the network technology and the monitoring objective: The simplest type of monitoring is logging in to an interesting device and running programs or commands that show performance statistics and other data.
This is the cheapest way to monitor a network, and is highly appropriate for small networks.
However, it does not scale well to large networks.
It can also impact the network being monitored; see observer effect.
Another way to monitor devices is to use a remote management protocol such as SNMP to ask devices about their performance.
This scales well, but is not necessarily appropriate for all types of monitoring.
The inherent problems with SNMP are the polling effect.
Many vendors have alleviated this by using intelligent polling schedulers, but this may still affect the performance of the device being monitored.
It also opens up a host of potential security problems.
Another method to monitor networks is by enable promiscuous mode on the monitoring host, and connecting it to a shared segment.
This works well with older LAN technologies such as 10BASE-T Ethernet, FDDI, and token ring.
On such networks, any host can automatically see what all other hosts were doing by enabling promiscuous mode.
However, modern switched network technologies such as those used on modern Ethernets provide, in effect, point-to-point links between pairs of devices, so it is hard for other devices to see traffic.
Another method to monitor networks is to use port mirroring (called “SPAN”, for Switched Port Analyzer, by Cisco, and given other names by some other vendors) on routers and switches.
This is a low-cost alternative to network taps, and solves many of the same problems.
However, not all routers and switches support port mirroring and, on those that do, using port mirroring can affect the performance of the router or switch.
These technologies may also be subject to the problem with full-duplex described elsewhere in this article, and there are often limits for the router or switch on how many pass-through sessions can be monitored, or how many monitor ports (generally two) can monitor a given session. References  “Sniffing Tutorial part 1 – Intercepting Network Traffic”, NETRESEC Network Security Blog, 2011 (http:/ / www.netresec.com/ ?page=Blog& month=2011-03& post=Sniffing-Tutorial-part-1—Intercepting-Network-Traffic) Business service management 179 Business service management Business service management (BSM) is a methodology for monitoring and measuring information technology (IT) services from a business perspective; in other words, BSM is a set of management software tools, processes and methods to manage a data center via a business-centered approach. BSM technology tools are designed to help IT organizations view and manage technology infrastructures to better support and maintain the main services they provide to the business. BSM tools are critical enablers for the increasingly popular process that focuses on IT Service Management (ITSM) approach.
BSM consists of both structured process and enabling software.
The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), a set of IT management frameworks and concepts, has recently identified BSM as a best practice for IT infrastructure management and operations.
BSM allows IT departments to operate by service rather than by individual configuration items or technology silo, enabling prioritization of efforts, ultimately improving the service that is delivered to the business or organization.
Major vendors who offer BSM software and services include Accelops, BMC Software, HP Business Service Management software, IBM Tivoli Software, Novell Business Service Management  , Zyrion Traverse., CA Technologies Computer Associates, and Compuware.  Touching on all the lifecycle processes within the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, BSM is a way to bring together many disparate processes and tools, and creating quantifiable improvement in efficiency and the ability to view technology as it is germane to business process. Compared to traditional network monitoring BSM software is an outgrowth of network management systems as the software tracks the performance and availability of the networks components across a data center. Traditional network management systems focus on measuring and monitoring the technical metrics and trends of IT applications and infrastructure.
The primary users of these systems are technicians and systems administrators in the IT operations organization.
Although these systems enable the IT operations team to identify problem areas from a technical point-of-view for a given piece of the infrastructure, significant gaps exist in determining the business impact of a specific problem.
For example, if a router and a server fail at the same time, these systems offer no way for the network operations center operator to determine which of these is more critical or which business services have been impacted by the failure of these devices.
Additionally, newer technologies such as service-oriented architectures (SOA), virtualization, cloud computing, portal frameworks, grid architectures, and mashups within an organizations make troubleshooting and monitoring of business services very difficult. A single business process or service may be supported by a number of composite applications, all of which could be dependent on a diverse set of distributed computing and communications elements. An isolated issue anywhere in this complex web may impact one or more tasks in the business process.
Traditional network management systems and technology-centric monitoring approaches are incapable of determining the business impact of an issue in such a complicated infrastructure environment.
Newer BSM systems provide a unified view of the data center, allowing data center administrators to view and manage applications, networks and events, usually from a common dashboard.
This means data center managers can see and troubleshoot problems before business customers do. Business service management 180 Business Management Methodology Although BSM is known as a methodology for information technology management by aligning IT services and the IT infrastructure supporting those services with business processes, it is also a methodology for business management by helping businesses, including their IT departments, view their activities as services that are provided to external and internal customers. BSM provides a critical framework to make sure that the work of customer-facing and internal teams within an organization is defined and transparent to their customers, who can then influence the functionality and quality of the services they receive.
BSM complements business process management (BPM) by helping an organization deliver more effective services across business processes.
Together, BSM and BPM form the basis for all-encompassing, full-stack process-optimization platforms. BSM adds a service-centered view across business processes and facilitates economies of scale for services that contribute to multiple processes. BSM also goes beyond IT service management (ITSM).
BSM helps organizations better understand the business services that operate on top of the IT infrastructure, combining IT and non-IT management tools into a cohesive system for service delivery. BSM is team-focused and can be used by any team in an organisation to improve performance, based on ownership, pride, commitment and teamwork. Through BSM, teams can formalise the services they provide as internal service level agreements (SLAs) or operational level agreements (OLAs). BSM can also help teams review their “People, Process and Technology” capabilities and limitations to see how they can improve them and consequently improve the services they provide. External links • • • • BSM Review  Bitpipe Tech Library  InformationWeek – IT Service Management Options  Business Service Management Hub  References — Zyrion Traverse Zyrion, Inc. Type Industry Founded Private Datacenter Monitoring, Business Service Management 2007 Headquarters Sunnyvale, CA, USA Website www.Zyrion.com  Zyrion Traverse is a Business Service Management (BSM) & Datacenter monitoring software that utilizes the concept of ‘business service containers’ for correlating application and network problems.
BSM has gained prevalence in the network management arena in recent years.
It centers around an approach for information technology (IT) operations and management that provides more than just a technology perspective by helping organizations better manage and monitor their end-to-end business processes.
Business Service Management is a new field adjacent to the Network Management & Systems Management space, and attempts to correlate IT services to the underlying IT infrastructure.
BSM is now included in Information Technology Infrastructure Library ITIL version 3 also as an important IT best practice.
ITIL is a well recognized and broadly adopted set of frameworks and concepts that describe best practices for infrastructure management and operations.
BSM solutions that utilize business container technology enable IT and business personnel to create unique virtual views of discrete business services, and makes the alignment of infrastructure technology with business outcomes a reality.
The technology allows linking applications and underlying infrastructure to services such as ordering and payroll. Solution Overview Most BSM solutions, like Zyrion Traverse, also provide broader application and network management capabilities that include integrated fault and performance monitoring.
This ensures organizations have an end-to-end view of their infrastructure and processes.
The different functionality within the Traverse solution includes: • • • • • Business Service management Cloud Monitoring Datacenter monitoring Managed Service Provider (MSP) solution Network Configuration Management (NCM) Most of these functionalities and requirements are converging rapidly in the IT industry with the rapid proliferation of VMware within the enterprise to build private cloud platforms in the datacenters.
Some features of Zyrion Traverse include: • monitoring of VMware or Microsoft Virtual Server based infrastructure • monitoring of network services such as (ICMP, SMTP, POP3, HTTP, NNTP). Zyrion Traverse • • • • polling routers, switches and firewalls using SNMP monitoring servers and operating systems (processor load, disk usage, syslogs, windows event logs) extensible and open API which allows using languages such as Perl, C++, Java, PHP, Python, etc.network Configuration & Change Management for network devices such as routers, firewalls, etc. 492 Company Background Zyrion (pronounced “zeye-ree-on”), was spun out of NetScout by the core team of Fidelia Technology (acquired by Network General Corporation in 2006).
The founders have been active in the Internet since the early NSFnet days and the author of NOCOL/SNIPS – one of the first open source network monitoring packages on the Internet. References • • • • Zyrion Resurrects Good BSM Solution, Sevcik, Wetzel, Network World  Evolution of Data Center Management with BSM, Datacenter Journal  Data Management in the Cloud, IT Business Edge  Traverse for Business Service Management, Network Computing 
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