Co-Creation

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Co-Creation

Social Media Distinction from other media

E-commerce businesses may refer to Social Media as consumer-generated media (CGM). A common thread running through all definitions of Social Media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value.

Social Media Trustworthiness

Since large-scale collaborative co-creation is one of the main way forming information in the social network, Aniket Kittur and Bongowon Suh took under examination and indicated that, “One possibility is that distrust of Content is not due to the inherently mutable nature of the system but instead to the lack of available information for judging trustworthiness.”

Ken Thompson – Fellow of the Computer History Museum

In 1997, both Thompson and Ritchie were inducted as Fellows of the Computer History Museum for “the co-creation of the UNIX operating system, and for development of the C programming language.”

Dennis Ritchie – Awards

In 1997, both Ritchie and Thompson were made Fellows of the Computer History Museum, “for co-creation of the UNIX operating system, and for development of the C programming language.”

Engagement marketing

Rather than looking at consumers as passive receivers of messages, engagement marketers believe that consumers should be actively involved in the production and co-creation of marketing programs, developing a relationship with the brand.

Engagement marketing – The Brand Experience

Going further Engagement Marketing is premised upon: transparency – interactivity – immediacy – facilitation – engagement – co-creation – collaboration – experience and trust, these words define the migration from mass media to Social Media.

Transhumanism – Hubris

Religious thinkers allied with transhumanist goals, such as the theologians Ronald Cole-Turner and Ted Peters, reject the first argument, holding that the doctrine of “co-creation” provides an obligation to use genetic engineering to improve human biology.

Infosys – Initiatives

Infosys’ Global Academic Relations team forges Academic Entente (AcE) with academic and partner institutions. It explores co-creation opportunities between Infosys and academia through case studies, student trips and speaking engagements. They also collaborate on technology, emerging economies, globalization, and research. Some initiatives include research collaborations, publications, conferences and speaking sessions, campus visits and campus hiring.

Nike+iPod – Overview

This product has brought mobile technology, online communities, and athletic communities together and has expanded the field for co-creation.

Jack Kirby – Marvel Comics in the Silver Age (1958–1970)

There have been a number of reasons given for this dissatisfaction, including resentment over Stan Lee’s increasing media prominence, a lack of full creative control, anger over breaches of perceived promises by publisher Martin Goodman, and frustration over Marvel’s failure to credit him specifically for his story plotting and for his character creations and co-creations.Evanier, King of Comics, p

Stan Lee – Early career

Lee’s first superhero co-creation was the Destroyer (Timely Comics)|Destroyer, in Mystic Comics No

Transhumanist – Hubris

Religious thinkers allied with transhumanist goals, such as the theologians Ronald Cole-Turner and Ted Peters (theologian)|Ted Peters, reject the first argument, holding that the doctrine of co-creation provides an obligation to use genetic engineering to improve human biology.

Ward Cunningham

He currently lives in Beaverton, Oregon, and is the Co-Creation Czar for CitizenGlobal. He is Nike, Inc.|Nike’s first Code for a Better World Fellow.

Consumer-to-business

‘Consumer-to-business’ (‘C2B’) is a business model in which consumers (individuals) create value, and firms consume this value. For example, when a consumer writes reviews, or when a consumers gives a useful idea for new product development, then this individual is creating value to the firm, if the firm adopts the input. Excepted concepts are crowd sourcing and co-creation.

Collective intelligence – Examples

In Learner generated context a group of users marshal resources to create an ecology that meets their needs often (but not only) in relation to the co-configuration, co-creation and co-design of a particular learning space that allows learners to create their own context.Luckin, R., du Boulay, B., Smith, H., Underwood, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Holmberg, J., Kerawalla, L., Tunley, H., Brewster, D

Sense Worldwide

In 1999 it started the Sense Network, described as ‘one of the earliest web-based communities’.Richard Donkin The Future of Work 2010 pp125-126 It was one of the first commercial practitioners of co-creation http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/02/co-creation.html and Extreme User Research.http://www.fastcodesign.com/1669452/want-breakthrough-ideas-first-listen-to-the-freaks-and-geeks It has influenced the development of Nike, Inc.|Nike Sportswear http://vimeo.com/5606365 interview with Nike and Habbo Hotel among many others.Marketing Magazine Agency of the Year 2009 P 23 It has received funding from NESTA

Sense Worldwide – Co-creation

Sense Worldwide has used co-creation in its work from its inception.http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/02/co-creation.html Its work in this area has caused it to be listed as one of the NESTA Open 100.http://www.openbusiness.cc/2010/01/06/sense-worldwide/ It has also pioneered the commercial use of extreme user research, building on the Lead User ideas of MIT’s Eric von Hippelhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1669452/want-breakthrough-ideas-first-listen-to-the-freaks-and-geeks

Sense Worldwide – Co-creation

Sense Worldwide introduced co-creation techniques to Nike and continues to work with Nike’s running, sportswear and football businesses.Nike interview http://vimeo.com/5606365 It authored the Discovery Channel report into the lives of young men in Europe.,“Market Research Agency of the Year” Marketing Magazine (9 Dec 2009) P23 and it contributes to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s reports http://www.businessresearch.eiu.com/service-2020.html and the Harvard Business Reviewhttp://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/02/co-creation.html

Metadesign – History

(2003) Principles of Metadesign: processes and levels of co-creation in the new design space

Timeline of historic inventions – 1950s

*1958-59: Co-creation of the integrated circuit by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce.

Mass customization – Variants

* Collaborative customization – (also considered co-creation) firms talk to individual customers to determine the precise product (business)|product offering that best serves the customer’s needs (see personalized marketing and personal marketing orientation)

Co-creation

‘Co-creation’ is a form of marketing strategy or business strategy that emphasizes the generation and ongoing realization of mutual firm-customer value. It views markets as forums for firms and active customers to share, combine and renew each other’s resources and capabilities to create value through new forms of interaction, service and learning mechanisms. It differs from the traditional active firmpassive consumer market construct of the past.

Co-creation

Value is co-created with customers if and when a customer is able to personalize his or her experience using a firm’s product-service propositionin the lifetime of its useto a level that is best suited to get his or her job(s) or tasks done and which allows the firm to derive greater value from its product-service investment in the form of new knowledge, higher revenues/profitability and/or superior brand value/loyalty.[http://www.customerthink.com/blog/my_personal_definition_of_business_with_customer_value_co_creation Wim Rampen – My Personal Definition of Business with Customer Value Co-Creation and comments by Chris Lawer].

Co-creation

Co-creation in their view not only describes a trend of jointly creating products

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

Michel, Vargo and Lusch recognize the influence of Normann on their own work and acknowledge similarity between the concepts of co-production and co-creation: his customer co-production mirrors the similar concept found in FP6.Michel, S.; Vargo, S

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

In his letter, he uses the word co-creation and states at the core of collaboration is co-creation: customers aren’t just customizing; they’re collaborating with vendors to create unique value.

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

Once used sporadically by other authors (for instance Schrage in 1995), we can therefore say that the official debut of value co-creation takes place 2004

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

The authors see the co-creation of value as an initiative of the customers who are dissatisfied with available choices [and] want to co-create value and thereby co-create value. The co-creation of value is conceptualized thanks to a model called DART (for dialogue, access, risk-benefits, transparency).

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

From 2004 onwards, publications on value co-creation tend to flourish because of the resonance of Vargo’s and Lush’s ideas

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

It says basically that the firm should monitor the customer co-creation and therefore set KPI’s on it.

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

The important underlying question is that the debate around co-creation has somewhat blurred the entity at the origin of value

Co-creation – From co-production to co-creation

Second are supplier value-creation processes based on co-creation opportunities (through technological breakthrough, changes in industry logics, changes in customers preferences and lifestyles), planning, implementation and metrics

Co-creation – Early applications of co-creation

The introduction of enterprise social software may have functioned as an enabler of this change in how companies evolve to business networks, and how both large and small companies cooperate. But Prahalad and Ramaswamy stated in their published work, as other practitioners have affirmed, that co-creation is about far more than customers co-designing products and services.

Co-creation – Early applications of co-creation

Co-creation is at the heart of the open-source software|open-source-software movement, where users have full access to the source code and are empowered to make their own changes and improvements to it.

Co-creation – Early applications of co-creation

Co-creation can be thought to have its roots in the work of Herstatt and Von Hippel at Hilti, where they worked with lead users on innovative products.

Co-creation – Early applications of co-creation

They are no longer in the business of product and service design, he stated; they are really in the business of customer co-creation.[http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/NussbaumOnDesign/archives/2006/01/ces–when_consu.html Nussbaum on Design]

Co-creation – Early applications of co-creation

During the mid-2000s, co-creation became a driving concept in Social Media and marketing techniques, where companies such as Converse (shoe company)|Converse persuaded large numbers of its most passionate customers to create their own video advertisements for the product. The Web 2.0 phenomenon encompassed many forms of co-creation marketing, as social and consumer communities became ambassadors, buzz agents, smart mobs, and participants transforming the product experience.

Co-creation – Early applications of co-creation

Other examples of co-creation can be found in arts. Chaney, D. (2012). The Music Industry in the Digital Age: Consumer Participation in Value Creation. International Journal of Arts Management, 15(1), 42-52.

Co-creation – Co-creation and corporate management

Customer-facing functions such as sales or customer service were also opened up to co-creation at companies including Starbucks and Dell Computer

Co-creation – Co-creation and corporate management

Authors published bestselling books developing theories influenced by co-creation and customer collaboration

Co-creation – Co-creation and corporate management

Co-creation became global, as practices reached senior managers at companies in Europe and Asia including Linux (open software), Procter Gamble’s Connect Develop (dramatically improved research productivity through reliance on global collaboration platform with people outside PG), and InnoCentive (a research collective in the pharmaceutical industry).

Co-creation – Co-creation and corporate management

Of this rapid morphing of co-creation, Ramaswamy and his co-author Francis Gouillart wrote: Through their interactions with thousands of managers globally who had begun

Co-creation – Co-creation and corporate management

experimenting with co-creation, they discovered that enterprises were building platforms that engaged not only the firm and its customers but also the entire network of suppliers, partners, and employees, in a continuous development of new experiences with individuals.Ramaswamy, Venkat; Gouillart, Francis (2010). The Power of Co-Creation: Build It with Them To Boost Growth, Productivity, and Profits. Free Press (publisher)|Free Press.

Co-creation – Third stage of co-creation

Co-creation is seismic shift in thinking from the industrial age mind set to people engagement mindset.’

Co-creation – Third stage of co-creation

Leveious Rolando asked a question in Wired Magazine Blog that Co-creation that Early 2013, consumers have become primary drivers of content, of product and of brand. Able to upload user-generated video to YouTube and broadcast affinities to Twitter fans, consumers have overturned the traditional model where a business builds a product in silo and offers it up to consumers. Sound archaic? Leveious says the Danish coined the new word Co-creation and methodology The Need for Co-creating UX

Co-creation – Third stage of co-creation

The UX community today is subjected to close discussions with the Technology and Business teams also. It is these other teams who are also playing a crucial role in the Co-creation process.

Co-creation – Third stage of co-creation

Rolando made the point at a co-creation European conference that www.trendwatching.com words user manufacturing coined by Trendwatching perfectly describes symbiotic relationship developing between people and companies as result customers are becoming not only co-designers, but also manufacturers, using only the infrastructure provided by specialized companies.

Dennis Ritchie – Awards

In 1997, both Ritchie and Thompson were made Fellows of the Computer History Museum, for co-creation of the UNIX Operating System, and for development of the C programming language.

Open design

Open design is a form of co-creation, where the final product is designed by the users, rather than an external stakeholder such as a private company.

Ken Thompson (computer programmer) – Fellow of the Computer History Museum

In 1997, both Thompson and Ritchie were inducted as Fellows of the Computer History Museum for the co-creation of the UNIX operating system, and for development of the C programming language.

Transformation design – Process

With so many points-of-view brought into the process, transformation designers are not always ‘designers.’ Instead, they often play the role of moderator. Though varying methods of participation and co-creation, these moderating designers create hands-on, collaborative workshops (a.k.a. charrette) that make the design process accessible to the non-designers.

Co-design

Co-design is often used by trained designers who recognize the difficulty in properly understanding the cultural, societal, or usage scenarios encountered by their user. C. K. Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy are usually given credit for bringing co-creation/co-design to the minds of those in the business community with the 2004 publication of their book, The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers. They propose:

Online research community

Online technology can adapt to almost any research need, be it showing creative stimulus material, gathering ideas for innovation and co-creation or simply an instant ‘go/no go’ when you need it

Woody Harrelson – Environmental

PICNIC describes its annual festival as three intensive days [when] we mix creativity, science, technology, media and business to explore new solutions in the spirit of co-creation.[http://www.picnicnetwork.org/festival] He once scaled the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco with members of North Coast Earth First! group to unfurl a banner that read, Hurwitz, Aren’t ancient redwoods more precious than gold? in protest of Maxxam Inc/PALCO CEO Charles Hurwitz, who once stated, He who has the gold, makes the rules.

ModulArt – Co-creativity in Modular Art

Co-creation is closely associated with mass customization, a production model that combines the opportunity for individual personalization with mass production

Gestalt therapy – Self

In Gestalt therapy, the process is not about the self of the client being helped or healed by the fixed self of the therapist, rather it is an exploration of the co-creation of self and other in the here-and-now of the therapy

Vision Critical – Business

* IdeaHub: a co-creation tool that tap into the ideas of customers, employees or other stakeholders for innovation and new product development.

Ethnocinema – Toward a contemporary ethnocinema: some contradictions

Obviously, to achieve a wide viewing audience, formal concerns cannot be completely ignored, but these aesthetic concerns are addressed together in the co-creation of the films

Co-marketing – Co-creative marketing

The co-creation of a company and consumers are contained in the co-marketing.

Schema Therapy – Flashcards

They are developed by the therapist or a co-creation of therapist and patient and are statements that would be similar to those made by a parent to a young child at the developmental age that the patient currently experiences their Vulnerable Child mode

Angela (comics) – Legal rights

McFarlane had initially agreed that Gaiman retained creator rights on the characters, but later claimed that Gaiman’s work had been work-for-hire and that McFarlane owned all of Gaiman’s co-creations entirely, pointing to the legal indicia in Spawn #9 and the lack of legal contract stating otherwise

Roger Stern – Comics

Other work for DC included a relaunched Ray Palmer (comics)|Atom series drawn by Dwayne Turner and the co-creation of the Will Payton version of Starman (comics)|Starman with artist Tom Lyle.Manning 1980s in Dolan, p

Michael Golden (comics)

‘Michael Golden’ is an United States|American comic book artist and writer best known for his late-1970s work on Marvel Comics’ Micronauts (comics)|The Micronauts, as well as his co-creation of the characters Rogue (comics)|Rogue and Bucky O’Hare.

Ferret (comics) – Father Time

One of future Marvel patriarch Stan Lee’s first co-creations, Father Time starred in a backup feature in Captain America Comics #6-12 (Sept. 1941 – March 1942), by which time it was being drawn by Jack Alderman. The feature also appeared in Young Allies Comics #3 (Spring 1942), and Mystic Comics #10 (Aug. 1942).

Bryan Elsley

‘Bryan Elsley’ (born 17 May 1961 in Dalkeith, Midlothian) is a Scotland|Scottish television writer, best known for the co-creation of E4 (channel)|E4 teen television series|drama Skins (UK TV series)|Skins with his son, Jamie Brittain. Other television dramas include 40 (TV serial)|40, Rose and Maloney, Nature Boy (TV serial)|Nature Boy, The Young Person’s Guide to Becoming a Rock Star, The Crow Road (TV series)|The Crow Road, Dates (TV series)|Dates, and Govan Ghost Story.

IN2015

‘Intelligent Nation 2015’ (iN2015) is a 10-year masterplan by the Government of Singapore to help Singapore realise the potential of infocomm over the next decade. Led by the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA), iN2015 is a multi-agency effort that is the result of private, public and people sector co-creation.

Greg Rucka – Career

While writing Detective Comics, he created a number of background characters that led to the co-creation of Gotham Central with co-writer Ed Brubaker

Service-dominant logic – What is S-D Logic?

Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic focused on intangible resources, the co-creation of value, and relationships

Service-dominant logic – Axioms of S-D logicVargo, Stephen L. Service-dominant logic reframes (service) innovation. Highlights in service research, VTT, 2013

Network Intersections,Value-in-Context, and the Co-Creation of Markets. Marketing Theory, 2011. the collaborative nature of value creation becomes even more apparent. That is, value co-creation through service-for-service exchange is at the very heart of society.Lusch, R.F. Vargo, S. L. Service dominant logic: reactions, reflections and refinements.” Marketing Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2006, pp. 281–288.

Service-dominant logic – Axioms of S-D logicVargo, Stephen L. Service-dominant logic reframes (service) innovation. Highlights in service research, VTT, 2013

This is different from co-creation of value, which is intended to capture the essential nature of value creation: it always involves the beneficiary’s participation (through use, integration with other resources, etc,) in some manner.

Service-dominant logic – Axioms of S-D logicVargo, Stephen L. Service-dominant logic reframes (service) innovation. Highlights in service research, VTT, 2013

It sets the stage for thinking about the mechanics and the networked nature of value co-creation, as well as the process through which the resources for service provision are created, the integration of resources, resources from various market-facing, public, and private sources

Service-dominant logic – The Service Ecosystem

A service-centered approach to social and economic exchange broadens the process of value creation beyond a firm’s operation activities to include the active participation of customers and other stakeholders, through co-creation (FP6)

Service-dominant logic – Conclusion

A goods dominant marketing logic arguably limits the mind-set for seeing the opportunities for co-creation of value with customers and other stakeholders of the firm

Friday Night Videos – Early years

Ebersol departed from The Midnight Special in 1981 to take over as the executive producer at his co-creation with Lorne Michaels, Saturday Night Live

Improvisational comedy – Structure and process

In order for an improvised scene (fiction)|scene to be successful, the improvisers involved must work together responsively to define the parameters and action of the scene, in a process of co-creation

Len Wein

‘Len Wein’ (; born June 12, 1948) is an American comic book writer and editor best known for co-creating DC Comics’ Swamp Thing and Marvel Comics’ Wolverine (character)|Wolverine, and for helping revive the Marvel superhero team the X-Men (including the co-creation of Nightcrawler (comics)|Nightcrawler, Storm (Marvel Comics)|Storm, and Colossus (comics)|Colossus). Additionally, he was the editor for writer Alan Moore and illustrator Dave Gibbons’ influential DC miniseries Watchmen.

Raymond Weil – Engagement in the Arts Music

‘New Music Talents :’ Raymond Weil Genève organised in 2011 a New Music Talent competition inviting amateur musicians to create a track inspired by the Swiss watch brand. The contest was hosted on eYeka’s co-creation platform and the winner was awarded a 5.000USD cash prize, as well as a Raymond Weil Genève timepiece and the promotion of the winning track on the brand’s website and Facebook page.

Steven Levitan – Career

It is under this company that they produced their co-creations Back to You (TV series)|Back to You and Modern Family

Female comics creators – France/Belgium

One of the earliest successful female artists was Claire Bretécher, who started her career in the 60’s and is famed for her humor series Les Frustrés and the co-creation of the magazine L’Écho des savanes along with Gotlib and Mandryka.

Dave Cockrum

was an American comic book artist known for his co-creation of the new X-Men characters Nightcrawler (comics)|Nightcrawler, Storm (Marvel Comics)|Storm, and Colossus (comics)|Colossus

Gerry Conway – Early career

He scripted the first Man-Thing story, in 1971, sharing co-creation credit with Stan Lee and Roy Thomas

Gerry Conway – DC Comics and later career

Two other Conway co-creations, the Deserter (with artist Dick Ayers) and the Vixen (comics)|Vixen (with artist Bob Oksner)Wells p

Marc Warren (TV producer) – Career

It was there he met Dennis Rinsler before moving to Los Angeles.[http://www.abcmedianet.com/web/showpage/showpage.aspx?program_id=001439type=producers Dennis Rinsler Marc Warren Executive Producers of That’s So Raven] – ABC Medianet Their experiences as teachers was the inspiration for the 1990s sitcom Nick Freno: Licensed Teacher starring Mitch Mullany, which they also produced with Warren receiving co-creation credit with Richard Gurman

Ace Kilroy

The co-creation of artists Rob Kelly and Dan O’Connor (who met while attending the Joe Kubert School of Graphic Art, Ace Kilroy features the titular character–a WWI Veteran turned soldier of fortune who has experience in the strange and the unusual

Konga (film)

The film was the basis for a comic-book series published by Charlton Comics and initially drawn by Steve Ditko (prior to Ditko’s co-creation of Spider-Man) in the 1960s.

Doug Wildey

Retrieved on March 6, 2013 (May 2, 1922 – October 5, 1994) was a cartoonist and comic book artist best known for his co-creation of the 1964 animated television series, Jonny Quest (TV series)|Jonny Quest for Hanna-Barbera Productions.

The Bojeffries Saga – Publication history

In 1992, Tundra Press (the company set up by Kevin Eastman with profits from his co-creation of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles) reprinted the ten Bojeffries stories together with an introduction from Lenny Henry and four new illustration-stories: three cut-outs and a recipe.

Experiential marketing

Rather than looking at consumers as passive receivers of messages, engagement marketers believe that consumers should be actively involved in the production and co-creation of marketing programs, developing a relationship with the brand.

Greenstone (software)

Co-creation and development of digital library software

Brian Miner

‘Brian Daniel Miner’ (born March 27, 1981) is an American comedian and satire|satirist. He is known for his co-creation of the live sketch comedy series The Crippling Thoughts of Victor Bonesteel along with fellow writer and comedian Bryan Finnigan [http://media.www.theorion.com/media/storage/paper889/news/2005/05/11/Entertainment/Sketch.Comedy.Spoofs.Life-1508061.shtml] [http://www.newsreview.com/chico/Content?oid=34848].

Delo – History and profile

For more than 50 years it has been involved in active co-creation of the Slovenian public space. It covers politics, economics, sports, culture and social events in Slovene language. In addition to Slovenia, the paper is available in several Croatian cities and in Belgrade, Serbia.

Digital Extremes

‘Digital Extremes’ is a Canada|Canadian computer and video game developer founded in 1993 by James Schmalz, best known for its co-creation of Epic Games’ highly successful Unreal (series)|Unreal series of games. Digital Extremes is headquartered in London, Ontario.

Correllian Nativist Tradition – Milestones

* Under Lady Krystel and Chancellor Don’s leadership (since 1979), the tradition sought to expand its outreach and began an ongoing educational program which resulted in the co-creation of the Internet-based Witch School with Ed Hubbard of Psychic Services Incorporated in 2001. The Witch School has since become an independent, multi-tradition entity.

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Check Digit

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Check Digit

International Standard Book Number Check digits

A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection, the decimal equivalent of a binary check bit. It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the message.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digits

The 2001 edition of the official manual of the International ISBN Agency says that the ISBN-10 check digit – which is the last digit of the ten-digit ISBN – must range from 0 to 10 (the symbol X is used for 10), and must be such that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of 11.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digits

Formally, using modular arithmetic, we can say:

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digits

It is also true for ISBN-10’s that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of 11. For this example:

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digits

The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g., typing or writing it) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. It can be proved that all possible valid ISBN-10’s have at least two digits different from each other. It can also be proved that there are no pairs of valid ISBN-10’s with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. (These are true only because the ISBN is less than 11 digits long, and because 11 is prime.)

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digits

The ISBN check digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e. if either of these types of error has occurred, the result will never be a valid ISBN – the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11. However, if the error occurs in the publishing house and goes undetected, the book will be issued with an invalid ISBN.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digits

In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN number (although it is still unlikely).

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digit calculation

Modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. Each of the first nine digits of the ten-digit ISBN – excluding the check digit, itself – is multiplied by a number in a sequence from 10 to 2, and the remainder of the sum, with respect to 11, is computed. The resulting remainder, plus the check digit, must equal 11; therefore, the check digit is 11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digit calculation

For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

International Standard Book Number ISBN-10 check digit calculation

Thus the check digit is 2, and the complete sequence is ISBN 0-306-40615-2. The value required to satisfy this condition might be 10; if so, an ‘X’ should be used.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

The 2005 edition of the International ISBN Agency’s official manual describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

The calculation of an ISBN-13 check digit begins with the first 12 digits of the thirteen-digit ISBN (thus excluding the check digit itself). Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9. Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to 10. A zero (0) replaces a ten (10), so, in all cases, a single check digit results.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

For example, the ISBN-13 check digit of 978-0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

Thus, the check digit is 7, and the complete sequence is ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

Formally, the ISBN-13 check digit calculation is:

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

The ISBN-10 formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0-9 to express the check digit.

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

Additionally, if the sum of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th digits is tripled then added to the remaining digits (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th), the total will always be divisible by 10 (i.e., end in 0).

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

public static boolean isISBN13Valid(String isbn) {

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

check += Integer.valueOf(isbn.substring(i, i + 1));

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

function isValidISBN13(ISBNumber) {

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

sum = transformed_digits.reduce(:+)

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

check = (10 – (sum(int(digit) * (3 if idx % 2 else 1) for idx, digit in enumerate(isbn[:12])) % 10)) % 10

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

FUNCTION validate_isbn_13(isbn VARCHAR2) RETURN INTEGER IS

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

modular INTEGER;

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

IF modular = 0 THEN

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

reminder := 10 – modular;

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

IF TO_CHAR( reminder ) = SUBSTR(isbn, 13, 1 ) THEN

International Standard Book Number ISBN-13 check digit calculation

# Bourne-Again Shell

International Standard Music Number – Check digit

To calculate the check digit, each digit of the ISMN is multiplied by a weight, alternating 1 and 3 left to right. These weighted digits are added together. The check digit is the integer between 0 and 9 that makes the sum a multiple of 10.

ISO/IEC 7812 – Check digit

The final digit is a check digit which is calculated using the Luhn algorithm, defined in Annex B of ISO/IEC 7812-1.

ISO 6346 – Check Digit

The check digit consists of one numeric digit providing a means of validating the recording and transmission accuracies of the owner code and serial number.

International Bank Account Number – Generating IBAN check digits

According to the ECBS “generation of the IBAN shall be the exclusive responsibility of the bank/branch servicing the account”. The ECBS document replicates part of the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard as a method for generating check digits in the range 02 to 98. Check digits in the ranges 00 to 96, 01 to 97, and 03 to 99 will also provide validation of an IBAN, but the standard is silent as to whether or not these ranges may be used.

International Bank Account Number – Generating IBAN check digits

Check that the total IBAN length is correct as per the country. If not, the IBAN is invalid

International Bank Account Number – Generating IBAN check digits

Replace the two check digits by 00 (e.g. GB00 for the UK)

International Bank Account Number – Generating IBAN check digits

Move the four initial characters to the end of the string

International Bank Account Number – Generating IBAN check digits

Replace the letters in the string with digits, expanding the string as necessary, such that A or a = 10, B or b = 11, and Z or z = 35. Each alphabetic character is therefore replaced by 2 digits

International Bank Account Number – Generating IBAN check digits

Calculate mod-97 of the new number, which results in the remainder

International Bank Account Number – Generating IBAN check digits

Subtract the remainder from 98, and use the result for the two check digits. If the result is a single digit number, pad it with a leading 0 to make a two-digit number

Codabar – Check digit

Because Codabar is self-checking, most standards do not define a check digit.http://mdn.morovia.com/manuals/bax3/shared.bartech.php#Symbology.Codabar

Codabar – Check digit

Some standards that use Codabar will define a check digit, but the algorithm is not universal. For purely numerical data, such as the library barcode pictured above, the Luhn algorithm is popular.http://www.makebarcode.com/specs/codabar.html

Codabar – Check digit

When all 16 symbols are possible, a simple modulo-16 checksum is used.http://www.barcodesymbols.com/codabar.htm The values 10 through 19 are assigned to the symbols –$:/+.ABCD, respectively.

Universal Product Code – Check digits

In the UPC-A system, the check digit is calculated as follows:

Universal Product Code – Check digits

# Add the digits in the Even and odd numbers|odd-numbered positions (first, third, fifth, etc.) together and multiply by three.

Universal Product Code – Check digits

# Add the digits in the even and odd numbers|even-numbered positions (second, fourth, sixth, etc.) to the result.

Universal Product Code – Check digits

# Find the result modulo operation|modulo 10 (i.e. the remainder when divided by 10.. 10 goes into 58 5 times with 8 leftover).

Universal Product Code – Check digits

# If the result is not zero, subtract the result from ten.

Universal Product Code – Check digits

For example, in a UPC-A barcode 03600029145’x’ where ‘x’ is the unknown check digit, ‘x’ can be calculated by

Universal Product Code – Check digits

*adding the odd-numbered digits (0+6+0+2+1+5 = 14),

Universal Product Code – Check digits

*calculating modulo ten (58mod10 = 8),

Universal Product Code – Check digits

*subtracting from ten (10minus;8 = 2).

Universal Product Code – Check digits

This should not be confused with the numeral X which stands for a value of 10 in modulo 11, commonly seen in the International Standard Book Number|ISBN check digit.

Code 128 – Check digit calculation

The remainder of the division is the check digit’s ‘value’ which is then converted into a character (following the instructions given Code 128#Conversion to char|below) and appended to the end of the barcode.

Code 128 – Check digit calculation

For example, in the following table, the code 128 variant A checksum value is calculated for the alphanumeric string PJJ123C

Code 128 – Calculating check digit with multiple variants

As Code 128 allows multiple variants, as well as switching between variants within a single barcode, it is important to remember that the absolute Code 128 value of a character is completely independent of its value within a given variant. For instance the Variant C value 33 and the Variant B value A are both considered to be a Code 128 value of 33, and the check digit would be computed based on the value of 33 times the character’s position within the barcode.

British Cattle Movement Service – Check Digit

The check digit for a cow’s ear tag is calculated by dividing the number obtained from the herd mark and animal number by 7 and adding one to the remainder. Take UK herd number 303565 cow number 01234. We work out the check digit as follows:

MSI Barcode – Check digit calculation

The MSI barcode uses one of five possible schemes for calculating a check digit:

MSI Barcode – Check digit calculation

* Modulo operation|Mod 10 (most common)

MSI Barcode – Mod 10 Check Digit

When using the Mod 10 check digit algorithm, a string to be encoded 1234567 will be printed with a check digit of 4:

MSI Barcode – Mod 10 Check Digit

[http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/printer/v1r1/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.printers.afpproducts/com.ibm.printers.ppfaug/ib6p8mst334.htm IBM Printing Systems Information Center – Check Digit Calculation Method], IBM.

MSI Barcode – Mod 10 Check Digit

uses the Luhn algorithm.

MSI Barcode – Mod 11 Check Digit

2

MSI Barcode – Mod 11 Check Digit

This example is using the IBM modulo 11 algorithm with a weighting pattern of (2,3,4,5,6,7)

MSI Barcode – Mod 11 Check Digit

Let X = the final product of the string to encode.

MSI Barcode – Mod 11 Check Digit

3. Mod the sum by 11, subtract the result from 11, and then apply the mod 11 function again.

MSI Barcode – Mod 1010 check digit

Simply calculate the Mod 10 check digit the first time and then calculate it again with the previous result and append the result of the second Mod 10 Calculation to the string to be encoded.

MSI Barcode – Mod 1110 check digit

Same as Mod 1010 but the first calculation should be a Mod 11 Check digit.

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

The last number of the IMEI is a check digit calculated using the Luhn algorithm.

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

According to the [http://www.gsma.com/documents/ts-06-6-0-imei-allocation-and-approval-guidelines/20164/ IMEI Allocation and Approval Guidelines],

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

The Check Digit shall be calculated according to Luhn algorithm|Luhn formula (ISO/IEC 7812). (See GSM 02.16 / 3GPP 22.016). The Check Digit is a function of all other digits in the IMEI. The Software Version Number (SVN) of a mobile is not included in the calculation.

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

The purpose of the Check Digit is to help guard against the possibility of incorrect entries to the CEIR and EIR equipment.

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

The presentation of the Check Digit both electronically and in printed form on the label and packaging is very important. Logistics (using bar-code reader) and EIR/CEIR administration cannot use the Check Digit unless it is printed outside of the packaging, and on the ME IMEI/Type Accreditation label.

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

The check digit is not transmitted over the radio interface, nor is it stored in the EIR database at any point. Therefore, all references to the last three or six digits of an IMEI refer to the actual IMEI number, to which the check digit does not belong.

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

# Starting from the right, double every other digit (e.g., 7 ? 14).

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

Conversely, one can calculate the IMEI by choosing the check digit that would give a sum divisible by 10. For the example IMEI 49015420323751?,

International Mobile Equipment Identity – Check digit computation

To make the sum divisible by 10, we set ? = 8, so the IMEI is 490154203237518.

Check digit

A ‘check digit’ is a form of redundancy check used for Error detection and correction|error detection on identification numbers (e.g. bank account numbers) which have been input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of a single digit (sometimes more than one) computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input.

Check digit

With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits.

Check digit – Design

Check digit algorithms are generally designed to capture human transcription errors. In order of complexity, these include the following:

Check digit – Design

* single digit errors, such as 1 ? 2

Check digit – Design

* transposition errors, such as 12 ? 21

Check digit – Design

* twin errors, such as 11 ? 22

Check digit – Design

* jump transpositions errors, such as 132 ? 231

Check digit – Design

* jump twin errors, such as 131 ? 232

Check digit – Design

* phonetic errors, such as 60 ? 16 (sixty to sixteen)

Check digit – Design

In choosing a system, a high probability of catching errors is traded off against implementation difficulty; simple check digit systems are easily understood and implemented by humans but do not catch as many errors as complex ones, which require sophisticated programs to implement.

Check digit – Design

A desirable feature is that left-padding with zeros should not change the check digit. This allows variable length digits to be used and the length to be changed.

Check digit – Design

If there is a single check digit added to the original number, the system will not always capture multiple errors, such as two replacement errors (12 ? 34) though, typically, double errors will be caught 90% of the time (both changes would need to change the output by offsetting amounts).

Check digit – Design

A very simple check digit method would be to take the sum of all digits (digital root|digital sum) modulo operation|modulo 10. This would catch any single-digit error, as such an error would always change the sum, but does not catch any transposition errors (switching two digits) as re-ordering does not change the sum.

Check digit – Design

A slightly more complex method is to take the weighted sum of the digits, modulo 10, with different weights for each number position.

Check digit – Design

To illustrate this, for example if the weights for a four digit number were 5, 3, 2, 7 and the number to be coded was 4871, then one would take 5×4 + 3×8 + 2×7 + 7×1 = 65, i.e. 5 modulo 10, and the check digit would be 5, giving 48715.

Check digit – Design

Using different weights on neighboring numbers means that most transpositions change the check digit; however, because all weights differ by an even number, this does not catch transpositions of two digits that differ by 5, (0 and 5, 1 and 6, 2 and 7, 3 and 8, 4 and 9), since the 2 and 5 multiply to yield 10.

Check digit – Design

The code instead uses modulo 11, which is prime, and all the number positions have different weights 1,2,\dots,10. This system thus detects all single digit substitution and transposition errors (including jump transpositions), but at the cost of the check digit possibly being 10, represented by X. (An alternative is simply to avoid using the serial numbers which result in an X check digit.) instead uses the GS1 algorithm used in EAN numbers.

Check digit – Design

To reduce this failure rate, it is necessary to use more than one check digit (for example, the modulo 97 check referred to below, which uses two check digits – for the algorithm, see International Bank Account Number) and/or to use a wider range of characters in the check digit, for example letters plus numbers.

Check digit – UPC

The final digit of a Universal Product Code is a check digit computed as follows:

Check digit – UPC

# Add the digits (up to but not including the check digit) in the odd-numbered positions (first, third, fifth, etc.) together and multiply by three.

Check digit – UPC

# Add the digits (up to but not including the check digit) in the even-numbered positions (second, fourth, sixth, etc.) to the result.

Check digit – UPC

# Take the remainder of the result divided by 10 (modulo operation) and subtract this from 10 to derive the check digit.

Check digit – UPC

For instance, the UPC-A barcode for a box of tissues is 036000241457. The last digit is the check digit 7, and if the other numbers are correct then the check digit calculation must produce 7.

Check digit – UPC

# Add the odd number digits: 0+6+0+2+1+5 = 14

Check digit – UPC

# To calculate the check digit, take the remainder of (53 / 10), which is also known as (53 modulo 10), and subtract from 10. Therefore, the check digit value is 7.

Check digit – UPC

Another example: to calculate the check digit for the following food item 01010101010.

Check digit – UPC

# To calculate the check digit, take the remainder of (5 / 10), which is also known as (5 modulo 10), and subtract from 10 i.e. (10 – 5 modulo 10) = 5. Therefore, the check digit value is 5.

Check digit – UPC

# If the remainder is 0, subtracting from 10 would give 10. In that case, use 0 as the check digit.

Check digit – ISBN 10

The digit the farthest to the right (which is multiplied by 1) is the check digit, chosen to make the sum correct

Check digit – ISBN 10

While this may seem more complicated than the first scheme, it can be validated simply by adding all the products together then dividing by 11. The sum can be computed without any multiplications by initializing two variables, t and sum, to 0 and repeatedly performing t = t + digit; sum = sum + t; (which can be expressed in C (programming language)|C as sum += t += digit;). If the final sum is a multiple of 11, the ISBN is valid.

Check digit – ISBN 13

ISBN 13 (in use January 2007) is equal to the EAN-13 code found underneath a book’s barcode. Its check digit is generated the same way as the UPC except that the even digits are multiplied by 3 instead of the odd digits.

Check digit – EAN (GLN,GTIN, EAN numbers administered by GS1)

EAN (European Article Number) check digits (administered by GS1) are calculated by summing the odd position numbers and multiplying by 3 and then by adding the sum of the even position numbers. Numbers are examined going from right to left, so the first odd position is the last digit in the code. The final digit of the result is subtracted from 10 to calculate the check digit (or left as-is if already zero).

Check digit – EAN (GLN,GTIN, EAN numbers administered by GS1)

A GS1 check digit calculator and detailed documentation is online at GS1’s website.

Check digit – EAN (GLN,GTIN, EAN numbers administered by GS1)

Another official calculator page shows that the mechanism for GTIN-13 is the same for Global Location Number/GLN.

Check digit – International

* The International SEDOL number.

Check digit – International

* The final digit of an ISSN code or IMO Number.

Check digit – International

* The International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN).

Check digit – International

* The International CAS registry number’s final digit.

Check digit – International

* Modulo 10 check digits in credit card account numbers, calculated by the Luhn algorithm.

Check digit – International

**Also used in the Norwegian KID (customer identification number) numbers used in bank giros (credit transfer).

Check digit – International

* Last check digit in EAN/UPC serialisation of Global Trade Identification Number (GTIN). It applies to GTIN-8, GTIN-12, GTIN-13 and GTIN-14.

Check digit – International

* The final digit of a Data Universal Numbering System|DUNS number (though this is scheduled to change, such as that the final digit will be chosen freely in new allocations, rather than being a check digit).

Check digit – International

* The third and fourth digits in an International Bank Account Number (Modulo 97 check).

Check digit – International

* The final character encoded in a magnetic stripe card is a computed Longitudinal redundancy check.

Check digit – In the USA

* The tenth digit of the National Provider Identifier for the US healthcare industry.

Check digit – In the USA

* The North American CUSIP number.

Check digit – In the USA

* The final (ninth) digit of the routing transit number, a bank code used in the United States.

Check digit – In the USA

* The ninth digit of a Vehicle identification number|Vehicle Identification Number (VIN).

Check digit – In the USA

* Mayo Clinic patient identification numbers used in Arizona and Florida include a trailing check digit.

Check digit – In Central America

* The Guatemalan Tax Number (NIT – Número de Identificación Tributaria) based on modulo operator|modulo 11.

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The Spanish fiscal identification number (número de identificación fiscal, NIF), (based on modulo 23).

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The ninth digit of an Israeli Teudat Zehut (Identity Card) number.

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The 13th digit of the Serbian and SFRY|Former Yugoslav Unique Master Citizen Number|Unique Master Citizen Number (JMBG).

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The last two digits of the 11-digit Turkish Identification Number ().

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The ninth character in the 14-character European Union|EU cattle passport number (cycles from 1 to 7: see British Cattle Movement Service#Ear tag number|British Cattle Movement Service).

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The ninth digit in an Icelandic Kennitala (national ID number).

Check digit – In Eurasia

* Modulo 97 check digits in a Belgium|Belgian and Serbian bank account numbers.

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The ninth digit in a Hungary|Hungarian TAJ number (social insurance number).

Check digit – In Eurasia

* For the residents of India, the unique identity number named AADHAAR#Salient features of AADHAAR|Aadhaar has a trailing 12th digit that is calculated with the Verhoeff algorithm.

Check digit – In Eurasia

* The Intellectual Property Office of Singapore|Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS) has confirmed a new format for application numbers of registrable Intellectual Property (IP, e.g., Trademark|trade marks, patents, Industrial design right|registered designs). It will include a check character calculated with the Damm algorithm.

Check digit – In Oceania

* The Australian Tax File Number (based on modulo operator|modulo 11).

Check digit – In Oceania

* The seventh character of a New Zealand NHI Number.

Check digit – In Oceania

* The last digit in a Locomotives of New Zealand|New Zealand locomotive’s Traffic Monitoring System (TMS) number.

Check digit – Algorithms

Notable algorithms include:

Luhn algorithm – Verification of the check digit

digits = digits_of(card_number)

Luhn algorithm – Calculation of the check digit

The algorithm above checks the validity of an input with a check digit. Calculating the check digit requires only a slight adaptation of the algorithm—namely:

Luhn algorithm – Calculation of the check digit

# Append a zero check digit to the partial number and calculate checksum

ISBN – ISBN-10 check digits

The 2001 edition of the official manual of the [http://www.isbn-international.org/ International ISBN Agency] says that the ISBN-10 check digit– which is the last digit of the ten-digit ISBN– must range from 0 to 10 (the symbol X is used for 10), and must be such that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of 11 (number)|11.

ISBN – ISBN-10 check digits

The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g., typing or writing it) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. It can be mathematical proof|proved that all possible valid ISBN-10’s have at least two digits different from each other. It can also be proved that there are no pairs of valid ISBN-10’s with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. (These are true only because the ISBN is less than 11 digits long, and because 11 is a prime number.)

ISBN – ISBN-10 check digits

The ISBN check digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e

ISBN – ISBN-10 check digit calculation

The resulting remainder, plus the check digit, must equal 11; therefore, the check digit is (11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11) modulo 11

ISBN – ISBN-10 check digit calculation

The value x_ required to satisfy this condition might be 10; if so, an ‘X’ should be used.

ISBN – ISBN-13 check digit calculation

The 2005 edition of the International ISBN Agency’s official manual describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated. The ISBN-13 check digit, which is the last digit of the ISBN, must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, alternating between 1 and 3, is a multiple of 10 (number)|10.

ISBN – ISBN-13 check digit calculation

The ISBN-10 formula uses the prime number|prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0-9 to express the check digit.

Routing transit number – Check digit

The ninth, check digit provides a checksum test using a position-weighted sum of each of the digits. High-speed check-sorting equipment will typically verify the checksum and if it fails, route the item to a reject pocket for manual examination, repair, and re-sorting. Mis-routings to an incorrect bank are thus greatly reduced.

Routing transit number – Check digit

: (Modulo operation|Mod or modulo is the remainder of a division operation.)

Routing transit number – Check digit

In terms of weights, this is 371 371 371

Routing transit number – Check digit

As an example, consider 111000025 (which is a valid routing number of Bank of America in Virginia). Applying the formula, we get:

Routing transit number – Check digit

The following formula can be used to generate the ninth digit in the checksum:

Routing transit number – Check digit

This is just moving all terms other than d_9 to the right hand side of the equation, which inverts the coefficients with respect to 10 (3 \mapsto (10-3) = 7; 7 \mapsto (10-7) = 3; 1 \mapsto (10-1) = 9).

Routing transit number – Check digit

Following the above example for the Bank of America routing number 111000025,

Routing transit number – Check digit

This checksum is very easy to represent in computer programming languages. The following Python (programming language)|Python example will print True when the checksum is valid:

Damm algorithm – Validating a number against the included check digit

#Set up an interim digit and initialize it to 0.

Damm algorithm – Validating a number against the included check digit

#Process the number digit by digit: Use the number’s digit as column index and the interim digit as row index, take the table entry and replace the interim digit with it.

Damm algorithm – Validating a number against the included check digit

#The number is valid if and only if the resulting interim digit has the value of 0.

Damm algorithm – Calculating the check digit

The resulting interim digit is ‘4’. This is the calculated check digit. We append it to the number and obtain ‘5724’.

UPC code – Check digits

# Adding the odd-numbered digits (0+6+0+2+1+5 = 14)

UPC code – Check digits

# Calculating modulo ten (58mod10 = 8)

UPC code – Check digits

# Subtracting from ten (10minus;8 = 2)

Base 11 – ISBN check digit

The check digit for ISBN|ISBN-10 is found as the result of taking modular arithmetic|modulo 11. Since this could give 11 possible results, the digit X, not A, is used in place of 10. Remember that X (disambiguation)|X is the Roman numeral for ten. (The newer ISBN-13 standard uses modulo 10, so no extra digits are required.)

Code 128 – Check digit calculation

The remainder of the division is the check digit’s ‘value’ which is then converted into a character (following the instructions given Code 128#Conversion to char|below) and appended to the end of the barcode.

Code 128 – Calculating check digit with multiple variants

As Code 128 allows multiple variants, as well as switching between variants within a single barcode, the absolute Code 128 value of a character is completely independent of its value within a given variant. For instance the Variant C value 33 and the Variant B value A are both considered to be a Code 128 value of 33, and the check digit would be computed based on the value of 33 times the character’s position within the barcode.

For More Information, Visit:

https://store.theartofservice.com/the-check-digit-toolkit.html

https://store.theartofservice.com/the-check-digit-toolkit.html

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Call Center

Home Shopping Network – Call center

The Rockwell corporation’s Galaxy line of switches was used for the current Call Center (as well as the new locations in St

Home Shopping Network – Call center

HSN has an in-house Call Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, which mostly handles customer service calls. HSN also employs several hundred customer service representatives from work at home positions who take calls and place orders via HSN’s customer service intranet. HSN also contracts Call Centers to handle its sales calls especially when HSN is broadcasting shows with highly popular items.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard – PCI compliance in call centers

While the PCI DSS standards are very explicit about the requirements for the back end storage and access of PII (personally identifiable information), the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council has said very little about the collection of that information on the front end, whether through websites, interactive voice response systems or call center agents. This is surprising, given the high threat potential for Creditcard fraud and data compromise that call centers pose.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard – PCI compliance in call centers

Home-based telephone agents pose an additional level of challenges, requiring the company to secure the channel from the home-based agent through the call center hub to the retailer applications.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard – PCI compliance in call centers

To address some of these concerns, on January 22, 2010 the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council issued a revised FAQ about call center recordings. The bottom line is that companies can no longer store digital recordings that include CVV information if those recordings can be queried.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard – PCI compliance in call centers

This ensures seamless integration with the call center environment, with minimal disruption to agents, or current IT systems, whilst also reducing risk by enabling rapid implementation

Elastix – Call center module

Elastix was the first distribution that included a call center module with a predictive dialer, released entirely as free software. This module can be installed from the same web-based Elastix interface through a module loader. The call center module can handle incoming and outgoing campaigns.

Call center industry in the Philippines

‘Call Centers’ began in the Philippines as plain providers of email response and managing services, these have industrial capabilities for almost all types of customer relations, ranging from travel services, technical support, education, customer care, financial services, and online business-to-customer support, online business-to-business support. The Call Center industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the country.

Call center industry in the Philippines – Types of support

The calls managed by a number of Philippine Call Centers can be categorized into one of two types: outbound calls and inbound calls. Outbound calls include advisories, sales verification, customer services, surveys, collections and telemarketing. Inbound Calls include account inquiries, technical support, sales and various customer services.

Call center industry in the Philippines – Recruitment and training process

The recruitment process for new Call Center agents may include (but is not limited to) the following:

Call center industry in the Philippines – Recruitment and training process

There are various ways in which one may initiate a career in Call Centers. The most common of which is to apply directly to a Call Center’s recruitment office. This process is commonly coined as a walk-in application. Another procedure includes an employee referral, where an applicant is referred by an existing employee of a Call Center. A person may also apply through an employment agency, which will conduct its own screening procedures, before endorsing an applicant to any Call Center.

Call center industry in the Philippines – Recruitment and training process

An emerging manner to apply for a career in a Call Center is through online application, as it provides applicants with an easier way of acquiring more information on the Call Center or business, an easier application and resume submission and allows Filipinos in more far or remote areas to apply.

Call center industry in the Philippines – Number of centers

According to the Call Center Directory of the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA), the Philippines now has more than 1000 call centers over 20 key locations:

Call center industry in the Philippines – Outsourcing

Call Center managers require new hires to be extremely fluent in English and (for technical accounts) possess above-par Information technology|IT skills. Although some people would on the basis of experience with Call Centers dispute these requirements.

Call center industry in the Philippines – Outsourcing

The global recession in 2008 resulted in the loss of jobs for many Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs). This prompted the Philippine government to assist OFWs transition to Call Center agents.http://www.articlearchives.com/labor-employment/labor-regulation-policy-labor-departments/216819-1.html The government program, funded by the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA), is part of the government’s vocational scholarship program of OWWA and reintegration for OFWs returning to the country.

Business process outsourcing in the Philippines – Call Center Industry in the Philippines

In the Philippines, Call Centers began as providers of business email response and managing services. The Call Center sector comprises 80% of the total BPO industry in the country. With 80% of the call services provided for the US market.

Business process outsourcing in the Philippines – Call Center Industry in the Philippines

In 2008, Call Centers supported a $12-billion BPO industry.

Call center industry in Bangladesh

The ‘call center industry in Bangladesh’ was worth around $12 million in 2013, of which 50 percent was accounted for by the country’s domestic market. In 2013, national mobile operators Airtel and Citycell outsourced their call centers to local companies. Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) eased the licensing process for call centers in 2013.

Call center industry in Bangladesh

A call center village was planned in 2009. , around 70 call centers were in operation in Bangladesh.Bangladesh exports its call center services to countries including the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. The Bangladesh Association of Call Center Outsourcing (BACCO) was formed in connection with the industry.

Charter Communications – Call centers

On May 2, 2006, Charter announced it would restructure seven of its Call Centre|Call Centers in the United States in the following locations:

Charter Communications – Call centers

* St. Louis, Missouri— Telephone Care Center, July 31, 2006; converted into a Charter Phone service Call Center

Charter Communications – Call centers

Orders completed online or through retail partners with Charter Communication are directed to a Call Center located in Tempe, Arizona, operated by Teletech (Direct Alliance). This Call Center has inbound/outbound sales agents, as well as online chat agents. Outsourced Call Centers were implemented in 2006 and are located in Canada and the Philippines.

Charter Communications – Call centers

Louis, Missouri (telephone service support center); Greenville, South Carolina|Greenville, South Carolina; Vancouver, Washington; Fond du Lac, Wisconsin; Walker, Michigan; Rochester, Minnesota; Worcester, Massachusetts, and Louisville, Kentucky, (the largest Call Center across the company), with Heathrow, Florida, handling the bulk of video, high-speed data, and telephone billing and customer service contacts

International Merchant Services – Closing of the Kearney Call Center

First National has operated the call center in Kearney since 1992.

Service desk – Differences from a call center, contact center, help desk

ITIL regards a Call Center, Contact Centre (business)|Contact Center or a help desk as limited kinds of service desk which provide only a portion of what a service desk can offer

Chargeback fraud – Call center transactions

Another common channel for chargebacks is mail order/telephone order (MOTO) payment processing through a call center. In this case, as with the two others listed here, the main problem is that this is a card not present transaction. To help eliminate call center purchase chargebacks, call centers are working to make the purchases more like card present purchases.

Chargeback fraud – Call center transactions

Agent-assisted automation technology is available for call centers that allows customers to enter their credit card information, including the card security code directly into the customer relationship management software without the agent ever seeing or hearing it. The agent remains on the phone, so there is no awkward transfer to an interactive voice response system. All the agent can hear is monotones. This is the card present equivalent of swiping the card.

Ceedo – Ceedo for Call Center

Ceedo for Call Center is a variant of Ceedo Enterprise specially configured and tweaked for Call Center representatives working from home, ensuring complete monitoring and usage oversight, host minimum requirements compatibility checks, and other components that ensure high-quality VoIP and enterprise-level secure connections.Ceedo for Call Center product page: http://www.ceedo.com/products/ceedo-for-call-center.html

Ceedo – Ceedo for Call Center

Ceedo for Call Center is usually locally installed on the user’s computer, and is employed along with various security mechanisms and Unified Communications related software.

PCI DSS – PCI compliance in call centers

Home-based telephone agents pose an additional level of challenges, requiring the company to secure the channel from the home-based agent through the call center hub to the retailer applications.

PCI DSS – PCI compliance in call centers

To address some of these concerns, on January 22, 2010 the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council issued a revised FAQ about call center recordings. The bottom line is that companies can no longer store digital recordings that include Card Verification Value|CVV information if those recordings can be queried.

PCI DSS – PCI compliance in call centers

This ensures seamless integration with the call center environment, with minimal disruption to agents, or current IT systems, whilst also reducing risk by enabling rapid implementation

Teletraffic engineering – In call centers

A good example of the use of teletraffic theory in practice is in the design and management of a call center. Call centers use teletraffic theory to increase the efficiency of their services and overall profitability through calculating how many operators are really needed at each time of the day.

Teletraffic engineering – In call centers

Queueing systems used in call centers have been studied as a science. For example completed calls are put on hold and queued until they can be served by an operator. If callers are made to wait too long, they may lose patience and default from the queue (hang up), resulting in no service being provided.

Call center industry – Recruitment and training process

There are various ways in which one may initiate a career in call centers, the most common of which is to apply directly to a call center’s recruitment office. This process is commonly coined as a walk-in application. Another procedure includes an employee referral, where an applicant is referred by an existing employee of a call center. A person may also apply through an employment agency, which will conduct its own screening procedures, before endorsing an applicant to any call center.

Bonus-Malus – Call centers

Bonus-malus payments are in addition to the normal cost of call center services.

Call center security

‘Information security’ has emerged as a significant concern for banks, mobile phone companies and other businesses that use call centers or business process outsourcing, or ‘BPO’. There have been instances of theft of personal data reported from call centers.

Call center security – Common countermeasures

There are three identifiable types of illicit activities concerning fraud emanating from call centers:

Call center security – Common countermeasures

*5. Limiting functionality and access of personal computers or terminals used by call center agents (for example, disabling USB ports). Companies may also use data loss prevention software to block attempts to download, copy, or transmit sensitive electronic data.[http://www.csoonline.com/article/356064 Call Center Security How: to Protect Employees and Customers]

Härnösand – Call centers

One of the biggest employers in Härnösand is the cable-TV and Cable internet service provider Com Hem. Com Hem in Härnösand takes care of all incoming support calls and therefore hire mostly young adults with an interest in technology. The Interview Institute of Scandinavia and Intervjubolaget are also employers seated in Härnösand focusing on call center activities, although their focus lies in doing interviews by phone or face to face.

One Night @ the Call Center

The novel revolves around a group of six call center employees working at the Connexions call center in Gurgaon, Haryana

One Night @ the Call Center – Plot

One night they got a phone-call from god within the story, which comprises the bulk of the book, relates the events that happen one night at a call center

One Night @ the Call Center – Plot

Claimed to be based on a true story, the author chooses Shyam Mehra (pseudonym|alias Sam Marcy) as the narrator and protagonist, who is one among the six call center employees featured.

One Night @ the Call Center – Plot

On returning to the call center, they carry out their plans with dexterity.

For More Information, Visit:

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Binary Digit

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Binary Digit

Bit

A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only one of two values, and may therefore be physically implemented with a two-state device. The most common representation of these values are 0and1. The term bit is a contraction of binary digit.

Bit History

Tukey, who had written a Bell Labs memo on 9 January 1947 in which he contracted “binary digit” to simply “bit”

Bit Unit and symbol

The bit is not defined in the International System of Units (SI). However, the International Electrotechnical Commission issued standard IEC 60027, which specifies that the symbol for binary digit should be bit, and this should be used in all multiples, such as kbit, for kilobit. However, the lower-case letter b is widely used as well and was recommended by the IEEE 1541 Standard (2002). In contrast, the upper case letter B is the standard and customary symbol for byte.

Bit Information capacity and information compression

Using an analogy, the hardware binary digits refer to the amount of storage space available (like the number of buckets available to store things), and the information content the filling, which comes in different levels of granularity (fine or coarse, that is, compressed or uncompressed information)

Hexadecimal

Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits), and the primary use of hexadecimal notation is a human-friendly of binary-coded values in computing and digital electronics. One hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte (8 bits). For example, byte values can range from 0 to 255 (decimal), but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range 00 to FF. Hexadecimal is also commonly used to represent computer memory addresses.

Octal

The octal amount system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). For example, the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010, which can be grouped into (00)1 001 010 – so the octal representation is 112.

Octal In computers

Octal was an ideal abbreviation of binary for these machines because their word size is divisible by three (each octal digit represents three binary digits)

Octal In computers

On such systems three octal digits per byte would be required, with the most significant octal digit representing two binary digits (plus one bit of the next significant byte, if any)

Octal Binary to octal conversion

The process is the reverse of the previous algorithm. The binary digits are grouped by threes, starting from the least significant bit and proceeding to the left and to the right. Add leading 0s (or trailing zeros to the right of decimal point) to fill out the last group of three if necessary. Then replace each trio with the equivalent octal digit.

Binary number History

In 1605 Francis Bacon discussed a system whereby letters of the alphabet could be reduced to sequences of binary digits, which could then be encoded as scarcely visible variations in the font in any random text

Binary number Representation

Any number can be represented by any sequence of bits (binary digits), which in turn may be represented by any mechanism capable of being in two mutually exclusive states. The following sequence of symbols could all be interpreted as the binary numeric value of 667:

Binary number Counting in binary

Since binary is a base-2 system, each digit represents an increasing power of 2, with the rightmost digit representing 20, the next representing 21, then 22, and so on. To determine the decimal representation of a binary number simply take the sum of the products of the binary digits and the powers of 2 which they represent. For example, the binary number 100101 is converted to decimal form as follows:

Binary number Hexadecimal

To convert a hexadecimal number into its binary equivalent, simply substitute the corresponding binary digits:

Binary number Octal

Binary is also easily converted to the octal amount system, since octal uses a radix of 8, which is a power of two (namely, 23, so it takes exactly three binary digits to represent an octal digit). The correspondence between octal and binary numerals is the same as for the first eight digits of hexadecimal in the table above. Binary 000 is equivalent to the octal digit 0, binary 111 is equivalent to octal 7, and so forth.

Boolean algebra Values

Whereas in elementary algebra expressions denote mainly numbers, in Boolean algebra they denote the truth values false and true. These values are represented with the bits (or binary digits) being 0 and 1. They do not behave like the integers 0 and 1, for which 1 + 1 = 2, but may be identified with the elements of the two-element field GF(2), for which 1 + 1 = 0 with + serving as the Boolean operation XOR.

Operating system – History

After programmable general purpose computers were invented, machine languages (consisting of strings of the binary digits 0 and 1 on punched paper tape) were introduced that sped up the programming process (Stern, 1981).

Central processing unit – Integer range

For example, an 8-bit CPU deals with a range of numbers that can be represented by eight binary digits (each digit having two possible values), that is, 28 or 256 discrete numbers

Computer data storage – Data organization and representation

Text, numbers, pictures, audio, and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0

Integer (computer science)

Integers are commonly represented in a computer as a group of binary digits

Entropy (information theory) – Entropy as information content

Shannon’s definition of entropy, when applied to an information source, can determine the minimum channel capacity required to reliably transmit the source as encoded binary digits (see caveat below in italics). The formula can be derived by calculating the mathematical expectation of the amount of information contained in a digit from the information source. See also Shannon-Hartley theorem.

Quantum computer

Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), Quantum Computation uses quantum properties to represent data and perform operations on these data

Digital data – Historical digital systems

More recently invented, a modem modulates an analog “carrier” signal (such as sound) to encode binary electrical digital information, as a series of binary digital sound pulses. A slightly earlier, surprisingly reliable version of the same concept was to bundle a sequence of audio digital “signal” and “no signal” information (i.e. “sound” and “silence”) on magnetic cassette tape for use with early home computers.

Hardware random number generator

A hardware random number generator typically consists of a transducer to convert some aspect of the physical phenomena to an electrical signal, an amplifier and other electronic circuitry to increase the amplitude of the random fluctuations to a macroscopic level, and some type of analog to digital converter to convert the output into a digital number, often a simple binary digit 0 or 1

Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine – Background

Konrad Zuse’s Z3 was the world’s first working programmable, fully automatic computer, with binary digital arithmetic logic, but it lacked the conditional branching of a Turing machine

Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine – Williams-Kilburn tube

For use in a binary digital computer, the tube had to be capable of storing either one of two states at each of its memory locations, corresponding to the binary digits (bits) 0 and 1

Computer

Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a “1”, and when off it represents a “0” (in positive logic representation). The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.

Data type – Boolean type

The Boolean type represents the values: true and false. Although only two values are possible, they are rarely implemented as a single binary digit for efficiency reasons. Many programming languages do not have an explicit boolean type, instead interpreting (for instance) 0 as false and other values as true.

Ferranti Mark 1 – History and specifications

The engineers decided to use the simplest mapping between the paper holes and the binary digits they represented, but the mapping between the holes and the physical keyboard was never meant to be a binary mapping

Ferranti Mark 1 – Mark 1 Star

Instead of the original mapping from holes to binary digits that resulted in the random-looking mapping, the new machines mapped digits to holes in order to produce a much simpler mapping, ø£½0@:$ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Digital electronics – Advantages

An advantage of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits is that signals represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise. For example, a continuous audio signal transmitted as a sequence of 1s and 0s, can be reconstructed without error, provided the noise picked up in transmission is not enough to prevent identification of the 1s and 0s. An hour of music can be stored on a compact disc using about 6 billion binary digits.

Digital electronics – Advantages

In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary digits to represent it. While this requires more digital circuits to process the signals, each digit is handled by the same kind of hardware. In an analog system, additional resolution requires fundamental improvements in the linearity and noise characteristics of each step of the signal chain.

Digital electronics – Structure of digital systems

A sequential system is a combinational system with some of the outputs fed back as inputs. This makes the digital machine perform a “sequence” of operations. The simplest sequential system is probably a flip flop, a mechanism that represents a binary digit or “bit”.

Consensus (computer science) – Models of computation

A special case of the consensus problem called binary consensus restricts the input and hence the output domain to a single binary digit {0,1}. When the input domain is large relative to the number of processes, for instance an input set of all the natural numbers, it can be shown that consensus is impossible in a synchronous message passing model.

Binary data

* bit (binary digit) in computer science,

Computing Machinery and Intelligence – Digital machines

Turing also notes that we need to determine which machines we wish to consider. He points out that a human cloning|clone, while man-made, would not provide a very interesting example. Turing suggested that we should focus on the capabilities of digital machinery—machines which manipulate the binary digits of 1 and 0, rewriting them into memory using simple rules. He gave two reasons.

Computer & Video Games – Components

Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical network|electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an transistor|electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a “1”, and when off it represents a “0” (in positive logic representation). The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.

Binary code

A ‘binary code’ represents Plain text|text or Instruction set|computer processor instructions using the binary number|binary number system’s two binary Numerical digit|digits, 0 and 1. A binary code assigns a bit string to each symbol or instruction. For example, a binary String (computer science)|string of eight binary digits (bits) can represent any of 256 possible values and can therefore correspond to a variety of different symbols, letters or instructions.

Operating systems – History

After programmable general purpose computers were invented, machine languages (consisting of strings of the binary digits 0 and 1 on punched paper tape) were introduced that sped up the programming process (Stern, 1981).

CPU – Integer range

For example, an 8-bit CPU deals with a range of numbers that can be represented by eight binary digits (each digit having two possible values), that is, 28 or 256 discrete numbers

Binaries – Structure

Binary files are usually thought of as being a sequence of bytes, which means the binary digits (bits) are grouped in eights

Digital media

There is a rich history of Numeral system|non-binary digital media, computers, and their rise to prominence over the last couple decades.

Philosophy of artificial intelligence – Consciousness, minds, mental states, meaning

The difficult philosophical question is this: can a computer program, running on a digital machine that shuffles the binary digits of zero and one, duplicate the ability of the neural correlates of consciousness|neurons to create minds, with mental states (like understanding or perceiving), and ultimately, the experience of consciousness?

Transmitter – How it works

*A modulator circuit to add the information to be transmitted to the carrier wave produced by the oscillator. This is done by varying some aspect of the carrier wave. The information is provided to the transmitter either in the form of an audio signal, which represents sound, a video signal, or for data in the form of a Binary numeral system|binary Digital data|digital signal.

Transmitter – How it works

**In an FSK (frequency-shift keying) transmitter, which transmits digital data, the frequency of the carrier is shifted between two frequencies which represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1.

Quartz clock – Explanation

A 15-bit Binary numeral system|binary Digital electronics|digital counter driven by the frequency will overflow once per second, creating a digital pulse once per second

Compound word – Recent trends

Although there is no universally agreed-upon guideline regarding the use of compound words in the English language, in recent decades written English has displayed a noticeable trend towards increased use of compounds. Recently, many words have been made by taking syllables of words and compounding them, such as pixel (picture element) and bit (binary digit). This is called a syllabic abbreviation.

RGB color model – Color depth

The RGB color model is the most common way to encode color in computing, and several different binary numeral system|binary Digital data|digital representations are in use

Atanasoff–Berry Computer – Design and construction

#Using binary numeral system|binary digits to represent all numbers and data

Computer storage – Data organization and representation

Text, numbers, pictures, audio, and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0

128-bit

However, these processors do not operate on individual numbers that are 128 binary digits in length, only their Processor register|registers have the size of 128-bits.

256-bit

However, these processors do not operate on individual numbers that are 256 binary digits in length, only their Processor register|registers have the size of 256-bits.

QPSK

PSK uses a finite number of phases, each assigned a unique pattern of bit|binary digits

WWVB – History

A time code was added to WWVB on July 1, 1965. This made it possible for clocks to be designed that could receive the signal, decode it, and then automatically synchronize themselves. The time code format has changed only slightly since 1965; it uses a scheme known as binary coded decimal (BCD) which uses four binary digits (bits) to send each decimal digit.

IEEE 754-1985 – Denormalized numbers

The number representations described above are called normalized, meaning that the implicit leading binary digit is a 1

Punched card – IBM 80-column punched card formats and character codes

For some computer applications, Binary numeral system|binary formats were used, where each hole represented a single binary digit (or bit), every column (or row) was treated as a simple bitfield, and every combination of holes was permitted

Quantum computing

Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), quantum computation uses quantum properties to represent data and perform Instruction (computer science)|operations on these data.[http://phm.cba.mit.edu/papers/98.06.sciam/0698gershenfeld.html Quantum Computing with Molecules] article in Scientific American by Neil Gershenfeld and Isaac L

DSL – History

A DSL circuit terminates at each end in a modem which modulates patterns of Binary digit|bits into certain high-frequency impulses for transmission to the opposing modem

Digital physics – Overview

Some try to identify single physical particles with simple Binary digit|bits

Stream cipher – Synchronous stream ciphers

In a ‘synchronous stream cipher’ a stream of pseudo-random digits is generated independently of the plaintext and ciphertext messages, and then combined with the plaintext (to encrypt) or the ciphertext (to decrypt). In the most common form, binary digits are used (bits), and the keystream is combined with the plaintext using the exclusive or operation (XOR). This is termed a ‘binary additive stream cipher’.

Digitizer – Process

The term digitization is often used when diverse forms of information, such as text, sound, image or voice, are converted into a single binary code. Digital information exists as one of two digits, either 0 or 1. These are known as bits (a contraction of binary digits) and the sequences of 0s and 1s that constitute information are called bytes.Flew, Terry. 2008. New Media An Introduction. South Melbourne. 3rd Edition. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

History of cryptography – Claude Shannon

In proving “perfect secrecy”, Shannon determined that this could only be obtained with a secret key whose length given in binary digits was greater than or equal to the number of bits contained in the information being encrypted

State (computer science) – Finite state machines

Since each binary digit|binary memory element has only two possible states, 0 or 1, the total number of different states a circuit can assume is finite, and fixed by the number of memory elements

CDC 6000 series – Central memory

Information is stored in central memory in the form of words. The length of each word is 60 binary digits (bits). The highly efficient address and data control mechanisms involved permit a word to be moved into or out of central memory up to one every 100 nanoseconds.

Connected Component Analysis

Connected-component labeling is used in computer vision to detect connected regions in binary image|binary digital images, although color images and data with higher dimensionality can also be processed

Carry-save adder – Motivation

In electronic terms, using bits (binary digits), this means that even if we have n one-bit adders at our disposal, we still have to allow a time proportional to n to allow a possible carry to propagate from one end of the number to the other. Until we have done this,

The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two – Miller’s article

He noticed that memory span is approximately the same for stimuli with vastly different amount of information—for instance, binary digits have 1 bit each; decimal digits have 3.32 bits each; words have about 10 bits each

Sense amplifier

The job of a sense amplifier is to sense the low power signals from a bitline which represents a data binary digit|bit (1 or 0) stored in a Computer data storage|memory cell, and amplify the small voltage swing to recognizable logic levels so the data can be interpreted properly by logic outside the memory.A Low-Power SRAM Using Bit-Line Charge-Recycling for Read and Write Operations[http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=arnumber=5584956contentType=Journals+%26+MagazinesqueryText%3Dread+write+operation+of+SRAM], IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 2010 IEEE Modern sense-amplifier circuits consist of 2 to 6 (usually 4) transistors

Classical information – Quantifying classical physical information

If the log is taken base 2, the unit of information is the binary digit or bit (so named by John Tukey); if we use a natural logarithm instead, we might call the resulting unit the nat

Accuracy

In numerical analysis, accuracy is also the nearness of a calculation to the true value; while precision is the resolution of the representation, typically defined by the number of decimal or binary digits.

Cipher – Key size and vulnerability

An example of this process can be found at [http://www.keylength.com/ Key Length] which uses multiple reports to suggest that a symmetric cipher with 128 binary digit|bits, an asymmetric cipher with 3072 bit keys, and an Elliptic curve cryptography|elliptic curve cipher with 512 bits, all have similar difficulty at present.

Baud – Relationship to gross bit rate

The term baud has sometimes incorrectly been used to mean bit rate, since these rates are the same in old modems as well as in the simplest digital communication links using only one bit per symbol, such that binary 0 is represented by one symbol, and binary 1 by another symbol. In more advanced modems and data transmission techniques, a symbol may have more than two states, so it may represent more than one bit (a bit (binary digit) always represents one of exactly two states).

RSA Factoring Challenge

The first RSA numbers generated, RSA-100 to RSA-500 and RSA-617, were labeled according to their number of decimal digits; the other RSA numbers (beginning with RSA-576) were generated later and labelled according to their number of binary numeral system|binary digits.

Symbol rate – Symbols

There may be a direct correspondence between a symbol and a small unit of data (for example, each symbol may Encoding|encode one or several binary digits or ‘bits’) or the data may be represented by the transitions between symbols or even by a sequence of many symbols

Symbol rate – Relationship to gross bitrate

In more advanced modems and data transmission techniques, a symbol may have more than two states, so it may represent more than one binary digit (a binary digit always represents one of exactly two states)

Symbol rate – Relationship to gross bitrate

It takes three Binary numeral system|binary digits to encode eight states

ADSL modem – Data transmission

The binary digit|bits of the incoming digital data are split up and sent in parallel over the channels

Chunking (psychology) – Magic number seven

With sufficient drill, people found it possible to remember as many as forty binary digits

Chunking (psychology) – Magic number seven

It is a little dramatic to watch a person get 40 binary digits in a row and then repeat them back without error. However, if you think of this merely as a mnemonic trick for extending the memory span, you will miss the more important point that is implicit in nearly all such mnemonic devices. The point is that recoding is an extremely powerful weapon for increasing the amount of information that we can deal with.

History of computer science – Alan Turing and the Turing Machine

Each cell contains a binary digit, 1 or 0

Digital technology – Advantages

An hour of music can be stored on a compact disc using about 6 billion binary digits.

Digital technology – Advantages

In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary digits to represent it. While this requires more digital circuits to process the signals, each digit is handled by the same kind of hardware. In an analog system, additional resolution requires fundamental improvements in the linearity and noise characteristics of each step of the Signal chain (signal processing chain)|signal chain.

Pioneer plaque – Hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen

Below this symbol is a small vertical line to represent the binary numeral system|binary digit 1

Approximation – Mathematics

The results of computer calculations are normally an approximation expressed in a limited number of significant digits, although they can be programmed to produce more precise results.[http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19957-01/806-3568/ncg_goldberg.html Numerical Computation Guide] Approximation can occur when a decimal number cannot be expressed in a finite number of binary digits.

Cantor’s diagonal argument – An uncountable set

In his 1891 article, Cantor considered the set T of all infinite sequences of binary digits (i.e. consisting only of 0es and 1s).

Arecibo message

The message consisted of 1,679 bit|binary digits, approximately 210 bytes, transmitted at a frequency of 2,380hertz|MHz and modulated by shifting the frequency by 10Hz, with a power of 1,000kilowatt|kW

Arecibo message – Numbers

To read the first seven digits, ignore the bottom row, and read them as three binary digits from top to bottom, with the top digit being the most significant

RF front end

In many modern integrated receivers, particularly those in wireless devices such as cell phones and Wifi receivers, the intermediate frequency is digitized; sampled and converted to a binary number|binary digital signal|digital form, and the rest of the processing – IF filtering and demodulation – is done by digital filters (digital signal processing, DSP), as these are smaller, use less power and can have more selectivity

Amplifiers – Class D

Another advantage of the class-D amplifier is that it can operate from a digital signal source without requiring an digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to convert the signal to analog form first. If the signal source is in digital form, such as in a digital media player or computer sound card, the digital circuitry can convert the binary digital signal directly to a pulse width modulation signal to be applied to the amplifier, simplifying the circuitry considerably.

Arithmetic underflow – The underflow gap

point datatype can represent 20 binary digits, the underflow gap is 221 times

Finger binary – Mechanics

It is possible to use digit (anatomy)|anatomical digits to represent numerical digits by using a raised finger to represent a binary digit in the 1 state and a lowered finger to represent it in the 0 state. Each successive finger represents a higher power of two.

Hollerith cards – IBM 80-column punched card formats and character codes

For some computer applications, Binary numeral system|binary formats were used, where each hole represented a single binary digit (or bit), every column (or row) was treated as a simple bitfield, and every combination of holes was permitted

List of algorithms – Elementary and special functions

** Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula: (BBP formula) a spigot algorithm for the computation of the nth binary digit of ?

Brute force search – Basic algorithm

If n is a random 64-binary digit|bit natural number, which has about 19 decimal digits on the average, the search will take about 10 years

Canonical Huffman code – As a fractional binary number

Another perspective on the canonical codewords is that they are the digits past the radix point (binary decimal point) in a binary representation of a certain series. Specifically, suppose the lengths of the codewords are l1 … ln. Then the canonical codeword for symbol i is the first li binary digits past the radix point in the binary representation of

Run-length encoding

Typical applications of this encoding are when the source information comprises long substrings of the same character or binary digit.

Karnaugh map

The row and column indices (shown across the top, and down the left side of the Karnaugh map) are ordered in Gray code rather than binary numerical order. Gray code ensures that only one variable changes between each pair of adjacent cells. Each cell of the completed Karnaugh map contains a binary digit representing the function’s output for that combination of inputs.

Numeral system – Main numeral systems

In computers, the main numeral systems are based on the positional system in base 2 (binary numeral system), with two binary digits, 0 and 1. Positional systems obtained by grouping binary digits by three (octal numeral system) or four (hexadecimal numeral system) are commonly used. For very large integers, bases 232 or 264 (grouping binary digits by 32 or 64, the length of the machine word) are used, as, for example, in GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library|GMP.

Numeric precision in Microsoft Excel – Accuracy and binary storage

In short, a variety of accuracy behavior is introduced by the combination of representing a number with a limited number of binary digits, along with Truncation error|truncating numbers beyond the fifteenth significant figure.

Experimental mathematics – History

A significant milestone and achievement of experimental mathematics was the discovery in 1995 of the Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula for the binary digits of ?

Boolean equation – Values

Whereas in elementary algebra expressions denote mainly numbers, in Boolean algebra they denote the truth values false and true. These values are represented with the bits (or binary digits), namely 0 and 1. They do not behave like the integers 0 and 1, for which 1 + 1 = 2, but may be identified with the elements of the GF(2)|two-element field GF(2), for which 1 + 1 = 0 with + serving as the Boolean operation XOR.

Binary logarithm – Real number

Fortunately, in practice we can do the computation and know the error margin without doing any algebra or any infinite series truncation. Suppose we want to compute the binary log of 1.65 with four binary digits. Repeat these steps four times:

Decimal point – Exceptions to digit grouping

For example, APA style stipulates a thousands separator for most figures of 1,000 or more except for page numbers, binary digits, temperatures, etc.

RSA number

The first RSA numbers generated, from RSA-100 to RSA-500, were labeled according to their number of decimal digits. Later, beginning with RSA-576, binary numeral system|binary digits are counted instead. An exception to this is RSA-617, which was created before the change in the numbering scheme. The numbers are listed in increasing order below.

RSA number – RSA-1024

Successful factorization of RSA-1024 has important security implications for many users of the RSA (algorithm)|RSA public-key cryptography|public-key authentication algorithm, as the most common key length currently in use is 1024 Binary digit|bits.

Gray code

The ‘reflected binary code’, also known as ‘Gray code’ after Frank Gray (researcher)|Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one bit (binary digit).

Shorten (file format)

It is a form of lossless data compression|data compression of files and is used to Audio data compression|losslessly compress Compact Disc|CD-quality audio files (44.1 kilohertz|kHz 16-binary digit|bit stereo Pulse-code modulation|PCM)

Amplitude-shift keying

ASK uses a finite number of amplitudes, each assigned a unique pattern of bit|binary digits

Parallel communications

In telecommunication and computer science, ‘parallel communication’ is a method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously. It contrasts with serial communication, which conveys only a single bit at a time; this distinction is one way of characterizing a communications link.

Algorithmic information theory – Overview

Although the digits of ‘?’ cannot be determined, many properties of ‘?’ are known; for example, it is an algorithmically random sequence and thus its binary digits are evenly distributed (in fact it is normal number|normal).

Memory refresh

In a DRAM chip, each binary digit|bit of memory data is stored as the presence or absence of an electric charge on a small capacitor on the chip

Elliptic curve factorization

, it is still the best algorithm for divisors not greatly exceeding 20 to 25 decimal|digits (64 to 83 binary digit|bits or so), as its running time is dominated by the size of the smallest factor p rather than by the size of the number n to be factored

Algorithmic randomness

Intuitively, an ‘algorithmically random sequence’ (or ‘random sequence’) is an infinite Sequence#Infinite sequences in theoretical computer science|sequence of binary digits that appears random to any algorithm. The notion can be applied analogously to sequences on any finite alphabet (e.g. decimal digits). Random sequences are key objects of study in algorithmic information theory.

Algorithmic randomness

Because infinite sequences of binary digits can be identified with real numbers in the unit interval, random binary sequences are often called ‘random real numbers’. Additionally, infinite binary sequences correspond to characteristic functions of sets of natural numbers; therefore those sequences might be seen as sets of natural numbers.

Algorithmic randomness – Three equivalent definitions

* ‘Kolmogorov complexity’ (Schnorr 1973, Levin 1973): Kolmogorov complexity can be thought of as a lower bound on the algorithmic compressibility of a finite sequence (of characters or binary digits)

Measurement while drilling

These sensors, as well as any additional sensors to measure rock formation density, porosity, pressure or other data, are connected, physically and digitally, to a logic unit which converts the information into binary digits which are then transmitted to surface using mud pulse telemetry (MPT, a binary coding transmission system used with fluids, such as, combinatorial, Manchester encoding, split-phase, among others).

Place value – Base conversion

base-16 can be achieved by writing each group of four binary digits as one hexadecimal digit.)

Place value – Computing

In computing, the Binary numeral system|binary (base-2) and hexadecimal (base-16) bases are used. Computers, at the most basic level, deal only with sequences of conventional zeroes and ones, thus it is easier in this sense to deal with powers of two. The hexadecimal system is used as shorthand for binary—every 4 binary digits (bits) relate to one and only one hexadecimal digit. In hexadecimal, the six digits after 9 are denoted by A, B, C, D, E, and F (and sometimes a, b, c, d, e, and f).

Square-free integer – Encoding as binary numbers

e.g. The square-free number 42 has factorisation 2times;3times;7, or as an infinite product: 21·31 ·50·71·110·130·…; Thus the number 42 may be encoded as the binary sequence …001011 or 11 decimal. (Note that the binary digits are reversed from the ordering in the infinite product.)

Theil index – Formula

In information theory, when information is given in binary digits, k=1 and the log base is 2

OR gate

The ‘OR gate’ is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunction – it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is high, a LOW output (0) results. In another sense, the function of OR effectively finds the maximum between two binary digits, just as the complementary AND function finds the minimum.

Significand – Significands and the hidden bit

When working in binary number system|binary, the significand is characterized by its width in bit|binary digits (bits)

AND gate

In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds the minimum between two binary digits, just as the OR gate|OR function finds the maximum

Semiprime – Applications

In 1974 the Arecibo message was sent with a radio signal aimed at a star cluster. It consisted of 1679 binary digits intended to be interpreted as a 23times;73 bitmap image. The number 1679 = 23times;73 was chosen because it is a semiprime and therefore can only be broken down into 23 rows and 73 columns, or 73 rows and 23 columns.

MSIN

MIN2 is the second part of the MIN containing the 10 most significant binary digits

List of binary codes

This is a list of some ‘binary codes’ that are (or have been) used to represent Plain text|text as a sequence of binary digits 0 and 1. Fixed-width binary codes use a set number of bits to represent each character in the text, while in variable-length code|variable-width binary codes, the number of bits may vary from character to character.

John W. Tukey – Statistical terms

While working with John von Neumann on early computer designs, Tukey introduced the word bit as a contraction of binary digit.[http://www.linfo.org/bit.html The origin of the ‘bit’] The term bit was first used in an article by Claude Shannon in 1948.

Memory address – Types of memory addresses

The memory controllers’ bus (computing)|bus consists of a number of parallel communication|parallel lines, each represented by a binary digit (bit)

Bit-length

Is the number of binary digits, called bits, necessary to represent an integer in the binary numeral system|binary number system.

Bit-length

For example, computer processors are often designed to process data group into data type|words of a given length of bits (8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit, 64 bit, etc.). The bit-length of each word (data type)|word defines, for one thing, how many memory locations can be independently addressed by the processor. In public-key cryptography, key (cryptography)|keys are defined by their length expressed in binary digits – their bit length.

Units of information – Primary units

When b is 2, the unit is the Shannon (unit)|shannon, equal to the information content of one bit (a contraction of binary digit). A system with 8 possible states, for example, can store up to log28 = 3 bits of information. Other units that have been named include:

Comparison of analog and digital recording – Quantization

The range of possible values that can be represented numerically by a sample is defined by the number of binary digits used

List of Ben 10 aliens – Echo Echo

Echo Echo is a small white silicon-based alien whose body is a living amplifier, has a headphones connected to square appendage resembling an MP3 player in his back with a port on it decorated with a binary digit situated like the number 10

Clock of the Long Now – Time calculations

Instead, the clock uses binary digital logic, implemented mechanically in a sequence of stacked binary adders (or as their inventor, Hillis, calls them, serial bit-adders)

Digit extraction algorithm – Example

This example illustrates the working of a spigot algorithm by calculating the binary digits of the natural logarithm of 2 using the identity

Digit extraction algorithm – Example

To start calculating binary digits from, say, the 8th place we multiply this identity by 27(since 7 = 8 – 1):

Digit extraction algorithm – Example

so the 8th to 11th binary digits in the binary expansion of ln(2) are 1, 0, 1, 1. Note that we have not calculated the values of the first seven binary digits – indeed, all information about them has been intentionally discarded by using modular arithmetic in the head sum.

Digit extraction algorithm – Example

The precision (arithmetic)|precision of calculations and intermediate results and the number of terms taken from the tail sum are all independent of n, and only depend on the number of binary digits that are being calculated – single precision arithmetic can be used to calculate around 12 binary digits, regardless of the starting position.

Simon Plouffe

‘Simon Plouffe’ is a Quebec mathematician born on June 11, 1956 in :fr:Saint-Jovite|Saint-Jovite, Quebec. He discovered the formula for the BBP algorithm (the Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula) which permits the computation of the nth binary numeral system|binary digit of pi|pi;, in 1995. Plouffe is also the co-author of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, made into the web site (On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences) dedicated to integer sequences later in 1995.

Infinite monkey theorem – Correspondence between strings and numbers

The infinitely long string thusly produced would correspond to the Binary numeral system|binary digits of a particular real number between 0 and 1

Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula

The ‘Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula’ (‘BBP formula’) is a spigot algorithm for computing the nth binary digit of ‘pi’ (symbol: ) using Hexadecimal| math

PiHex

* Binary digits of Pi from five trillion minus three to five trillion seventy-six (completed August 30, 1998):

PiHex

* Binary digits of Pi from forty trillion minus three to forty trillion sixty-four (February 9, 1999):

PiHex

* Binary digits of Pi from one quadrillion minus three to one quadrillion sixty (September 11, 2000):

Prime constant

The ‘prime constant’ is the real number \rho whose nth binary digit is 1 if n is Prime number|prime and 0 if n is Composite number|composite or 1.

Aaron Stone – Omega Defiance

His name is probably a reference to the binary code, zero being one of the binary digits.

RSA numbers – RSA-1024

Successful factorization of RSA-1024 has important security implications for many users of the RSA (algorithm)|RSA public-key cryptography|public-key authentication algorithm, as the most common key length currently in use is 1024 Binary digit|bits

Nintendo DS homebrew – SLOT-1 and SLOT-2 devices

The available systems for Game Boy Advance or Nintendo DS homebrew differ in size, compatibility with commercial ROM images, bundled special features (such as included media players), availability, and cost. To store homebrew, all flash cards use either built-in flash memory or external flash memory cards, like microSD or CompactFlash. Nintendo states the internal memory capacity of their game cartridges in binary digit|bits, while external cards state capacity in 8-bit bytes.

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Binary Code

Binary code

A ‘binary code’ represents Plain text|text or Instruction set|computer processor instructions using the binary number|binary number system’s two binary Numerical digit|digits, 0 and 1. A binary code assigns a bit string to each symbol or instruction. For example, a binary String (computer science)|string of eight binary digits (bits) can represent any of 256 possible values and can therefore correspond to a variety of different symbols, letters or instructions.

Binary code

In a fixed-width binary code, each letter, digit, or other character is represented by a bit string of the same length; that bit string, interpreted as a binary number, is usually displayed in code tables in octal, decimal or hexadecimal notation

Binary code – History of binary code

After his ideas were ignored, he came across a classic Chinese text called i ching|I Ching or Book of Changes, which used a type of binary code

Binary code – History of binary code

Shannon’s thesis became a starting point for the use of the binary code in practical applications such as computers, electric circuits, and more.

Binary code – Other forms of binary code

The bit string is not the only type of binary code. A binary system in general is any system that allows only two choices such as a switch in an electronic system or a simple true or false test.

Binary code – Braille

Braille is a type of binary code that is widely used by blind people to read and write. This system consists of 6-dot positions, three in each column. Each dot has two states: raised or not raised.

Binary code – Morse Code

Morse Code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks. Any boolean system such as this, which encodes meaning, is a form of binary code.

Binary code – ASCII code

The ASCII|American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), uses a 7-bit binary code to represent text and other characters within computers, communications equipment, and other devices. Each letter or symbol is assigned a number from 0 to 127. For example, lowercase a is represented by 1100001 as a bit string (which is 97 in decimal).

Binary code – Weight of binary codes

The weight of a binary code, as defined in the table of constant-weight codes, is the Hamming weight of the binary words coding for the represented words or sequences.

Binary code compatibility

‘Binary code compatibility’ (binary compatible or object code compatible) is a property of computing|computer systems, that means they can run the same executable code, typically machine code for a general purpose computer Central processing unit|CPU. Source code compatibility, on the other hand, means that code compilation|recompilation is necessary.

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

‘Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code’ (‘EBCDIC’) is an 8-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.

List of binary codes

This is a list of some ‘binary codes’ that are (or have been) used to represent Plain text|text as a sequence of binary digits 0 and 1. Fixed-width binary codes use a set number of bits to represent each character in the text, while in variable-length code|variable-width binary codes, the number of bits may vary from character to character.

List of binary codes – Six-bit binary codes

* BCD (6-bit)|Six-bit BCD (Binary Coded Decimal), used by early Mainframe computer|mainframe computers.

List of binary codes – Six-bit binary codes

* Braille – Braille characters are represented using six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle. Each position may contain a raised dot or not, so Braille can be considered to be a six-bit binary code.

List of binary codes – Seven-bit binary codes

* ASCII – The ubiquitous ASCII code was originally defined as a seven-bit character set. The ASCII article provides a detailed set of equivalent standards, and variants. In addition, there are various extensions of ASCII to eight-bits (see List of binary codes#Eight-bit binary codes|Eight-bit binary codes)

List of binary codes – Variable length binary codes

Data compression systems such as Lempel–Ziv–Welch are able to compress arbitrary binary data. They are therefore not binary codes themselves, but may be applied to binary codes to reduce storage needs

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Beta Testing

Software testing – Beta testing

Beta testing comes after alpha testing and can be considered a form of external user acceptance testing. Versions of the software, known as beta versions, are released to a limited audience outside of the programming team. The software is released to groups of people so that further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. Sometimes, beta versions are made available to the open public to increase the feedback field to a maximal number of future users.

Beta testing

‘Software testing’ is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test.[ http://www.kaner.com/pdfs/ETatQAI.pdf Exploratory Testing], Cem Kaner, Florida Institute of Technology, Quality Assurance Institute Worldwide Annual Software Testing Conference, Orlando, FL, November 2006 Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation

Beta testing

Software testing can be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a computer program/application/product:

Beta testing

* meets the requirements that guided its design and development,

Beta testing

Software testing, depending on the testing method employed, can be implemented at any time in the software development process. Traditionally most of the test effort occurs after the requirements have been defined and the coding process has been completed, but in the Agile software development|Agile approaches most of the test effort is on-going. As such, the methodology of the test is governed by the chosen software development methodology.

Beta testing – Overview

Testing can never completely identify all the defects within software.[ http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/des_s99/sw_testing/ Software Testing] by Jiantao Pan, Carnegie Mellon University Instead, it furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behavior of the product against Oracle (software testing)|oracles—principles or mechanisms by which someone might recognize a problem

Beta testing – Overview

A primary purpose of testing is to detect software failures so that defects may be discovered and corrected

Beta testing – Overview

Every software product has a target audience. For example, the audience for Video Game software is completely different from banking software. Therefore, when an organization develops or otherwise invests in a software product, it can assess whether the software product will be acceptable to its end users, its target audience, its purchasers and other stakeholders. ‘Software testing’ is the process of attempting to make this assessment.

Beta testing – Defects and failures

Not all software defects are caused by coding errors. One common source of expensive defects is requirement gaps, e.g., unrecognized requirements which result in errors of omission by the program designer. Requirement gaps can often be non-functional requirements such as software testability|testability, scalability, maintainability, usability, Computer performance|performance, and Computer security|security.

Beta testing – Defects and failures

Software faults occur through the following processes

Beta testing – Input combinations and preconditions

A fundamental problem with software testing is that testing under all combinations of inputs and preconditions (initial state) is not feasible, even with a simple product.pp 17–18Principle 2, Section 1.3, [ http://www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/istqbsyll.pdf Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus], International Software Testing Qualifications Board This means that the number of Software bug|defects in a software product can be very large and defects that occur infrequently are difficult to find in testing

Beta testing – Input combinations and preconditions

Software developers can’t test everything, but they can use combinatorial test design to identify the minimum number of tests needed to get the coverage they want

Beta testing – Economics

A study conducted by NIST in 2002 reports that software bugs cost the U.S. economy $59.5 billion annually. More than a third of this cost could be avoided if better software testing was performed.[ http://www.abeacha.com/NIST_press_release_bugs_cost.htm Software errors cost U.S. economy $59.5 billion annually], NIST report

Beta testing – Economics

It is commonly believed that the earlier a defect is found, the cheaper it is to fix it

Beta testing – Economics

The data from which this table is extrapolated is scant. Laurent Bossavit says in his analysis:

Beta testing – Economics

The “smaller projects” curve turns out to be from only two teams of first-year students, a sample size so small that extrapolating to “smaller projects in general” is totally indefensible

Beta testing – Economics

Boehm doesn’t even cite a paper for the TRW data, except when writing for “Making Software” in 2010, and there he cited the original 1976 article. There exists a large study conducted at TRW at the right time for Boehm to cite it, but that paper doesn’t contain the sort of data that would support Boehm’s claims.

Beta testing – Roles

Software testing can be done by software testers. Until the 1980s, the term software tester was used generally, but later it was also seen as a separate profession. Regarding the periods and the different goals in software testing,see D. Gelperin and W.C. Hetzel different roles have been established: manager, test lead, test analyst, test designer, tester, automation developer, and test administrator.

Beta testing – History

The separation of debugging from testing was initially introduced by Glenford J. Myers in 1979. Although his attention was on breakage testing (a successful test is one that finds a bug) it illustrated the desire of the software engineering community to separate fundamental development activities, such as debugging, from that of verification. Dave Gelperin and William C. Hetzel classified in 1988 the phases and goals in software testing in the following stages:

Beta testing – History

* Until 1956 – Debugging orienteduntil 1956 it was the debugging oriented period, when testing was often associated to debugging: there was no clear difference between testing and debugging.

Beta testing – History

* 1957–1978 – Demonstration orientedFrom 1957–1978 there was the demonstration oriented period where debugging and testing was distinguished now – in this period it was shown, that software satisfies the requirements.

Beta testing – History

* 1979–1982 – Destruction orientedThe time between 1979–1982 is announced as the destruction oriented period, where the goal was to find errors.

Beta testing – History

* 1983–1987 – Evaluation oriented1983–1987 is classified as the evaluation oriented period: intention here is that during the software lifecycle a product evaluation is provided and measuring quality.

Beta testing – History

* 1988–2000 – Prevention orientedFrom 1988 on it was seen as prevention oriented period where tests were to demonstrate that software satisfies its specification, to detect faults and to prevent faults.

Beta testing – Static vs. dynamic testing

There are many approaches to software testing

Beta testing – Static vs. dynamic testing

Static testing involves verification whereas dynamic testing involves validation. Together they help improve software quality.

Beta testing – The box approach

Software testing methods are traditionally divided into white- and black-box testing. These two approaches are used to describe the point of view that a test engineer takes when designing test cases.

Beta testing – White-Box testing

‘White-box testing’ (also known as ‘clear box testing’, ‘glass box testing’, ‘transparent box testing’ and ‘structural testing’) tests internal structures or workings of a program, as opposed to the functionality exposed to the end-user

Beta testing – White-Box testing

While white-box testing can be applied at the unit testing|unit, integration testing|integration and system testing|system levels of the software testing process, it is usually done at the unit level. It can test paths within a unit, paths between units during integration, and between subsystems during a system–level test. Though this method of test design can uncover many errors or problems, it might not detect unimplemented parts of the specification or missing requirements.

Beta testing – White-Box testing

* Application programming interface|API testing (application programming interface) – testing of the application using public and private APIs

Beta testing – White-Box testing

* Code coverage – creating tests to satisfy some criteria of code coverage (e.g., the test designer can create tests to cause all statements in the program to be executed at least once)

Beta testing – White-Box testing

* Fault injection methods – intentionally introducing faults to gauge the efficacy of testing strategies

Beta testing – White-Box testing

* Mutation testing methods

Beta testing – White-Box testing

Code coverage tools can evaluate the completeness of a test suite that was created with any method, including black-box testing. This allows the software team to examine parts of a system that are rarely tested and ensures that the most important function points have been tested.[ http://www.bullseye.com/coverage.html#intro Introduction], Code Coverage Analysis, Steve Cornett Code coverage as a software metric can be reported as a percentage for:

Beta testing – White-Box testing

:* Function coverage, which reports on functions executed

Beta testing – White-Box testing

:* Statement coverage, which reports on the number of lines executed to complete the test

Beta testing – White-Box testing

100% statement coverage ensures that all code paths, or branches (in terms of control flow) are executed at least once. This is helpful in ensuring correct functionality, but not sufficient since the same code may process different inputs correctly or incorrectly.

Beta testing – Black-box testing

‘Black-box testing’ treats the software as a black box, examining functionality without any knowledge of internal implementation. The tester is only aware of what the software is supposed to do, not how it does it. Black-box testing methods include: equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, all-pairs testing, state transition tables, decision table testing, fuzz testing, model-based testing, use case testing, exploratory testing and specification-based testing.

Beta testing – Black-box testing

‘Specification-based testing’ aims to test the functionality of software according to the applicable requirements. This level of testing usually requires thorough test cases to be provided to the tester, who then can simply verify that for a given input, the output value (or behavior), either is or is not the same as the expected value specified in the test case.

Beta testing – Black-box testing

Test cases are built around specifications and requirements, i.e., what the application is supposed to do. It uses external descriptions of the software, including specifications, requirements, and designs to derive test cases. These tests can be functional testing|functional or non-functional testing|non-functional, though usually functional.

Beta testing – Black-box testing

Specification-based testing may be necessary to assure correct functionality, but it is insufficient to guard against complex or high-risk situations.

Beta testing – Black-box testing

One advantage of the black box technique is that no programming knowledge is required

Beta testing – Black-box testing

This method of test can be applied to all levels of software testing: unit test|unit, integration testing|integration, system testing|system and acceptance test|acceptance. It typically comprises most if not all testing at higher levels, but can also dominate unit testing as well.

Beta testing – Visual testing

The aim of visual testing is to provide developers with the ability to examine what was happening at the point of software failure by presenting the data in such a way that the developer can easily ?nd the information he or she requires, and the information is expressed clearly.

Beta testing – Visual testing

At the core of visual testing is the idea that showing someone a problem (or a test failure), rather than just describing it, greatly increases clarity and understanding. Visual testing therefore requires the recording of the entire test process – capturing everything that occurs on the test system in video format. Output videos are supplemented by real-time tester input via picture-in-a-picture webcam and audio commentary from microphones.

Beta testing – Visual testing

Visual testing provides a number of advantages. The quality of communication is increased dramatically because testers can show the problem (and the events leading up to it) to the developer as opposed to just describing it and the need to replicate test failures will cease to exist in many cases. The developer will have all the evidence he or she requires of a test failure and can instead focus on the cause of the fault and how it should be fixed.

Beta testing – Visual testing

Visual testing is particularly well-suited for environments that deploy Agile testing#Agile methods|agile methods in their development of software, since agile methods require greater communication between testers and developers and collaboration within small teams.

Beta testing – Visual testing

Ad Hoc testing and exploratory testing are important methodologies for checking software integrity, because they require less preparation time to implement, while the important bugs can be found quickly. In Ad Hoc testing, where testing takes place in an improvised, impromptu way, the ability of a test tool to visually record everything that occurs on a system becomes very important.

Beta testing – Visual testing

Visual testing is gathering recognition in acceptance testing#customer acceptance|customer acceptance and usability testing, because the test can be used by many individuals involved in the development process. For the customer, it becomes easy to provide detailed bug reports and feedback, and for program users, visual testing can record user actions on screen, as well as their voice and image, to provide a complete picture at the time of software failure for the developer.

Beta testing – Grey-box testing

‘Grey-box testing’ (American spelling: ‘gray-box testing’) involves having knowledge of internal data structures and algorithms for purposes of designing tests, while executing those tests at the user, or black-box level

Beta testing – Grey-box testing

However, tests that require modifying a back-end data repository such as a database or a log file does qualify as grey-box, as the user would not normally be able to change the data repository in normal production operations. Grey-box testing may also include Reverse coding|reverse engineering to determine, for instance, boundary values or error messages.

Beta testing – Grey-box testing

By knowing the underlying concepts of how the software works, the tester makes better-informed testing choices while testing the software from outside

Beta testing – Testing levels

Tests are frequently grouped by where they are added in the software development process, or by the level of specificity of the test.

Beta testing – Testing levels

The main levels during the development process as defined by the SWEBOK guide are unit-, integration-, and system testing that are distinguished by the test target without implying a specific process model. Other test levels are classified by the testing objective.

Beta testing – Unit testing

Unit testing, also known as component testing, refers to tests that verify the functionality of a specific section of code, usually at the function level. In an object-oriented environment, this is usually at the class level, and the minimal unit tests include the constructors and destructors.

Beta testing – Unit testing

These types of tests are usually written by developers as they work on code (white-box style), to ensure that the specific function is working as expected. One function might have multiple tests, to catch corner cases or other branches in the code. Unit testing alone cannot verify the functionality of a piece of software, but rather is used to assure that the building blocks the software uses work independently of each other.

Beta testing – Unit testing

Unit testing is a software development process that involves synchronized application of a broad spectrum of defect prevention and detection strategies in order to reduce software development risks, time, and costs

Beta testing – Unit testing

Depending on the organization’s expectations for software development, unit testing might include static code analysis, data flow analysis metrics analysis, peer code reviews, code coverage analysis and other software verification practices.

Beta testing – Integration testing

Integration testing is any type of software testing that seeks to verify the interfaces between components against a software design. Software components may be integrated in an iterative way or all together (big bang). Normally the former is considered a better practice since it allows interface issues to be located more quickly and fixed.

Beta testing – Integration testing

Integration testing works to expose defects in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components (modules). Progressively larger groups of tested software components corresponding to elements of the architectural design are integrated and tested until the software works as a system.

Beta testing – System testing

System testing tests a completely integrated system to verify that it meets its requirements.

Beta testing – System testing

In addition, the software testing should ensure that the program, as well as working as expected, does not also destroy or partially corrupt its operating environment or cause other processes within that environment to become inoperative (this includes not corrupting shared memory, not consuming or locking up excessive resources and leaving any parallel processes unharmed by its presence).

Beta testing – Acceptance testing

# A Smoke testing#Software development|smoke test is used as an acceptance test prior to introducing a new build to the main testing process, i.e. before integration testing|integration or regression testing|regression.

Beta testing – Acceptance testing

# Acceptance testing performed by the customer, often in their lab environment on their own hardware, is known as user acceptance testing (UAT). Acceptance testing may be performed as part of the hand-off process between any two phases of development.

Beta testing – Installation testing

An installation test assures that the system is installed correctly and working at actual customer’s hardware.

Beta testing – Compatibility testing

A common cause of software failure (real or perceived) is a lack of its Computer compatibility|compatibility with other application software, operating systems (or operating system Software versioning|versions, old or new), or target environments that differ greatly from the original (such as a computer terminal|terminal or GUI application intended to be run on the Desktop metaphor|desktop now being required to become a web application, which must render in a web browser)

Beta testing – Smoke and sanity testing

Sanity testing determines whether it is reasonable to proceed with further testing.

Beta testing – Smoke and sanity testing

Smoke testing consists of minimal attempts to operate the software, designed to determine whether there are any basic problems that will prevent it from working at all. Such tests can be used as build verification test.

Beta testing – Regression testing

Regression testing focuses on finding defects after a major code change has occurred

Beta testing – Alpha testing

Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers’ site. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing, before the software goes to beta testing.

Beta testing – Functional vs non-functional testing

Functional testing refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code. These are usually found in the code requirements documentation, although some development methodologies work from use cases or user stories. Functional tests tend to answer the question of can the user do this or does this particular feature work.

Beta testing – Functional vs non-functional testing

Non-functional testing refers to aspects of the software that may not be related to a specific function or user action, such as scalability or other performance, behavior under certain constraint (mathematics)|constraints, or computer security|security

Beta testing – Destructive testing

Destructive testing attempts to cause the software or a sub-system to fail

Beta testing – Software performance testing

Software performance testing|Performance testing is generally executed to determine how a system or sub-system performs in terms of responsiveness and stability under a particular workload. It can also serve to investigate, measure, validate or verify other quality attributes of the system, such as scalability, reliability and resource usage.

Beta testing – Software performance testing

Load testing#Software load testing|Load testing is primarily concerned with testing that the system can continue to operate under a specific load, whether that be large quantities of data or a large number of Load testing|users

Beta testing – Software performance testing

There is little agreement on what the specific goals of performance testing are. The terms load testing, performance testing, scalability testing, and volume testing, are often used interchangeably.

Beta testing – Software performance testing

Real-time computing|Real-time software systems have strict timing constraints. To test if timing constraints are met, real-time testing is used.

Beta testing – Usability testing

Usability testing is needed to check if the user interface is easy to use and understand. It is concerned mainly with the use of the application.

Beta testing – Accessibility testing

Accessibility testing may include compliance with standards such as:

Beta testing – Accessibility testing

* Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

Beta testing – Security testing

Security testing is essential for software that processes confidential data to prevent Backdoor (computing)|system intrusion by Hacker (computer security)|hackers.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

The general ability of software to be Internationalization and localization|internationalized and localized can be automatically tested without actual translation, by using pseudolocalization. It will verify that the application still works, even after it has been translated into a new language or adapted for a new culture (such as different currencies or time zones).

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

Actual translation to human languages must be tested, too. Possible localization failures include:

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Software is often localized by translating a list of String (computer science)|strings out of context, and the translator may choose the wrong translation for an ambiguous source string.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Technical terminology may become inconsistent if the project is translated by several people without proper coordination or if the translator is imprudent.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Literal word-for-word translations may sound inappropriate, artificial or too technical in the target language.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Untranslated messages in the original language may be left Hard coding|hard coded in the source code.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Some messages may be created automatically at Run time (program lifecycle phase)|run time and the resulting string may be ungrammatical, functionally incorrect, misleading or confusing.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Software may use a keyboard shortcut which has no function on the source language’s keyboard layout, but is used for typing characters in the layout of the target language.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Software may lack support for the character encoding of the target language.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Fonts and font sizes which are appropriate in the source language may be inappropriate in the target language; for example, CJK characters may become unreadable if the font is too small.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* A string in the target language may be longer than the software can handle. This may make the string partly invisible to the user or cause the software to crash or malfunction.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Software may lack proper support for reading or writing bi-directional text.

Beta testing – Internationalization and localization

* Localized operating systems may have differently named system configuration files and environment variables and different Date and time notation by country|formats for date and currency.

Beta testing – Development testing

Development Testing is a software development process that involves synchronized application of a broad spectrum of defect prevention and detection strategies in order to reduce software development risks, time, and costs

Beta testing – Development testing

Depending on the organization’s expectations for software development, Development Testing might include static code analysis, data flow analysis metrics analysis, peer code reviews, unit testing, code coverage analysis, traceability, and other software verification practices.

Beta testing – Traditional CMMI or waterfall development model

A common practice of software testing is that testing is performed by an independent group of testers after the functionality is developed, before it is shipped to the customer. This practice often results in the testing phase being used as a project management|project buffer to compensate for project delays, thereby compromising the time devoted to testing.

Beta testing – Traditional CMMI or waterfall development model

Another practice is to start software testing at the same moment the project starts and it is a continuous process until the project finishes.

Beta testing – Agile or Extreme development model

In contrast, some emerging software disciplines such as extreme programming and the agile software development movement, adhere to a Test-driven development|test-driven software development model

Beta testing – Agile or Extreme development model

This methodology increases the testing effort done by development, before reaching any formal testing team. In some other development models, most of the test execution occurs after the requirements have been defined and the coding process has been completed.

Beta testing – Top-down and bottom-up

‘Bottom Up Testing’ is an approach to integrated testing where the lowest level components (modules, procedures, and functions) are tested first, then integrated and used to facilitate the testing of higher level components

Beta testing – Top-down and bottom-up

‘Top Down Testing’ is an approach to integrated testing where the top integrated modules are tested and the branch of the module is tested step by step until the end of the related module.

Beta testing – Top-down and bottom-up

In both, method stubs and drivers are used to stand-in for missing components and are replaced as the levels are completed….

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

Although variations exist between organizations, there is a typical cycle for testing. The sample below is common among organizations employing the Waterfall development model. The same practices are commonly found in other development models, but might not be as clear or explicit.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

* ‘Requirements analysis’: Testing should begin in the requirements phase of the software development life cycle. During the design phase, testers work to determine what aspects of a design are testable and with what parameters those tests work.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

* ‘Test planning’: Test strategy, test plan, testbed creation. Since many activities will be carried out during testing, a plan is needed.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

*’Test development’: Test procedures, Scenario test|test scenarios, test cases, test datasets, test scripts to use in testing software.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

* ‘Test execution’: Testers execute the software based on the plans and test documents then report any errors found to the development team.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

* ‘Test result analysis’: Or Defect Analysis, is done by the development team usually along with the client, in order to decide what defects should be assigned, fixed, rejected (i.e. found software working properly) or deferred to be dealt with later.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

* ‘Defect Retesting’: Once a defect has been dealt with by the development team, it is retested by the testing team. AKA Resolution testing.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

* ‘Regression testing’: It is common to have a small test program built of a subset of tests, for each integration of new, modified, or fixed software, in order to ensure that the latest delivery has not ruined anything, and that the software product as a whole is still working correctly.

Beta testing – A sample testing cycle

* ‘Test Closure’: Once the test meets the exit criteria, the activities such as capturing the key outputs, lessons learned, results, logs, documents related to the project are archived and used as a reference for future projects.

Beta testing – Automated testing

Many programming groups are relying more and more on Test automation|automated testing, especially groups that use

Beta testing – Automated testing

test-driven development. There are many frameworks to write tests in, and continuous integration software will run tests automatically every time code is checked into a version control system.

Beta testing – Automated testing

While automation cannot reproduce everything that a human can do (and all the ways they think of doing it), it can be very useful for regression testing. However, it does require a well-developed test suite of testing scripts in order to be truly useful.

Beta testing – Testing tools

Program testing and fault detection can be aided significantly by testing tools and debuggers.

Beta testing – Testing tools

Testing/debug tools include features such as:

Beta testing – Testing tools

* Program monitors, permitting full or partial monitoring of program code including:

Beta testing – Testing tools

** Instruction set simulator, permitting complete instruction level monitoring and trace facilities

Beta testing – Testing tools

** Program animation, permitting step-by-step execution and conditional breakpoint at source level or in machine code

Beta testing – Testing tools

* Formatted dump or symbolic debugging, tools allowing inspection of program variables on error or at chosen points

Beta testing – Testing tools

* Automated functional GUI testing tools are used to repeat system-level tests through the GUI

Beta testing – Testing tools

* Benchmark (computing)|Benchmarks, allowing run-time performance comparisons to be made

Beta testing – Testing tools

* Performance analysis (or profiling tools) that can help to highlight hot spot (computer science)|hot spots and resource usage

Beta testing – Testing tools

Some of these features may be incorporated into an Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

Beta testing – Measurement in software testing

Usually, quality is constrained to such topics as correctness (computer science)|correctness, completeness, computer security audit|security, but can also include more technical requirements as described under the International Organization for Standardization|ISO standard ISO/IEC 9126, such as capability, Reliability engineering|reliability, algorithmic efficiency|efficiency, Porting|portability, maintainability, compatibility, and usability.

Beta testing – Measurement in software testing

There are a number of frequently used software metrics, or measures, which are used to assist in determining the state of the software or the adequacy of the testing.

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

The software testing process can produce several Artifact (software development)|artifacts.

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

;Test plan: A test specification is called a test plan. The developers are well aware what test plans will be executed and this information is made available to management and the developers. The idea is to make them more cautious when developing their code or making additional changes. Some companies have a higher-level document called a test strategy.

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

;Traceability matrix: A traceability matrix is a table that correlates requirements or design documents to test documents. It is used to change tests when related source documents are changed, to select test cases for execution when planning for regression tests by considering requirement coverage.

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

;Test case: A test case normally consists of a unique identifier, requirement references from a design specification, preconditions, events, a series of steps (also known as actions) to follow, input, output, expected result, and actual result

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

;Test script: A test script is a procedure, or programing code that replicates user actions. Initially the term was derived from the product of work created by automated regression test tools. Test Case will be a baseline to create test scripts using a tool or a program.

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

;Test suite: The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions of the following tests.

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

;Test fixture or test data: In most cases, multiple sets of values or data are used to test the same functionality of a particular feature. All the test values and changeable environmental components are collected in separate files and stored as test data. It is also useful to provide this data to the client and with the product or a project.

Beta testing – Testing artifacts

;Test harness: The software, tools, samples of data input and output, and configurations are all referred to collectively as a test harness.

Beta testing – Certifications

Several certification programs exist to support the professional aspirations of software testers and quality assurance specialists

Beta testing – Certifications

:* Exam-based: Formalized exams, which need to be passed; can also be learned by self-study [e.g., for ISTQB or QAI]

Beta testing – Certifications

:* Education-based: Instructor-led sessions, where each course has to be passed [e.g., International Institute for Software Testing (IIST)].

Beta testing – Certifications

:* CATe offered by the International Institute for Software Testing

Beta testing – Certifications

:* Certified Test Manager (CTM) offered by International Institute for Software Testing

Beta testing – Certifications

:* Certified Software Tester (CSTE) offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)

Beta testing – Certifications

:* Certified Software Test Professional (CSTP) offered by the International Institute for Software Testing

Beta testing – Certifications

:* CSTP (TM) (Australian Version) offered by K. J. Ross Associates[ http://www.kjross.com.au/cstp/ K. J. Ross Associates]

Beta testing – Certifications

:* ISTQB Certified Tester, Foundation Level (CTFL) offered by the ISTQB|International Software Testing Qualification Board

Beta testing – Certifications

:* ISTQB Certified Tester, Advanced Level (CTAL) offered by the ISTQB|International Software Testing Qualification Board

Beta testing – Certifications

:* TMPF TMAP/TMap|TMap Next Foundation offered by the Examination Institute for Information Science

Beta testing – Certifications

:* TMPA TMAP/TMap|TMap Next Advanced offered by the Examination Institute for Information Science

Beta testing – Certifications

;Quality assurance certifications

Beta testing – Certifications

:* CMSQ offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI).

Beta testing – Certifications

:* CSQA offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)

Beta testing – Certifications

:* CSQE offered by the American Society for Quality (ASQ)

Beta testing – Certifications

:* CQIA offered by the American Society for Quality (ASQ)

Beta testing – Controversy

Some of the major software testing controversies include:

Beta testing – Controversy

;What constitutes responsible software testing? : Members of the context-driven school of testing believe that there are no best practices of testing, but rather that testing is a set of skills that allow the tester to select or invent testing practices to suit each unique situation.

Beta testing – Controversy

; Agile vs

Beta testing – Controversy

; Exploratory test vs. scripted: Should tests be designed at the same time as they are executed or should they be designed beforehand?

Beta testing – Controversy

; Manual testing vs. automated : Some writers believe that test automation is so expensive relative to its value that it should be used sparingly.An example is Mark Fewster, Dorothy Graham: Software Test Automation. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0-201-33140-3. More in particular, test-driven development states that developers should write unit-tests, as those of XUnit, before coding the functionality. The tests then can be considered as a way to capture and implement the requirements.

Beta testing – Controversy

; Software design vs. software implementation: Should testing be carried out only at the end or throughout the whole process?

Beta testing – Controversy

;Who watches the watchmen? : The idea is that any form of observation is also an interaction—the act of testing can also affect that which is being tested.[ http://channel9.msdn.com/forums/Coffeehouse/402611-Are-you-a-Test-Driven-Developer/ Microsoft Development Network Discussion on exactly this topic]

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

Software testing is used in association with Verification and validation (software)|verification and validation:

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

* Verification: Have we built the software right? (i.e., does it implement the requirements).

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

* Validation: Have we built the right software? (i.e., do the requirements satisfy the customer).

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

The terms verification and validation are commonly used interchangeably in the industry; it is also common to see these two terms incorrectly defined. According to the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology:

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

: Verification is the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of a given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase.

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

: Validation is the process of evaluating a system or component during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements.

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

: Verification is confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled.

Beta testing – Software verification and validation

: Validation is confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled.

Beta testing – Software quality assurance (SQA)

Software testing is a part of the software quality assurance (SQA) process.p 347 In SQA, software process specialists and auditors are concerned for the software development process rather than just the artifacts such as documentation, code and systems

Beta testing – Software quality assurance (SQA)

Software testing is a task intended to detect defects in software by contrasting a computer program’s expected results with its actual results for a given set of inputs. By contrast, QA (quality assurance) is the implementation of policies and procedures intended to prevent defects from occurring in the first place.

Mac OS X 10.10 – Beta testing

Apple has initiated a new public beta program for OS X, a practice not seen with its operating systems since 2000’s Mac OS X Public Beta which had preceded the release of Mac OS X v10.0

Mac OS X 10.10 – Beta testing

As with previous releases of OS X, Apple Inc.|Apple offers preview releases to developers, usually every two weeks on Monday until the final retail release. This is available to developers signed up for Mac Developer Program through the Mac Dev Center (although those who signed up for an iOS Dev program will get one copy of Yosemite free).

OS X Yosemite – Beta testing

Apple has initiated a new public beta program for OS X, a practice not seen with its operating systems since 2000’s Mac OS X Public Beta which had preceded the release of Mac OS X v10.0

Cartoon Network Universe: FusionFall – Beta testing

The open beta testing began on November 14, 2008, available to anyone with an account on Cartoon Network’s website

Marketing for Halo 3 – Public beta testing

On April 10, 2007, Bungie announced that a beta test of the multiplayer component of Halo 3 would run from May 16 to June 6, open to select members of the public

Marketing for Halo 3 – Public beta testing

The public portion of the beta consists of matchmaking play on three multiplayer maps: Valhalla, High Ground and Snowbound

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Base Station

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Base Station

AirPort AirPort Base Station

The Graphite AirPort Base Station is functionally identical to the Lucent RG-1000 wireless base station and can run the same firmware

AirPort AirPort Base Station

Also new (but available for the original model via software update) was the ability to connect to and share America Online’s dial-up service—a feature unique to Apple base stations

AirPort AirPort Extreme Base Station

On April 19, 2004, a third version, marketed as the AirPort Extreme Base Station (with Power over Ethernet and UL 2043), was introduced that supports Power over Ethernet and complies to the UL 2043 specifications for safe usage in air handling spaces, such as above suspended ceilings

AirPort AirPort Extreme Base Station

An AirPort Extreme base station can serve a maximum of 50 wireless clients simultaneously.

Space elevator – Base station

Modern concepts for the base station/anchor are typically mobile stations, large oceangoing vessels or other mobile platforms. Mobile base stations have the advantage over the earlier stationary concepts (with land-based anchors) by being able to maneuver to avoid high winds, storms, and space debris. Oceanic anchor points are also typically in international waters, simplifying and reducing cost of negotiating territory use for the base station.

LocationFree Player – BASE Station Models

‘Base stations’ packaged with LocationFree Player installation disc and instructional DVD

LocationFree Player – BASE Station Models

* (PK stands for Pack or Package as it is a package of the LF-B1 base station, LFA-PC2 LocationFree player software for the PC and instructional DVD)

LocationFree Player – BASE Station Models

Previously, whenever a setting was changed, the base station would have to be rebooted

Mobile phone radiation and health – Health hazards of base stations

Another area of concern is the radiation emitted by the fixed infrastructure used in mobile telephony, such as cell site|base stations and their antennas, which provide the link to and from mobile phones

Mobile phone radiation and health – Health hazards of base stations

Because base stations operate at less than 100 watts, the radiation at ground level is much weaker than a cell phone due to the power relationship appropriate for that design of antenna. Base station emissions must comply with safety guidelines (see Safety standards and licensing below). Some countries however (such as South Africa for example) have no health regulations governing the placement of base stations.

Mobile phone radiation and health – Health hazards of base stations

Several surveys have found a variety of self-report study|self-reported symptoms for people who live close to base stations. However, there are significant challenges in conducting studies of populations near base stations, especially in assessment of individual exposure. Self-report studies can also be vulnerable to the nocebo effect.

Mobile phone radiation and health – Health hazards of base stations

Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials conducted at the University of Essex and another in SwitzerlandUMTS Base Station-Like Exposure, Well Being and Cognitive Performance Regel et al., Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(8) August 2006 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1552030/ concluded that mobile phone masts were unlikely to be causing these short term effects in a group of volunteers who complained of such symptoms

GSM – Base station subsystem

Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna (electronics)|antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average rooftop level

GSM – Base station subsystem

Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an Cellular repeater|indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system

Orbital elevator – Base station

Modern concepts for the base station/anchor are typically mobile stations, large oceangoing vessels or other mobile platforms. Mobile base stations have the advantage over the earlier stationary concepts (with land-based anchors) by being able to maneuver to avoid high winds, storms, and space debris. Oceanic anchor points are also typically in international waters, simplifying and reducing cost of negotiating territory use for the base station.

Improved Mobile Telephone Service – Base station

IMTS base stations in larger cites had as many as 7 or 8 channels while rural stations had as few as one or two channels

Base station

The term ‘base station’ is used in the context of mobile telephony, wireless computer networking and other wireless communications and in land surveying: in surveying it is a GPS receiver at a known position, while in wireless communications it is a transceiver connecting a number of other devices to one another and/or to a wider area.

Base station – Land surveying

In the context of external land surveying, a base station is a GPS receiver at an accurately-known fixed location which is used to derive correction information for nearby portable GPS receivers. This correction data allows radio propagation|propagation and other effects to be corrected out of the position data obtained by the mobile stations, which gives greatly increased location precision and accuracy over the results obtained by uncorrected GPS receivers.

Base station – Computer networking

In the area of wireless computer networking, a base station is a radio receiver/transmitter that serves as the hub of the local wireless network, and may also be the gateway between a wired network and the wireless network. It typically consists of a low-power transmitter and wireless router.

Base station – Wireless communications

In radio communications, a base station is a wireless communications station installed at a fixed location and used to communicate as part of one of the following:

Base station – Professional

Examples of base station uses in two-way radio include the dispatch of tow trucks and taxicabs.

Base station – Professional

In dispatching centers it is common for eight or more radio base stations to be connected to a single dispatching console

Base station – Professional

Others require only a two-wire or half duplex link.For a brief discussion of remote controlled base stations, see: Evaluating Regional Alternatives: Systems Design Considerations, Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2, Local/Regional Level Planning Guide, (Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, US Department of Transportation, 1995) pp

Base station – Professional

119.More detail of interference reduction equipment is provided in, 9.1.2 Base Station/Mobile Relay, 800 MHz, 800 MHz Trunked Radio Request for Proposals: Public Safety Projects Office, (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Oklahoma City Municipal Facilities Authority, 2000, pp

Base station – Professional

Base stations are sometimes called control or fixed stations in US Federal Communications Commission licensing. These terms are defined in regulations inside Part 90 of the commissions regulations. In US licensing jargon, types of base stations include:

Base station – Professional

* A ‘fixed’ station is a base station used in a system intended only to communicate with other base stations. A fixed station can also be radio link used to operate a distant base station by remote control. (No mobile or hand-held radios are involved in the system.)

Base station – Professional

* A ‘control’ station is a base station used in a system with a repeater where the base station is used to communicate through the repeater.

Base station – Professional

* A ‘temporary base’ is a base station used in one location for less than a year.

Base station – Amateur and hobbyist use

In amateur radio, a base station also communicates with mobile rigs but for hobby or family communications. Amateur systems sometimes serve as dispatch radio systems during disasters, search and rescue mobilizations, or other emergencies.

Base station – Amateur and hobbyist use

An Australian UHF CB base station is another example of part of a system used for hobby or family communications.

Base station – Wireless telephone

For example, in a wireless telephone system, the signals from one or more mobile telephones in an area are received at a nearby base station, which then connects the call to the land-line network

Base station – Emissions issues

For typical base stations, significant electromagnetic energy is only emitted at the antenna, not along the length of the antenna tower.

Base station – Emissions issues

Because mobile phones and their base stations are two-way radios, they produce radio-frequency (Radio frequency|RF) radiation in order to communicate, exposing people near them to RF radiation giving concerns about mobile phone radiation and health. Hand-held mobile telephones are relatively low power so the RF radiation exposures from them are generally low.

Base station – Emissions issues

The World Health Organization has concluded that there is no convincing scientific evidence that the weak RF signals from base stations and wireless networks cause adverse health effects..

Base station – Emissions issues

The consensus of the scientific community is that the power from these mobile phone base station antennas is too low to produce health hazards as long as people are kept away from direct access to the antennas. However, current international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP) are based largely on the thermal effects of base station emissions.

Base station – Emergency power

Fuel cell backup power systems are added to critical base stations or cell sites to provide emergency power.[http://fr.chfca.ca/itoolkit.asp?pg=BALLARD_07132009 Ballard fuel cells to power telecom backup power units for motorola][http://cleantech.com/news/3674/india-telecom-get-fuel-cells India telecoms to get fuel cell power]

Reaction Engines Limited – Orbital Base Station

The Orbital Base Station (OBS) is a concept of a future, expandable space station to serve as an integral part of a future space transportation system and also in the maintenance and construction of future manned Moon and Mars spacecraft.

Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz – Adding base stations

Deploying additional base stations around the coverage area of a network, particularly in existing areas of poor or no coverage, reduces the average distance between a wireless device and its nearest access point and increases the average speed

Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz – Adding base stations

The alternative of increasing coverage by adding an RF power amplifier to a single base station can bring similar improvements to a wireless network

Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz – Adding base stations

On many hardware and software implementations, this hand off can result in a short disruption in data transmission while the client and the new base station establish a connection

Base station subsystem

The ‘base station subsystem’ (‘BSS’) is the section of a traditional cellular network|cellular telephone network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone and the network switching subsystem

Base station subsystem – Base transceiver station

Typically a BTS for anything other than a picocell will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequency|frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of sectorised base stations)

Base station subsystem – Base transceiver station

A BTS is controlled by a parent BSC via the base station control function (BCF). The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (OM) connection to the network management system (NMS), and manages operational states of each TRX, as well as software handling and alarm collection.

Base station subsystem – Sectorization

This increases the traffic capacity of the base station (each frequency can carry eight voice channels) whilst not greatly increasing the co-channel interference|interference caused to neighboring cells (in any given direction, only a small number of frequencies are being broadcast)

Base station subsystem – Base station controller

The base station controller (BSC) provides, classically, the intelligence behind the BTSs

Base station subsystem – Transcoder

Although transcoding (compressing/decompressing) functionality is defined as a base station function by the relevant standards, there are several vendors which have implemented the solution outside of the BSC

Base station subsystem – Packet control unit

The packet control unit (PCU) is a late addition to the GSM standard. It performs some of the processing tasks of the BSC, but for packet data. The allocation of channels between voice and data is controlled by the base station, but once a channel is allocated to the PCU, the PCU takes full control over that channel.

Base station subsystem – Packet control unit

The PCU can be built into the base station, built into the BSC or even, in some proposed architectures, it can be at the SGSN site. In most of the cases, the PCU is a separate node communicating extensively with the BSC on the radio side and the SGSN on the Gb side.

Radio Base Station

‘Radio Base Station’ (RBS) is the commercial name given to the family of Base Stations developed by Ericsson, typically constituting a sizable part of the Radio Access Network (RAN). Radio Base Station is also the generic name to be used instead of BTS (Radio Base Stations) which are typically denoting GSM-era radio base station technology. For other vendors, specific equipment names are used such as Huawei DBS (Huawei DBS3900 for example) or NSN Flexi base stations.

Radio Base Station – History and Market

Over the years every Mobile Telephony Base Station developed by the multinational (supported technologies range from IS136-TDMA to UMTS) has been sold with this name, although the concept of Radio Base is that of a transceiver that is primarily intended for serving as a trunked radio system Base Station for voice communication.

Radio Base Station – History and Market

A popular version of this RBS base station is the RBS6000.

Radio Base Station – Technical information access

Ericsson has a policy that enforce controlling information about its RBS network element so that few people can access technical information and/or operate the RBS base station. Such attempt at controlling information dissemination used questionable DMCA take down requests on telecom industry forums for example.

Access point base station

In telecommunications, a ‘femtocell’ is a small, low-power cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business

Access point base station

Typically the range of a GSM#Base station subsystem|standard base station may be up to 35 kilometres (22mi), a microcell is less than two kilometers wide, a picocell is 200 meters or less, and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters, although ATT calls its product, with a range of , a microcell. ATT uses ATT 3G MicroCell as a trade mark and not necessarily the microcell technology, however.

Access point base station – Lawful interception

Access point base stations, in common with all other public communications systems, are, in most countries, required to comply with lawful interception requirements.

Access point base station – Equipment location

Further, a consumer might try to carry his base station with him to a country where it is not licensed

Access point base station – Emergency calls

Access Point Base Stations are also required, since carrying voice calls, to provide a 9-1-1|911 (or 999 (emergency telephone number)|999, 1-1-2|112, emergency telephone number|etc.) emergency service, as is the case for VoIP phone providers in some jurisdictions

Access point base station – Quality of service

When using an ethernet or ADSL home backhaul connection, an Access Point Base Station must either share the backhaul bandwidth with other services, such as Internet browsing, gaming consoles, set-top boxes and triple play (telecommunications)|triple-play equipment in general, or alternatively directly replace these functions within an integrated unit. In shared-bandwidth approaches, which are the majority of designs currently being developed, the effect on quality of service may be an issue.

List of Motorola products – Base stations

*MCR 100 / Radius R100 Base Station (Voice)

List of Motorola products – Base stations

*Quantar DBS (Data Base Station)

List of Motorola products – Base stations

*Quantro Base Station (Voice Data)

List of Motorola products – Base stations

*Quantar Base Station (Voice Data)

4G Australia – 4G Sites (Base Stations)

Telstra- Telstra currently has 250 4G towers active across Australia. (3500 Base Stations by the end of 2013)

4G Australia – 4G Sites (Base Stations)

Optus – Operator currently has over 750 4G Towers active across Australia. (1200-1250 Base Stations by the end of 2013)

Ikaho Ropeway – Base station

Base station

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Authorization

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Authorization

Authentication Authorization

The process of authorization is distinct from that of authentication. Whereas authentication is the process of verifying that “you are who you say you are”, authorization is the process of verifying that “you are permitted to do what you are trying to do”. Authorization thus presupposes authentication.

Authentication Authorization

For example, a client showing proper identification credentials to a bank teller is asking to be authenticated that he really is the one whose identification he is showing. A client whose authentication request is approved becomes authorized to access the accounts of that account holder, but no others.

Authentication Authorization

However note that if a stranger tries to access someone else’s account with his own identification credentials, the stranger’s identification credentials will still be successfully authenticated because they are genuine and not counterfeit, however the stranger will not be successfully authorized to access the account, as the stranger’s identification credentials had not been previously set to be eligible to access the account, even if valid (i.e. authentic).

Authentication Authorization

Finally, a set of pre-defined permissions and restrictions for that particular login name is assigned to this user, which completes the final step, authorization.

Authentication Authorization

Even though authorization cannot occur without authentication, the former term is sometimes used to mean the combination of both.

Authentication Authorization

To distinguish “authentication” from the closely related “authorization”, the shorthand notations A1 (authentication), A2 (authorization) as well as AuthN / AuthZ (AuthR) or Au / Az are used in some communities.

Authentication Authorization

Normally delegation was considered to be a part of authorization domain. Recently authentication is also used for various type of delegation tasks. Delegation in IT network is also a new but evolving field.

iSCSI – Authorization

Because iSCSI aims to consolidate storage for many servers into a single storage array, iSCSI deployments require strategies to prevent unrelated initiators from accessing storage resources

iSCSI – Authorization

Typically, iSCSI storage arrays explicitly map initiators to specific target LUNs; an initiator authenticates not to the storage array, but to the specific storage asset it intends to use. However, because the target LUNs for SCSI commands are expressed both in the iSCSI negotiation protocol and in the underlying SCSI protocol, care must be taken to ensure that access control is provided consistently.

Security testing – Authorization

The process of determining that a requester is allowed to receive a service or perform an operation.

Security testing – Authorization

Access control is an example of authorization.

Google Energy – Authorization to buy and sell energy

In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC granted Google an authorization to buy and sell energy at market rates.[http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-10456435-54.html Google Energy can now buy and sell energy], on Cnet.com

Capital Planning and Investment Control – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996

This Information Technology Management Reform Act was part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, which is organized in five divisions:[http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=104_cong_public_lawsdocid=f:publ106.104.pdf NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 1996] PUBLIC LAW 104–106—FEB. 10, 1996.

Capital Planning and Investment Control – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996

:(1) Division A — Department of Defense Authorizations.

Capital Planning and Investment Control – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996

:(3) Division C — Department of Energy National Security Authorizations and Other Authorizations.

Capital Planning and Investment Control – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996

:(4) Division D — Federal Acquisition Reform.

Capital Planning and Investment Control – National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996

This public law was intended to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 1996 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, to reform acquisition laws and information technology management of the Federal Government, and for other purposes.

IEEE 802.22 – Encryption, authentication, and authorization

Only the Advanced Encryption Standard|AES-Galois/Counter Mode|GCM authenticated encryption cipher algorithm is supported.IEEE 802.22-2011 § 8.4.1, p. 281

IEEE 802.22 – Encryption, authentication, and authorization

286 IEEE 802.22 defines a X.509|X.509v3 certificate profile which uses extensions for authenticating and authorization of devices based on information such as device manufacturer, MAC address, and Federal Communications Commission|FCC ID (the Manufacturer/ServiceProvider certificate, the CPE certificate, and the BS certificate, respectively).IEEE 802.22-2011 § 8.5, pp

IEEE 802.22 – Encryption, authentication, and authorization

This could allow for a type of Vendor lock-in|customer lock-in where the network providers refuse network access to devices that have not been vetted by manufacturers of the network providers’ choice (i.e. the device must possess a private key of a X.509 certificate with a chain of trust to a manufacturer certificate authority (CA) that the network provider will accept), not unlike the SIM lock in modern cellular networks and DOCSIS certification testers in cable Internet access|cable networks.

Authorization – In Information Technology

‘Authorization’ or ‘authorisation’ is the function of specifying access rights to resources, which is related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular

Authorization – Overview

Access control in computer systems and networks relies on access policies. The access control process can be divided into two phases: 1) policy definition phase where access is authorized, and 2) policy enforcement phase where access requests are approved or disapproved. Authorization is thus the function of the policy definition phase which precedes the policy enforcement phase where access requests are approved or disapproved based on the previously defined authorizations.

Authorization – Overview

Authorizations are expressed as access policies in some type of policy definition application, e.g

Authorization – Overview

Anonymous consumers or guests, are consumers that have not been required to authenticate. They often have limited authorization. On a distributed system, it is often desirable to grant access without requiring a unique identity. Familiar examples of access Token coin|tokens include keys and tickets: they grant access without proving identity.

Authorization – Overview

Partially trusted and guests will often have restricted authorization in order to protect resources against improper access and usage

Authorization – Overview

Using Atomic Authorization|atomic authorization is an alternative to per-system authorization management, where a trusted third party securely distributes authorization information.

Authorization – Authorize v authorise

Both spellings are acceptable in UK and AU English. Authorize has entered English via medieval Latin, while authorise comes from old French. Latin auctorizare ? French autoriser ? English.

Authorization – Public policy

In Policy|public policy, authorization is a feature of trusted systems used for security or social control.

Authorization – Banking

In banking, an Authorization hold|authorization is a hold placed on a customer’s account when a purchase is made using a debit card or credit card.

Authorization – Publishing

In publishing, sometimes public lectures and other freely available texts are published without the consent of the author. These are called unauthorized texts. An example is the 2002 ‘The Theory of Everything|The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe’ , which was collected from Stephen Hawking’s lectures and published without his permission as per copyright law.

Instructional Television Fixed Service – Initial FCC authorization

The FCC initially authorized ITFS, in 1963, to operate using a one-way, analog, Line-of-sight propagation|line-of-sight technology

Vehicle Infrastructure Integration – Communications and authorization

While VII is largely being developed as a joint research enterprise involving numerous transport agencies, it is likely initial products will be tailored to individual applications

Vehicle Infrastructure Integration – Communications and authorization

Legislation will be required to set in place access to the VII data and communications between applicable agencies

Required Navigation Performance – Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required approach

Doc 9905, Required Navigation Performance Authorization Required (RNP AR) procedure Design Manual, 2009 approach procedures build upon the performance based NAS concept

Required Navigation Performance – Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required approach

RNP approaches include capabilities that require special aircraft and aircrew authorization similar to category II/III ILS operations

Required Navigation Performance – Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required approach

* RF leg segments may be used after PFAF (precise final approach fix).

Required Navigation Performance – Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required approach

* lateral TSE values as low as 0.10 NM on any segment of the approach procedure (initial, intermediate, final or missed).

Required Navigation Performance – Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required approach

When conducting an RNP AR approach using a line of minima less than RNP 0.3, no single-point-of-failure can cause the loss of guidance compliant with the RNP value associated with the approach. Typically, the aircraft must have at least dual GNSS sensors. dual flight management systems, dual air data systems, dual autopilots, and a single inertial reference unit.

Required Navigation Performance – Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required approach

When conducting an RNP AR approach with a missed approach less than RNP 1.0, no single-point-of-failure can cause the loss of guidance compliant with the RNP value associated with a missed approach procedure. Typically, the aircraft must have at least dual GNSS sensors, dual flight management systems, dual air data systems, dual autopilots, and a single inertial reference unit.

Dormant Commerce Clause – Congressional authorization

The first exception occurs when Congress has legislated on the matter. See Western Southern Life Ins. v. State Board of California, . In this case the Dormant Commerce Clause is no longer dormant and the issue is a Commerce Clause issue, requiring a determination of whether Congress has approved, preempted, or left untouched the state law at issue.

LightSquared – FCC authorization

On March 1, 2001, LightSquared’s predecessor, Mobile Satellite Ventures applied to the FCC to use a highly innovative and spectrum-efficient combination of Spot beam|spot-beam satellites and terrestrial base stations to substantially improve coverage, capacity, and reliability of mobile communications without using any additional spectrum.

LightSquared – FCC authorization

On January 26, 2011, The Federal Communications Commission granted LightSquared’s Request for Modification of its Authority for an Ancillary Terrestrial Component

LightSquared – FCC authorization

The FCC’s modification order to allow terrestrial-only devices onto LightSquared’s network was filed on November 19, 2010, with comments due on December 2, 2010, and reply comments due on December 9, 2010

LightSquared – FCC authorization

Companies that provide global positioning systems, in addition to the United States Air Force, the operator of the GPS#Possible threat|GPS system, opposed the FCC waiver, saying that more time was needed to resolve concerns that LightSquared’s service might interfere with their satellite-based offerings. LightSquared has promised to work with GPS providers and give the FCC monthly updates on a resolution to interference concerns.

LightSquared – FCC authorization

In October 2011, LightSquared threatened to sue the FCC if its network is not approved.

LightSquared – FCC authorization

Of February 14, 2012, the FCC initiated proceedings to vacate LightSquared’s Conditional Waiver Order based on the NTIA’s conclusion that there was currently no practical way to mitigate potential GPS interference.

Client SMTP Authorization

technical method of Email authentication

Client SMTP Authorization

MARID and the Anti-Spam Research Group|ASRG, as defined in detail

Client SMTP Authorization

‘Lightweight MTA Authentication Protocol (LMAP)’

Client SMTP Authorization

[ http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-irtf-asrg-lmap-discussion-01 ASRG draft].

Client SMTP Authorization

As of January 3, 2007, all Internet Drafts have expired and the mailing list has been closed down since there had been no traffic for 6 months.

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

CSV considers two questions at the start of each

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

*Does a domain’s management authorize this MTA to be sending email?

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

*Do reputable independent accreditation services consider that domain’s policies and practices sufficient for controlling email abuse?

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

CSV answers these questions as follows: to validate an SMTP session from an unknown sending SMTP client using CSV, the receiving SMTP server:

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

#Queries DNS to confirm the domain name is authorized for use by the IP (#External links|CSA).

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

#Asks a reputable Accreditation Service if it has a good reputation (#External links|DNA).

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

#Determines the level of trust to give to the sending SMTP client, based on the results of (3) and (4)

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

If the level of trust is high enough, process all

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

delivering or forwarding without the need for

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

further validation. If the level of trust is too

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

low, return an error showing the reason for not

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

trust is in between, document the result in a

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

If the answers to both of the questions at the top

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

Mail sources are motivated to make the answers

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

yes, and it’s easy for them to do so (unless their

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

email flow is so toxic that no reputable

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

‘Client SMTP Authorization’ (CSA) was a proposed mechanism whereby a domain admin can advertise which mail servers are legitimate originators of mail from his/her domain.

Client SMTP Authorization – Principles of Operation

This is done by providing appropriate SRV record|SRV RRs in the DNS infrastructure.

SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse – Authorizations

There are two authorizations concepts to consider for BI: standard authorizations[http://help.sap.com/saphelp_nw70ehp1/helpdata/en/be/076f3b6c980c3be10000000a11402f/content.htm SAP Library: Standard Authorizations] and analysis authorizations.[http://help.sap.com/saphelp_nw2004s/helpdata/en/66/019441b8972e7be10000000a1550b0/content.htm SAP Library: Analysis Authorizations]

NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07) – Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) resolution

About a week after the September 11, 2001 attacks|9/11 attacks, Congress passed the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists (AUMF) which authorized the President to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons.

NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07) – Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) resolution

The administration has argued that the language used in the AUMF implicitly authorized the President to exercise those powers incident to the waging of war, including the collection of enemy intelligence, FISA provisions notwithstanding.

NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07) – Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) resolution

350, a resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that Senate Joint Resolution 23 (107th Congress), as adopted by the Senate on September 14, 2001, and subsequently enacted as the Authorization for Use of Military Force does not authorize warrantless domestic surveillance of United States citizens

Kerberos (protocol) – Client Service Authorization

# When requesting services, the client sends the following two messages to the TGS:

Kerberos (protocol) – Client Service Authorization

#* Message C: Composed of the TGT from message B and the ID of the requested service.

Kerberos (protocol) – Client Service Authorization

#* Message D: Authenticator (which is composed of the client ID and the timestamp), encrypted using the Client/TGS Session Key.

Kerberos (protocol) – Client Service Authorization

# Upon receiving messages C and D, the TGS retrieves message B out of message C. It decrypts message B using the TGS secret key. This gives it the client/TGS session key. Using this key, the TGS decrypts message D (Authenticator) and sends the following two messages to the client:

Kerberos (protocol) – Client Service Authorization

#* Message E: Client-to-server ticket (which includes the client ID, client network address, validity period and Client/Server Session Key) encrypted using the service’s secret key.

Information security policies – Authorization

Authorization to access information and other computing services begins with administrative policies and procedures

Information security policies – Authorization

The ‘non-discretionary’ approach consolidates all access control under a centralized administration

Information security policies – Authorization

Examples of common access control mechanisms in use today include Role-Based Access Control|role-based access control available in many advanced database management systems—simple File system permissions|file permissions provided in the UNIX and Windows Operating Systems, Group Policy Objects provided in Windows network systems, Kerberos (protocol)|Kerberos, RADIUS, TACACS, and the simple access lists used in many Firewall (networking)|firewalls and Router (computing)|routers.

Information security policies – Authorization

To be effective, policies and other security controls must be enforceable and upheld. Effective policies ensure that people are held ‘accountable’ for their actions. All failed and successful authentication attempts must be logged, and all access to information must leave some type of audit trail.

Information security policies – Authorization

Also, ‘need-to-know principle’ needs to be in affect when talking about access control

Spring Security – Key authorization features

*AspectJ method invocation authorization.

Spring Security – Key authorization features

*HTTP authorization of web request Uniform Resource Locator|URLs using a choice of Apache Ant paths or regular expressions.

Mobile business intelligence – Authorization, Authentication, and Network Security

Authorization refers to the act of specifying access rights to control access of information to users.Authorization|Wikipedia Article – Authorization Authentication refers to the act of establishing or confirming the user as true or authentic.Authentication|Wikipedia Article – Authentication Network security refers to all the provisions and policies adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and network-accessible resources.[ http://www.deepnines.com/secure-web-gateway/definition-of-network-security Definition of Network Security] The mobility adds to unique security challenges

Java Authentication and Authorization Service

‘Java Authentication and Authorization Service’, or ‘JAAS’, pronounced Jazz, is the Java (programming language)|Java implementation of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) information security framework.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service

JAAS was introduced as an extension library to the Java Platform, Standard Edition 1.3 and was integrated in version 1.4.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service

The main goal of JAAS is to Separation of concerns|separate the concerns of user authentication so that they may be managed independently. While the former authentication mechanism contained information about where the code originated from and who signed that code, JAAS adds a marker about who runs the code. By extending the verification vectors JAAS extends the security architecture for Java applications that require authentication and authorization modules.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Administration

* ‘*.login.conf’: specifies how to plug vendor-supplied login modules into particular applications

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Administration

* ‘*.policy’: specifies which identities (users or programs) are granted which permissions

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Administration

For example, an application may have this ‘login.conf’ file indicating how different authentication mechanisms are to be run to authenticate the user:

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Application interface

* a representation of identity (Principal (computer security)|Principal) and a set of credentials (Subject (access control)#Computer_security|Subject)

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Application interface

* a login service that will invoke your application Callback (computer programming)|callbacks to ask the user things like username and password. It returns a new Subject

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Application interface

* a service that tests if a Subject was granted a permission by an administrator.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Security system integration

For the security system integrator, JAAS provides interfaces:

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Security system integration

* to provide your identity namespace to applications

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Security system integration

* to attach credentials to threads (Subject)

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Security system integration

* for developing login modules. Your module invokes Callback (computer programming)|callbacks to query the user, checks their response and generates a Subject.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

Login modules are primarily concerned with authentication rather than authorization and form a widely used component of JAAS. A login module is required to implement the javax.security.auth.spi.LoginModule interface, which specifies the following methods:

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

Note: A Subject is the user that is attempting to log in.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

* initialize: Code to initialize the login module, usually by storing the parameters passed into appropriate fields of the Class.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

* login: Actually check the credentials provided via an Object that implements the javax.security.auth.Callback interface (e.g

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

* commit: The identity of the subject has been verified, so code in this method sets up the Principal and Groups (roles) for the successfully authenticated subject

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

* abort: Called if the authentication process itself fails. If this method returns false, then this Login Module is ignored.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

* logout: Code that should be executed upon logout (e.g. could remove the Principal from the Subject or could invalidate a web session).

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

Login modules can provide single sign on (SSO) via a particular SSO protocol/framework (e.g. SAML, OpenID, and SPNEGO), can check for the presence of hardware security tokens (e.g. USB token), e.t.c. In an n-tier application, Login Modules can be present on both the client side and server side.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

LoginModule (javax.security.auth.spi.LoginModule)

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

Login modules are written by implementing this interface; they contain the actual code for authentication. It can use various mechanisms to authenticate user credentials. The code could retrieve a password from a database and compare it to the password supplied to the module.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

LoginContext (javax.security.auth.login.LoginContext)

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

The login context is the core of the JAAS framework which kicks off the authentication process by creating a Subject. As the authentication process proceeds, the subject is populated with various principals and credentials for further processing.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

A subject represents a single user, entity or system –in other words, a client– requesting authentication.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

A principal represents the face of a subject. It encapsulates features or properties of a subject. A subject can contain multiple principals.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Login Modules

Credentials are nothing but pieces of information regarding the subject in consideration

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Form Authentication

Form authentication is another commonly used part of JAAS

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Form Authentication

* Request a protected URL (i.e. secured via a security-constraint element) in web.xml (where the login-config element has specified an authentication method of FORM).

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Form Authentication

* The server will return a redirect (302) to the security check URL mentioned above along with a cookie containing the session ID (JSESSIONID=…).

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Form Authentication

* Send the username and password (encoded as form fields) along with the cookie via an HTTP POST to the security check URL.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Form Authentication

* If authentication is successful, the server will send a 302 back to the original protected URL.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service – Form Authentication

* Send a GET request to that URL, passing the session ID cookie (preferably assert that the response contains what you would expect from that original URL).

AAA protocol – Authorization

Typical authorization in everyday computer life is, for example, granting read access to a specific file for a specific authenticated user

Chapter 9, Title 11, United States Code – Authorization for filing of municipal bankruptcies

Section 109(c) of the U.S

Chapter 9, Title 11, United States Code – Authorization for filing of municipal bankruptcies

New Jersey, Connecticut, and Kentucky simply give a state appointed official or body the power to approve a filing.[http://w3.uchastings.edu/plri/fal95tex/muniban.html#F50 Municipal Bankruptcy: State Authorization Under the Federal Bankruptcy Code, PLRI]

NLRB election procedures – Obtaining authorization cards

Unions typically use authorization cards, individual forms in which a worker states that he or she wishes to be represented by the union, as evidence of employee support

NLRB election procedures – Obtaining authorization cards

Some union promises, such as a promise to waive union initiation fees for employees who sign a card before a certain date, may also make an authorization card invalid.

State Bar of California – Member fee authorization process

The State Bar of California is one of a small number of integrated bar associations where much of its member fee structure must be ratified annually by both the California State Legislature|legislature and the Governor of California|governor. Without such annual reauthorization, it can charge California lawyers only $77 per year.

State Bar of California – Member fee authorization process

In October 1997, Governor Pete Wilson vetoed the fee authorization bill for that year

State Bar of California – Member fee authorization process

As a result, the State Bar was forced to lay off 500 of its 700 personnel on June 26, 1998.Harriet Chiang, State Bar Layoffs Mean Slow Complaint Response, San Francisco Chronicle, 26 June 1998, sec

State Bar of California – Member fee authorization process

On September 7, 1999, Governor Gray Davis signed a bill that set the annual fee for the State Bar at $395, thus ending the funding crisis. Since then, the State Bar has undertaken several reforms to improve the efficiency of its operations. It also split off the controversial Conference of Delegates into a separate volunteer organization.Don J. DeBenedictis, New group replaces Conference of Delegates, Los Angeles Daily Journal, 16 October 2002

State Bar of California – Member fee authorization process

On October 11, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoed the fee authorization bill for 2010.Sherri M

Aircraft Maintenance Technician – Inspection authorization

Certification and limitations, including renewal requirements, of mechanics with Inspection Authorization is contained in 14 CFR Part 65.

Aircraft Maintenance Technician – Inspection authorization

The requirements for obtaining an Inspection authorization is that the AMT must be licensed for a minimum of three years and actively exercising the rights of an AP for the two years prior to the date that the IA examination is to be taken.

Aircraft Maintenance Technician – Inspection authorization

Renewal of the IA rating must be done every two years (on odd years) by submitting to the FAA a form showing a minimum of activity in which the IA exercised his or her authority. This activity comprises either annual inspections, major repairs, major alterations, or a minimum of 8 hours of FAA approved training. This activity must be accomplished every 12 months even though the renewal period is every 24 months.

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

Meanwhile, after years of study, argument, and lobbying by Theodore Judah and others as to where the eastern terminus would be and how construction would be funded, the construction and operation of a transcontinental railroad line was authorized by the Pacific Railroad Acts of 1862 and the even more generous act of 1864,Pacific Railroad Acts [http://www.cprr.org/Museum/Pacific_Railroad_Acts.html#1862-03] accessed 25 Mar 2013 during the American Civil War when southern Democratic opposition in the Congress to the central route near the 42nd parallel was absent

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

On June 21, 1861, the Central Pacific Rail Road of California was incorporated in California

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

In addition to government bonds, a Right-of-way (railroad)|right-of-way corridor (along with additional lands needed for all sidings, stations, rail yards, maintenance stations,) etc

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

The massive amount of capital investment (over $100,000,000 in 1860 dollars) needed to build the railroad was obtained by selling government guaranteed bonds (granted per mile of completed track) and railroad company bonds and stock to interested private investors

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

Most of the engineers and surveyors who figured out how and where to build the railroad on the Union Pacific were usually engineering college and/or United States Military Academy trained Union Army veterans who had learned their railroad trade keeping the trains running and tracks maintained during the American Civil War|U.S

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

After 1864, the Central Pacific Railroad had the same Federal financial incentives as the Union Pacific Railroad as well as some construction bonds that were earlier granted by the state of California and the city of San Francisco

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

The Central Pacific RR broke ground on January 8, 1863

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

The Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) did not start construction until July 1865, due to the difficulty getting organized and obtaining financial backing and the Civil War’s need for workers, rails, ties, steam locomotives and railroad supplies

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

After the Civil War, competition for railroad supplies to build a new transcontinental railroad while building or rebuilding new railroad nets and repairing and bringing up to date the damaged rail networks in the south initially caused railroad supplies prices to rise

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

Time was not standardized in the U.S

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

For maps and railroad pictures of this era shortly after the advent of History of photography|photography see:Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum [http://cprr.org/Museum/index.html] accessed 1 Mar 2013CPRR Railroad Map collection/museum [http://www.cprr.org/Museum/Maps/] accessed 1 May 20131871 CPRR UPRR Overland Railroad Map [http://www.cprr.org/Museum/Maps/_cprr_map.html]Map of the Central Pacific Railroad and its Connections published in the California Mail Bag San Francisco News Letter and California Advertiser, Vol

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

An 1879 tourist guide to railroad travel gives insights to travel in the late 1880s on the transcontinental railroad—see the eBook: The Pacific TouristWilliams, Henry T.; The Pacific Tourist;published by Adams Bishop, New York, 1881 ed.[http://archive.org/details/pacifictourist1881willuoft] accessed 10 Oct 2013

First Transcontinental Railroad – Political authorization and funding

The California State Railroad Museum at old town Sacramento, California has an extensive bookstore of railroad reading material and a lot of the original and later Union Pacific and Central Pacific locomotives, cars, etc.California State Railroad Museum [http://www.csrmf.org/] accessed17 Mar 2013

National Air Traffic Controllers Association – FAA Reauthorization Bill

The originally introduced Reauthorization Bill would have forced the FAA back into negotiations with the NATCA and included a 15-month limit to the bargaining, followed by arbitration if no consensus is reached

National Air Traffic Controllers Association – FAA Reauthorization Bill

By the time Reauthorization passed, after 23 short-term extensions, the Parties were already two years into a new three-year contract negotiated in 2009. The new law provides for mediation and binding interest arbitration in the event the parties do not reach agreement in future contract negotiations, ensuring that there are never unilaterally imposed terms and conditions of employment ever again.

SCHIP – Reauthorization

A two-year reauthorization bill was signed into law by the President in December 2007 that would merely extend current SCHIP services without expanding any portion of the program

SCHIP – 2009 reauthorization

In the wake of President Barack Obama’s inauguration and the Democrats’ increased majorities in both houses of Congress, legislative leaders moved quickly to break the political stalemate over SCHIP expansion

Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 – Authorization for additional funding

Section 3 of the Act authorizes additional funding to detect and prosecute fraud at various federal agencies, specifically:

Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 – Authorization for additional funding

* United States dollar|$165,000,000 to the United States Department of Justice|Department of Justice,

Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 – Authorization for additional funding

* $30,000,000 each to the United States Postal Inspection Service|Postal Inspection Service and the Office of the Inspector General at the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development [http://www.hudoig.gov (HUD/OIG)]

Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 – Authorization for additional funding

* $20,000,000 to the United States Secret Service|Secret Service

Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 – Authorization for additional funding

* $21,000,000 to the Securities and Exchange Commission

Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 – Authorization for additional funding

These authorizations are made for the federal fiscal years beginning October 1, 2009 and 2010, after which point they expire, and are in addition to the previously authorized budgets for these agencies.FERA section 3

United States budget process – Authorization and appropriations

In general, funds for federal government programs must be authorized by an authorizing committee through enactment of legislation

United States budget process – Authorization and appropriations

The budget resolutions specify funding levels for the United States House Committee on Appropriations|House and United States House Committee on Appropriations|Senate Appropriations Committees and their 12 subcommittees, establishing various budget totals, allocations, entitlements, and may include reconciliation instructions to designated House or Senate committees

United States budget process – Authorization and appropriations

A conference committee is typically required to resolve differences between House and Senate appropriation bills. Once a conference bill has passed both chambers of Congress, it is sent to the President, who may sign the bill or veto it. If he signs, the bill becomes law. Otherwise, Congress must pass another bill to avoid a shutdown of at least part of the federal government.

United States budget process – Authorization and appropriations

In recent years, Congress has not passed all of the appropriations bills before the start of the fiscal year. Congress may then enact continuing resolutions, that provide for the temporary funding of government operations. Failure to appropriate funds results in a partial government shutdown, such the United States federal government shutdown of 2013|federal government shutdown in October 2013.

United States budget process – Authorization and appropriations

In practice, the separation between policy making and funding, and the division between appropriations and authorization activities are imperfect. Authorizations for many programs have long lapsed, yet still receive appropriated amounts. Other programs that are authorized receive no funds at all. In addition, policy language—that is legislative text changing permanent law—is included in appropriation measures.

Yesod (web framework) – Authentication and authorization

See ref. Authentication plugins: OpenID|OpenId, BrowserID|BrowserId, Email, GoogleEmail, HashDB, RpxNow.

Yesod (web framework) – Authentication and authorization

:Redirection after authentication.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010

The ‘NASA Authorization Act of 2010’ is a U.S

NASA Authorization Act of 2010

The act was signed into law by President Obama on October11, 2010. A total of $58 billion in funding is called for, spread across three years.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Human spaceflight

In regard to human spaceflight, the law is intended to:

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Human spaceflight

*Couple human spaceflight efforts to national and global needs and challenges.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Human spaceflight

*Provide a sustainable space exploration program to incorporate new technologies and in-space capabilities.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Human spaceflight

*Require immediate development of a heavy lift launch vehicle and continued support of a crew exploration vehicle to be capable of supporting missions beyond low earth orbit starting in 2016.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Human spaceflight

*Support a sound performance and cost framework by maximizing use, where possible, of the workforce, assets, and capabilities of the Space Shuttle, Constellation program, and other NASA programs.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Space technology

The law will invest in space technologies and robotics capabilities that are tied to the overall space exploration framework and support U.S. innovation and competitiveness.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Commercial cargo and crew

*Continue to support commercial cargo development and provide additional funds to meet launch infrastructure requirements and accelerate development activity.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Commercial cargo and crew

*Expand the Commercial Crew Development Program in 2011 for concept development and supporting activities, while requiring a number of studies to ensure effective oversight of the potential initiation of a commercial crew capability procurement program no earlier than 2012.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – International Space Station

*Extend the ISS to at least 2020 to support international and commercial collaboration and growth, research, and technology development to maximize the scientific return on the significant investment in the ISS.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – International Space Station

*Establish an independent non-profit to work with NASA to fully develop the ISS U.S. segment as a National Laboratory.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – International Space Station

*Require an assessment of ISS requirements for parts and equipment needed to ensure its full functionality through 2020.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Shuttle retirement and final launch on need mission

The law authorizes an additional Space Shuttle flight (STS-135), contingent on a safety review, to provide necessary support for the extension of the ISS.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Science and aeronautics

The law protects a balanced portfolio for NASA, including full funding of aeronautics, Earth science and space science.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Education

In regard to education, the law will:

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Education

*Support new education initiatives, such as teacher training programs, to reinforce NASA’s role in developing a workforce with strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics skills.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Education

*Increase the investment in NASA EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research) and NASA Space Grant program.

NASA Authorization Act of 2010 – Rescoping and revitalizing institutional capabilities

The law requires NASA to examine alternative management models for NASA’s workforce, centers, and capabilities, while enforcing short-term prohibitions on major center displacements and reductions-in-force until the study is completed.

Freedom of Information Act (United States) – The Intelligence Authorization Act of 2002 amending the FOIA

In 2002, Congress passed the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003, . Within this Omnibus bill|omnibus legislation were amendments to the FOIA (pertaining mainly to intelligence agencies) entitled Prohibition on Compliance with Requests for Information Submitted by Foreign Governments:, , § 312 (to be codified at , ).

Freedom of Information Act (United States) – The Intelligence Authorization Act of 2002 amending the FOIA

In effect, this new language precluded any covered U.S

Freedom of Information Act (United States) – The Intelligence Authorization Act of 2002 amending the FOIA

The agencies affected by this amendment are those that are part of, or contain an element of, the intelligence community

Direct debit – Authorization

A direct debit instruction must in all cases be supported by some sort of authorization for the payee to collect funds from the payer’s account. There are generally two methods to set up the authorisation:

Direct debit – Authorization

One method involves only the payer and the payee, with the payer authorizing the payee to collect amounts due on his or her account

Direct debit – Authorization

The other method requires the payer to instruct his or her bank to honour direct debit notes from the payee. The payee is then notified that he or she is now authorised to initiate direct debit transfers from the payer. While this is more secure in theory, it can also mean for the payer that it is harder to return debit notes in the case of an error or dispute.

International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme – Application and authorization

To offer the IB Diploma Programme, an institution must go through an application process, and during that period the teachers are trained in the IB. At the end of the application process, IB conducts an authorization visit.

International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme – Application and authorization

Once a school is authorized to offer the IBDP, an annual fee ensures the school ongoing support from the IB, legal authorisation to display the IB logo and access to the Online Curriculum Centre (OCC) and the IB Information System (IBIS). The OCC provides information, resources and support for IB teachers and coordinators. IBIS is a database employed by IB coordinators. Other IB fees also include student registration and individual Diploma subject examination fees.

Authenticate – Authorization

The process of authorization is distinct from that of authentication. Whereas authentication is the process of verifying that you are who you say you are, authorization is the process of verifying that you are permitted to do what you are trying to do. Authorization thus presupposes authentication.

Authenticate – Authorization

To distinguish authentication from the closely related authorization, the shorthand notations ‘A1’ (authentication), ‘A2’ (authorization) as well as ‘AuthN’ / ‘AuthZ’ (‘AuthR’) or ‘Au’ / ‘Az’ are used in some communities.http://www.cloudave.com/472/authn-authz-and-gluecon/

Authenticate – Authorization

Normally delegation was considered to be a part of authorization domain. Recently authentication is also used for various type of delegation tasks. Delegation in IT|Delegation in IT network is also a new but evolving field.A mechanism for identity delegation at authentication level, N Ahmed, C Jensen – Identity and Privacy in the Internet Age – Springer 2009

Title of Nobility Clause – Congressional authorization

Eisenhower accepted a number of titles and awards pursuant to this authorization after the fall of Nazi Germany, including a knighthood in Denmark|Denmark’s highest order of chivalry, the Order of the Elephant.[http://www.americanheraldry.org/pages/index.php?n=president.eisenhower American Heraldry’s entry on Eisenhower’s coat of arms]

Title of Nobility Clause – Congressional authorization

Congress has also consented in advance to the receipt from foreign governments, by officials of the United States government (including military personnel) of a variety of gifts, subject to a variety of conditions, in the Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act, 5 U.S.C

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991

The ‘Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution’ (short title) () or ‘Joint Resolution to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 678’ (official title), was the United States Congress’s January 14, 1991 authorization of the use of U.S. military force in the Gulf War.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991

President Bush said that as Commander-in-chief he did not need Congressional authorization to use military force against Iraq and that his request for a Congressional joint resolution was merely a courtesy to Congress.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

‘Senate Joint Resolution 2’ was approved in the United States Senate on January 12, 1991 by a vote of 52 to 47.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

* was sponsored by John Warner (Republican Party (United States)|R) with 34 cosponsors — 29 Republicans and 5 Democrats. (The Democrats were: Howell Heflin, Bennett Johnston Jr.|Bennett Johnston, Joe Lieberman, Chuck Robb, and Richard Shelby).

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

** Democrats: 10-45. 10 (18%) of 56 Democratic Senators voted for the resolution: John Breaux, Richard Bryan, Al Gore, Bob Graham, Howell Heflin, Bennett Johnston Jr.|Bennett Johnston, Joe Lieberman, Harry Reid, Chuck Robb, Richard Shelby

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

*** Alan Cranston was recovering from surgery and did not vote, but would have voted against the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

** Republicans: 42-2. Chuck Grassley and Mark Hatfield voted against the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

‘House Joint Resolution 77′ was approved in the United States House of Representatives on January 12, 1991 by a vote of 250 to 183

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

* was sponsored by Minority leader of the United States House of Representatives|House Minority Leader Robert H

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

** Democrats: 86-179. 86 (32%) of 267 Democrats voted for the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

*** Mervyn M. Dymally and Mo Udall were ill and did not vote, but would have voted against the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

** Republicans: 164-3. Reps. Silvio Conte, Connie Morella, Frank Riggs voted against the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

** Independent: 0-1. Rep. Bernie Sanders (Independent (politician)#United States|I) voted against the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

* House Joint Resolution 77 was then approved by the Senate by unanimous consent.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991 – Legislative History

* House Joint Resolution 77 was signed by President George H. W. Bush on January 14, 1991 and became .

Carl Levin – National Defense Authorization Act 2012

After objections were raised that such detention violates Americans’ constitutional rights, Levin agreed to include language (to National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012#Indefinite detention without trial: Section 1021|section 1031, later 1021, of the bill) which exempted American citizens from the requirement for military detention, but not protecting them from indefinite detention

United States National Security Council – Kill authorizations

A secret National Security Council panel may pursue the killing of an individual who has been called a suspected terrorist. In this case, no public record of this decision or any operation to kill the suspect will be made available. No laws govern criteria for killing such suspects, nor mandate the existence of the panel.

United States National Security Council – Kill authorizations

National Security Advisor Susan Rice, who has helped codify targeted killing criteria by creating the Disposition Matrix database, has described the Obama Administration targeted killing policy by stating that in order to ensure that our counterterrorism operations involving the use of lethal force are legal, ethical, and wise, President Obama has demanded that we hold ourselves to the highest possible standards and processes.[http://www.wilsoncenter.org/event/the-efficacy-and-ethics-us-counterterrorism-strategy John O

United States National Security Council – Kill authorizations

It is unknown who has been placed on the kill list; Mark Hosenball, a Reuters reporter, alleges Anwar al-Awlaki was on the list.

United States National Security Council – Kill authorizations

On February 4, 2013, NBC published a leaked Department of Justice 020413 DOJ White Paper|memo providing a summary of the rationale used to justify targeted killing of US citizens who are senior operational leaders of Al-Qa’ida or associated forces.[http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/msnbc/sections/news/020413_DOJ_White_Paper.pdf DOJ Whitepaper]

Atomic Authorization

‘Atomic authorization’ is the act of securing authorization rights independently from the intermediary applications that utilize them and the parties to which they apply.http://mason.gmu.edu/~jdilles/AtomicAuthorization2.pdf (Retrieved 16 July 2009) More formally, in the field of computer security, ‘to atomically authorize’ is to define policy that permits access control|access to a specific resource, such that the Authentication|authenticity of such policy may be independently verified without reliance on the computer application|application that enforces the policy or the individuals who utilize the application

Atomic Authorization – Traditional vs. atomic authorization

Because it is secured independently of the application which utilizes it, atomic authorization policy is equivalent in strength to Authentication factor#Strong authentication|strong authentication policy.

Atomic Authorization – Traditional vs. atomic authorization

Any application specific Hardening (computing)|hardening of non-atomic authorization methods increases the complexity of identity management and issuing credentials, but does not further legitimize the authorization decisions that the application makes.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

* Paragraph 28-22 of Army Regulation 670-1 authorizes the following types of units to wear a distinctive unit insignia:

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

* Distinctive unit insignia (DUI) of a design approved by The Institute of Heraldry, U.S. Army, are authorized and prescribed for wear on the service uniforms of personnel in the following echelons.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# Numbered group: one design for each TOE numbered group.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# Color-bearing regiments; training support battalions aligned to color-bearing regiments; and separate battalions, fixed type: one design for each regiment and separate TOE battalion.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# U.S. Army service schools established by the Department of the Army: one design for each service school.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command training centers: one design for each training center.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# U.S. Army medical centers: one design for each center.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# U.S. Army medical department activities: one design for each activity.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# U.S. Army hospital centers: one design for each center.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# U.S. Army dental activities (DENTAC): one design for each activity.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# Army National Guard Total Army Service Schools (TASS): one design for all TASS activities.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# U.S. Army Reserve schools: one design for all USAR schools.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

## An identifiable command structure.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

## A valid justification in terms of unit mission, enhancement of unit morale, and degree of unit permanency.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# Other organizations: one design for each organization, except U.S. Army garrison (active and reserve), meeting the following criteria.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

## Organizations not in the categories listed above, which have a DUI by virtue of previous United States Department of the Army|HQDA authority, are permitted to retain that DUI if manufactured and worn by members of the subject organization. In each case, such insignia is authorized for wear only after The Institute of Heraldry, U.S. Army, has determined the propriety, and granted approval of the insignia.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

## Units not authorized a DUI in their own right will wear the DUI of the command to which assigned. Those units not authorized a DUI in their own right, and not assigned to a higher echelon that is authorized a DUI, may, with the approval of the Army commander concerned, wear the DUI of the Army area in which located. Personnel participating in the AGR and ROTC simultaneous membership programs will wear the DUI of the commands, units, and agencies to which attached.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

## Personnel assigned to a joint command, DOD, or Federal agency will wear the DUI designated for joint or DOD agencies.

Distinctive Unit Insignia – Authorization

# Provisional units. The authorization of a DUI will not be granted for provisional units.

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

The second reauthorization act, the USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act of 2006, amended the first and was passed in February 2006.

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

106 However, the change also meant that the defendant was also made to tell the FBI who he (or she) was disclosing the order to—this requirement was removed by the USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act.USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005 (U.S

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

On Saturday, February 27, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law legislation that would temporarily extend for one year three controversial provisions of the Patriot Act that had been set to expire:The reauthorization of the Patriot Act Feb 2010 http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2010/0301/Obama-signs-Patriot-Act-extension-without-reforms/

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

Democratic Underground – Obama signs Patriot Act http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_alladdress=102×4287047

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

*Authorize court-approved roving wiretaps that permit surveillance on multiple phones.

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

*Allow court-approved seizure of records and property in anti-terrorism operations.

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

*Permit surveillance against a so-called lone wolf, a non-U.S. citizen engaged in terrorism who may not be part of a recognized terrorist group.Sections of the Patriot act that will remain as of Feb 2010 http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/02/27/obama-signs-year-extension-patriot-act/

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

In a vote on February 8, 2011, the House of Representatives considered a further extension of the Act through the end of 2011

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

On May 26, 2011, Barack Obama|President Barack Obama used an Autopen to sign the PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of 2011, a four-year extension of three key provisions in the USA PATRIOT Act while he was in France:roving wiretaps, searches of business records (the library records provision), and conducting surveillance of lone wolves—individuals suspected of terrorist-related activities not linked to terrorist groups

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

The reauthorization Act also ordered the Attorney General submit a report semi-annually to the House and Senate Judiciary Committees, the House and Senate Intelligence Committees and the House Committee on Financial Services and the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs on all NSL request made under the Fair Credit Reporting Act.USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005 (U.S

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

Applicants must detail the total number of electronic surveillances that have been or are being conducted under the authority of the order.USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005 (U.S

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

and was later amended to prevent a delayed notification if the adverse results consist only of unduly delaying a trial..USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005 (U.S

USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorizations

A sense of Congress was further expressed that victims of terrorism should be entitled to the forfeited assets of terrorists.USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005 (U.S

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Lead up to reauthorization

By now the sunsets in the Patriot Act were getting closer to expiring. The Bush administration had been campaigning for the reauthorization of the Act for some time, with the President speaking about the Act in his 2004 State of the Union Address, where he said that,

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Lead up to reauthorization

President Bush also strongly urged for the Patriot Act to be reauthorized immediately when he swore in the successor to Attorney General John Ashcroft, Alberto Gonzales

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Lead up to reauthorization

In April 2005, a Senate Judicial Hearing on the Patriot Act was held

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Lead up to reauthorization

President Bush continued to campaign for the reauthorization of the Act

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Lead up to reauthorization

During the testimony on the reauthorization of the Act, Chairman James Sensenbrenner abruptly gavelled the proceedings to a close after Congressional Democrats and their witnesses launched into broad denunciations of the War on Terrorism and the condition of detainees at Guantanamo Bay detention camp|Guantanamo Bay

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorization legislative history

In June, the Select Committee on Intelligence met behind closed doors to consider a draft proposal by Pat Roberts (Republican Party (United States)|R-Kansas|KS) which, among other things, would have removed the primary purpose of FISA warrants issued ex parte and in camera to be for foreign intelligence

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorization legislative history

The committee’s proposed legislation was introduced into the House on July 21 as the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005

History of the USA PATRIOT Act – Reauthorization legislative history

Finally, on March 8, President Bush signed the reauthorization Act, declaring that The Patriot Act has served America well, yet we cannot let the fact that America has not been attacked since September the 11th lull us into the illusion that the terrorist threat has disappeared and that the White House would continue to give [military law enforcement, homeland security and intelligence professionals] the tools to get the job done.[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/09/AR2006030901294.html Bush Speaks After Signing Patriot Act] (March 9, 2006)

USA PATRIOT Act, Title X – Sec. 1007. Authorization of funds for DEA police training in South and Central Asia

President Bush must provide at least $5 million in 2002 to the Republic of Turkey for drug enforcement and South and East Asia for chemical controls.

Authorization certificate

In computer security, an ‘attribute certificate, ‘or’ ‘authorization certificate (AC) is a Digital data|digital document containing attributes associated to the holder by the issuer. When the associated attributes are mainly used for authorization purpose, AC is called ‘authorization certificate’. AC is standardized in X.509. RFC 5755 further specifies the usage for authorization purpose in the Internet.

Authorization certificate

While the PKC is issued by a certificate authority|CA and is used as a proof of identity of its holder like a passport, the authorization certificate is issued by an attribute authority|AA and is used to characterize or entitle its holder like a Visa (document)|visa

Authorization certificate – Comparison of attribute and public key certificates

An AC resembles a PKC but contains no public key because an AC verifier is under the control of the AC issuer, and therefore, trusts the issuer directly by having the public key of the issuer preinstalled. This means that once the AC issuer’s private key is compromised, the issuer has to generate a new key pair and replaces the old public key in all verifiers under its control with the new one.

Authorization certificate – Comparison of attribute and public key certificates

The verification of an AC requires the presence of the PKC that is referred as the AC holder in the AC.

Authorization certificate – Comparison of attribute and public key certificates

For example, an authorization certificate issued for Alice authorizes her to use a particular service

Authorization certificate – Usage

To use a service or a resource that the issuer of an AC controls, a user presents both the PKC and the AC to a part of the service or resource that functions as an AC verifier

Authorization certificate – Usage

For example, a software developer that already has a public key certificate|PKC wants to deploy its software in a computing device employing Digital rights management|DRM like iPad where software can only be run in the device after the software has been approved by the device manufacturer

Authorization certificate – Usage

A user may also need to obtain several ACs from different issuers to use a particular service

Authorization certificate – Contents of a typical attribute certificate

‘Issuer’: the issuer of the certificate.

Authorization certificate – Contents of a typical attribute certificate

‘Signature algorithm’: the algorithm by which the certificate is signed.

Authorization certificate – Contents of a typical attribute certificate

‘Attributes’: the attributes associated to the certificate holder.

Authorization certificate – Contents of a typical attribute certificate

‘Signature value’: the signature of the issuer over the whole data above.

Authorization certificate – Benefits

Using attribute certificate, the service or resource host (network)|host does not need to maintain an access control list that can potentially be large or to always be connected to a network to access a central server like when using Kerberos (protocol)|Kerberos

Violence Against Women Act of 1994 – 2012–2013 legislative battle and reauthorization

The Senate’s 2012 re-authorization of VAWA was not brought up for a vote in the House.

Violence Against Women Act of 1994 – 2012–2013 legislative battle and reauthorization

In 2013, the question of jurisdiction over offenses in Indian country continued to be at issue over the question of whether defendants who are not tribal members would be treated fairly by tribal courts or afforded constitutional guarantees.

Violence Against Women Act of 1994 – 2012–2013 legislative battle and reauthorization

On February 11, 2013, The Senate passed an extension of the Violence Against Women Act by a vote of 78-22

Violence Against Women Act of 1994 – 2012–2013 legislative battle and reauthorization

On February 28, 2013, in a 286 to 138 vote, the House passed the Senate’s all-inclusive version of the bill

Violence Against Women Act of 1994 – 2012–2013 legislative battle and reauthorization

On March 7, 2013, President Obama signed the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013.Pub. L. No. 113-4, 127 Stat. 54 (March 7, 2013).

Enterprise Privacy Authorization Language

‘Enterprise Privacy Authorization Language (EPAL)’ is a formal language for writing enterprise privacy policies to govern data handling practices in IT systems according to fine-grained positive and negative authorization rights. It has been submitted by IBM to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to be considered for recommendation.

President’s Surveillance Program – White House Counsel reauthorization

Mueller wrote that he told Card that the failure to have DOJ representation at the congressional briefing and the attempt to have Ashcroft certify the Authorization without going through Comey gave the strong perception that the [White House] was trying to do an end run around the Acting [Attorney General] whom they knew to have serious concerns as to the legality of portions of the program.

President’s Surveillance Program – White House Counsel reauthorization

Several senior DOJ and FBI officials considered resigning after the Presidential Authorization was signed without DOJ’s concurrence

President’s Surveillance Program – White House Counsel reauthorization

At approximately 1:30 a.m. on March 12, 2004, FBI Director Mueller drafted by hand a letter to withdraw the FBI from participation in the program. Mueller told the DOJ OIG that he planned on having the letter typed and then tendering it, but that based on subsequent events his resignation was not necessary. Later that morning, the President met with Mueller. According to Mueller’s notes,

President’s Surveillance Program – White House Counsel reauthorization

Mueller told the President of his concerns regarding the FBI’s continued participation in the program, and that he was considering resigning if the FBI were directed to continue to participate without the concurrence of the Attorney General

President’s Surveillance Program – White House Counsel reauthorization

The OLC memorandum stated that the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) passed by Congress shortly after the attacks of September 11, 2001 gave the President authority to use both domestically and abroad all necessary and appropriate force, including signals intelligence capabilities, to prevent future acts of international terrorism against the United States.

Elementary and Secondary Education Act – Notable Reauthorizations

* Bush’s No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

.gov – Authorization

For Native Sovereign Nations, the authorization must come from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010

The ‘Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010’ (, also known as the ‘2010 Tax Relief Act’), was passed by the United States Congress on December 16, 2010 and signed into law by President of the United States|President Barack Obama on December 17, 2010.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010

The Act centers on a temporary, two-year reprieve from the sunset provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA) and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 (JGTRRA), together known as the Bush tax cuts

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010

The law was also known, during its earlier formulation in the House of Representatives, as the Middle Class Tax Relief Act of 2010

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

Key aspects of the law include:

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Extending the EGTRRA 2001 income tax rates for two years. Associated changes in itemized deduction and personal exemption rules are also continued for the same period. The total negative revenue impact of this was estimated at $186 billion.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Extending the EGTRRA 2001 and JGTRRA 2003 dividends and capital gains rates for two years. The total negative revenue impact of this was estimated at $53 billion.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Patching the Alternative Minimum Tax to ensure an additional 21 million households will not face a tax increase. This was done by increasing the exemption amount and making other targeted changes. The negative revenue impact of this measure was estimated at $136 billion.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

** The above three measures are intended to provide relief to more than 100 million middle-class families and prevent an annual tax increase of over $2,000 for the typical family.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* A 13-month Unemployment extension|extension of federal unemployment benefits. The cost of this measure was estimated at $56 billion.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* A temporary, one-year reduction in the Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax|FICA payroll tax. The normal employee rate of 6.2 percent is reduced to 4.2 percent. The rate for self-employed individuals is reduced from 12.4 percent to 10.4 percent. The negative revenue impact of this measure was estimated at $111 billion.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Extension of the Child Tax Credit refundability threshold established by EGTRRA, ARRA, and other measures. According to the White House, this would benefit 10.5 million lower-income families with 18 million children.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Extension of ARRA’s treatment of the Earned Income Tax Credit for two years. According to the White House, this would benefit 6.5 million working parents with 15 million children.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Extension of ARRA’s American opportunity tax credit for two years, including extension of income limits applied thereto. According to the White House, this would benefit more than 8 million students and their families.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

** The above three provisions, as well as some other similar ones, are intended to provide about $40 billion in tax relief for the hardest-hit families and students.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* An extension of the Small Business Jobs and Credit Act of 2010’s bonus depreciation allowance through the end of 2011, and an increase in that amount from that act’s 50 percent to a full 100 percent. For the year of 2012, it returns to 50 percent. The White House hopes the 100 percent expensing change will result in $50 billion in new investments, thus fueling job creation.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* An extension of Section 179 depreciation deduction maximum amounts and phase-out thresholds through 2012.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

** Together, the above two business incentive measures were estimated to have a negative revenue impact of $21 billion.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Various business tax credits for alternative fuels, such as the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, were also extended. Others extended were credits for biodiesel and renewable diesel, refined coal, manufacture of energy-efficient homes, and properties featuring refueling for alternate vehicles. Also finding an extension was the popular domestic Nonbusiness Energy Property Tax Credit, but with some limitations.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* Estate tax adjustment. EGTRRA had gradually reduced Estate tax in the United States|estate tax rates until there was none in 2010. After sunsetting, the Clinton-era rate of 55 percent with a $1 million exclusion was due to return for 2011. The compromise package sets for two years a rate of 35 percent with an exclusion amount of $5 million. The negative revenue impact of this provision was estimated at $68 billion.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Provisions

* An extension of the 45G short-line railroad|short line tax credit, also known as the Railroad Track Maintenance Tax Credit, through January 1, 2012. This credit had been in place since December 31, 2004 and allowed small railroad companies to deduct up to 50% of investments made in track repair and other qualifying infrastructure investments.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

The years leading up to 2010 were filled with speculation and political debate about whether the Bush tax cuts should be extended, and if so, how. Rolling back the cuts for the wealthiest taxpayers had been one of the core promises of Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008|Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

The issue came to a head during the Lame duck (politics)|lame duck session of the 111th Congress

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

The Middle Class Tax Relief Act of 2010 originated in the Democratic caucus within the House in early December 2010, and proposed to extend the Bush tax cuts for middle incomes, meaning those earning under $250,000 for joint filers (and for singles, those earning under $200,000)

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

On December 6, 2010, President Obama announced that a compromise tax package proposal had been reached with the Republican congressional leadership. This centered around a temporary, two-year extension of the Bush tax cuts and included additional provisions designed to promote economic growth. This proposal was identical to what became law.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

In announcing the agreement, the president said, I’m not willing to let working families across this country become collateral damage for political warfare here in Washington

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

At a press conference the next day, Obama strongly defended the compromise agreement, after numerous congressional Democrats had strongly objected to aspects of it

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

Administration officials such as Vice President Joe Biden worked to convince the wary Democratic members of Congress to accept the plan, notwithstanding a continuation of lower rates for the highest-income taxpayers

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

The bill was opposed some of the most conservative members of the Republican Party as well as by talk radio hosts such as Rush Limbaugh and some groups in the Tea Party movement

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

The cut of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax|FICA payroll tax in the agreement was for one year only at a two percent reduction

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

On December 15, the Senate passed the compromise package with an 81–19 vote, with large majorities of both Democrats and Republicans supporting it

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative history

Obama signed the bill into law on December 17, 2010. Much of the Democratic Congressional leadership was absent from the signing ceremony, indicating their ongoing unhappiness with the law. Washington Post writer Dan Balz asserted that Obama’s ability to win passage for the law indicated a resilience of the occupant of the Oval Office and a possible course he would take during the next Congress.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Legislative voting breakdown

Final House vote:

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Implementation

The passage of the new law almost at year’s end caused a scramble for many parties involved.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Implementation

Employers had to modify payroll systems to adapt to the new lower amounts for the FICA payroll tax; the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) said that employers had until January 31, 2011, to do so. While companies that specialize in payroll processing could adapt to the change quickly, smaller companies that do their own payrolls could take longer. It was possible that employees would have to wait for up to three paychecks to see the reduction take place.

Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 – Implementation

The IRS said that it needed to reprogram its processing systems for some of the provisions in the law, and that those who like to file their tax returns early would need to wait until at least the middle of February if they itemize deductions or take certain other deductions

Delegation in IT – Delegation at Authorization/Access Control Level

The most common way of ensuring computer security is access control mechanisms provided by operating systems such as UNIX, Linux, Windows, Mac OS, etc.Gollmann, D.: Computer Security 2e. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester (2005)

Delegation in IT – Delegation at Authorization/Access Control Level

If the delegation is for very specific rights, also known as fine-grained, such as with Role-based access control (RBAC) delegation, then there is always a risk of under-delegation, i.e., the delegator does not delegate all the necessary permissions to perform a delegated job

Delegation in IT – Delegation at Authorization/Access Control Level

If the delegation is achieved by assigning the roles of a delegator to a delegatee then it would not only be a case of over-delegation but also the problem that the delegator has to figure out what roles, in the complex hierarchy of RBAC, are necessary to perform a particular job. These types of problems are not present in identity delegation mechanisms and normally the user interface is simpler.

Delegation in IT – Delegation at Authorization/Access Control Level

More details can be found at Role-based access control|RBAC.

Bilingual Education Act – 1994 Reauthorization

The Bilingual Education Act (BEA) reauthorization in 1994 maintained the same tenets as the original BEA, yet additionally introduced new grant categories, set up preference to programs promoting bilingualism, and took into account indigenous languages. Overall, the premise of this addition was to introduce a more systemic reform.

Bilingual Education Act – 1994 Reauthorization

*Priority Given to Bilingualism Programs: Though the Bilingual Education Act legislation did not prescribe specific instructional practices, it did provide a guide to help language minority students. The 1994 reauthorization gave preference to grant applications that developed bilingual proficiency, which Local Education Agencies had the right to develop themselves based on the guidelines of the BEA.

Bilingual Education Act – 1994 Reauthorization

*In the FY2000 691 Bilingual Education Instructional Service Grants were given out totaling just over $162 million. The largest grants in FY2000 were given to the state of California and New York at approximately $58 million and $22.5 million respectively.

Bilingual Education Act – 1994 Reauthorization

*1994 California Proposition 187 was introduced in order to prevent illegal immigrants from obtaining state provided health care, social services and public education. This was voted on by the public and became a law in November 1994. Citizens challenged the constitutionality of this proposition and in March 1998 it was ruled unconstitutional and was taken away. Though the law did no last, it impacted students who were ELL throughout the mid-to-late 1990s.

Protect America Act of 2007 – Authorization power

Under the bill, the director of national intelligence and the attorney general could authorize the surveillance of all communications involving persons outside the United States (U.S

Protect America Act of 2007 – 4. Removal of FISA Strictures from warrant authorization; warrants not required

:But the most striking aspect of the Protect America Act was the notation that any information gathering did not comprise electronic surveillance. This wording had the effect of removing Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act|FISA-related strictures from Protect America Act 2007-related Directives, serving to remove a number of protections for persons targeted, and requirements for persons working for U.S. intelligence agencies.

Protect America Act of 2007 – 4. Removal of FISA Strictures from warrant authorization; warrants not required

:* The acquisition does not constitute electronic surveillance

Protect America Act of 2007 – 4. Removal of FISA Strictures from warrant authorization; warrants not required

::The removal of the term electronic surveillance from any Protect America Act Directive implied that the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court|FISC court approval was no longer required, as Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act|FISA warrants were no longer required

Protect America Act of 2007 – 4. Removal of FISA Strictures from warrant authorization; warrants not required

::Certifications (in place of FISA warrants) were able to be levied ex post facto, in writing to the Court no more than 72 hours after it was made. The Attorney General was to transmit as soon as possible to the Court a sealed copy of the certification that would remain sealed unless the certification was needed to determine the legality of the acquisition.

Tom Rice – National Defense Authorization Act

Rice voted in support of HR 1960 – the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 – 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[http://votesmart.org/candidate/132382/tom-rice?categoryId=61type=V,S,R,E,F,P#.Ulg-fhCBxVI Project Vote Smart, Representative Rice’s Voting Records on National Security, accessed October 11, 2013]

Authorization OSID

The ‘Authorization’ Open Service Interface Definition (‘OSID’) is an O.K.I. specification which provides the means to define who is authorized to do what, when. ‘OSIDs’ are programmatic interfaces which comprise a Service Oriented Architecture for designing and building software reusability|reusable and interoperable software.

Authorization OSID

‘Authorizations’ associate Agent OSID|Agents, which represent the user or another actor in the system, with Functions and Qualifiers. One can think of ‘Authorization’ in terms of a grammar where an Agent OSID|Agent is a noun, Functions are operations or verbs, and Qualifiers are objects of the Instruction (computer science)|operation. An authorization can then be read as a sentence.

Authorization OSID

For example, Jeff (an Agent) can write checks (a Function) on the Department account (a Qualifier)

Authorization OSID

An Agent in the ‘Authorization OSID’ is represented using a unique identifier which can be examined via the Agent OSID.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

On June 18, 2008, United States Senate|Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont introduced S.3155 [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:s.03155:], a bill to reauthorize the juvenile delinquency prevention programs of the JJDPA through Fiscal year|FY2013, saying, With the reauthorization of this important legislation, we recommit to these important goals but also push the law forward in key ways to better serve our communities and our children

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

The reauthorization bill makes changes to the original bill in that it, among other things:

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

* eliminates the exception to detaining status offenders, the Valid Court Order (VCO) exception (a loophole added into the law in 1980).

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

* keeps kids out of adult jails and prisons (with limited exceptions);

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

* requires states to reduce racial ethnic disparities;

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

* creates incentives for the use of programs that research has shown to work best;

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

* refocuses attention on prevention programs intended to keep children from ever entering the juvenile or criminal justice systems.THOMAS (Library of Congress) Congressional Record: Page S5761

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

On July 31, 2008, the bill was passed by the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary|Senate Judiciary Committee with broad bipartisan support.PR Newswire, Juvenile Justice Organizations and Advocates Applaud Senate Judiciary Members on the Approval of Strong JJDPA Legislation, July 31, 2008 However, it was never voted on in the Senate.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

The bill was reintroduced in 2009, S. 678, and is cosponsored by Senators Leahy, Kohl, Durbin, Franken, Collins and Snowe. S. 678 was approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee on December 17, 2009. Companion legislation, H.R. 6029, was introduced in the House by Representatives Keith Ellison (MN-D) and Robert C. Scott (VA-D).See H.R. 6029, 111th Cong. (2d Sess. 2010).

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

National, state and local organizations of youth, parents, youth service providers, juvenile justice professionals, detention and corrections officials and other juvenile and adult criminal justice system stakeholders launched a national campaign, Act 4 Juvenile Justice, to reauthorize the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA). The Campaign for Youth Justice was one such organization.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

Additional information on the JJDPA, background history, recommendations, hearing proceedings, facts and research can be found at: http://www.act4jj.org.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

Information on the Jail Removal and Sight and Sound requirements in the JJDPA can be found at:

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act – Reauthorization bill

http://www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/jjdpa.html.

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

With the changes proposed in 2003, the actual Higher Education Act was not reauthorized. Instead, many of its sections were renewed, with little radical change. Numerous extensions have followed, with the most recent extension lasting through August 15, 2008. The Senate passed an HEA reauthorization bill in July 2007, as did the House of Representatives in February 2008.

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

On August 14, 2008, the Higher Education Opportunity Act (Public Law 110-315) (HEOA) was enacted

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

Also included in the 2008 revision of the HEOA were provisions requiring action by U.S

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

Additionally, the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (CCRA), a budget reconciliation bill signed into law in September 2007, made significant changes to federal financial aid programs included in HEA

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

The law for the first time also required post-secondary institutions be more transparent about costs and required the nearly 7,000 post-secondary institutions that receive federal financial aid funds (Title IV) to post net price calculators on their websites as well as security and copyright policies by October 29, 2011.

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

As defined in HEOA, the net price calculator’s purpose is … to help current and prospective students, families, and other consumers estimate the individual net price of an institution of higher education for a student. The [net price] calculator shall be developed in a manner that enables current and prospective students, families, and consumers to determine an estimate of a current or prospective student’s individual net price at a particular institution.

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

The law defines estimated net price as the difference between an institution’s average total Price of Attendance (the sum of tuition and fees, room and board, books and supplies, and other expenses including personal expenses and transportation for a first-time, full-time undergraduate students who receive aid) and the institution’s median need- and merit-based grant aid awarded.

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

Elise Miller, program director for the United States Department of Education’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), stated the idea behind the requirement: We just want to break down the myth of sticker price and get beyond it. This is to give students some indication that they will not [necessarily] be paying that full price.University Business: Preparing for the Net Price Calculator: Avoid Potential Pitfalls by Taking These Steps Today By Haley Chitty, October 2009

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

The template was developed based on the suggestions of the IPEDS’ Technical Review Panel (TRP), which met on January 27–28, 2009, and included 58 individuals representing federal and state governments, post-secondary institutions from all sectors, association representatives, and template contractors

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

The TRP faced the difficult challenge of creating one tool that could be used by a wide variety of institutions – from small, for-profit career schools to major research universities – while balancing simplicity for users.

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

To meet the requirement, post-secondary institutions may choose either a basic template developed by the U.S. Department of Education or an alternate net price calculator that offers at least the minimum elements required by law.

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

As part of its cost-transparency measures, HEOA of 2008 requires also on the College Navigator Web site a report giving the average institutional net price of attendance for first-time, full-time students who receive financial aid

Higher Education Act of 1965 – 2008 reauthorization

The HEA has been criticized for establishing statutory pricing of federal student loans based on political considerations rather than pricing based on risk.Michael Simkovic, [http://ssrn.com/abstract=1941070 Risk-Based Student Loans] (2013)

Authorization hold

In the case of debit cards, authorization holds can fall off the account (thus rendering the balance available again) anywhere from 1–5 days after the transaction date depending on the bank’s policy; in the case of credit cards, holds may last as long as 30 days, depending on the issuing bank

Authorization hold

Signature-based (non-PIN-based) credit and debit card transactions are a two-step process, consisting of an authorization and a settlement.

Authorization hold

When a merchant swipes a customer’s credit card, the credit card terminal connects to the merchant’s acquirer, or credit card processor, which verifies that the customer’s account is valid and that sufficient funds are available to cover the transaction’s cost

Authorization hold

This is because the merchant has obtained an authorization from the individual’s bank by swiping the card through its credit card terminal

Authorization hold

However, unless this authorization hold expires without being finalized the user cannot access that part of their account

Authorization hold – Double holds

On occasion, due to negligence or computer error, a merchant may attempt to authorize a card twice, creating a double hold on the cardholder’s bank account

Authorization hold – Voided transactions

Some banks allow the removal of a hold from an account by the merchant. However, many banks do not, and a merchant may not have the capability to do so. Thus a merchant may void a transaction, but the hold will remain on the account.For an example of this, see the section entitled I have been charged for my order but it hasn’t been despatched at http://www.bbcshop.com/scat/faq.

Authorization hold – Voided transactions

Such requests usually require information such as the cardholder’s name, card number, authorization number and transaction amount

Authorization hold – Holds for differing amounts

Another issue that occurs on a regular basis with authorization holds is when the transaction amount changes between when the hold is placed on the account, and when the transaction is settled. This most commonly occurs in situations where the final debit amount is uncertain when the authorization is actually obtained.

Authorization hold – Holds for differing amounts

For example, if an individual makes a gasoline purchase by swiping their check card or credit card at the gas pump without using their PIN, then the pump has no way of knowing how much gas will be used

Authorization hold – Holds for differing amounts

There currently is litigation in the State of Florida which alleges that some gas stations do not adequately inform their customers that a certain fixed dollar amount (usually between $75.00 and $100.00) will be requested as a pre-authorization in connection with a customer’s purchase of self-service gasoline at the pump using either a checkcard or debit card and that this practice violates various Florida consumer protection and civil laws

Authorization hold – Holds for differing amounts

Another example can be seen with a restaurant transaction

Authorization hold – Holds for differing amounts

Some hotels and car rental agencies do not accept Visa (company)|Visa or MasterCard-branded debit cards, as the authorization holds can expire before the transaction is settled

Authorization hold – Holds for differing amounts

As that rate is generally not known at the time of authorization, for authorization purposes the banks will use an estimated amount based on the exchange rate at the time of authorization.

X Window System core protocol – Authorization

When the client initially establishes a connection with the server, the server can reply by either accepting the connection, refusing it, or requesting authentication. An authentication request contains the name of the authentication method to use. The core protocol does not specify the authentication process, which depends on the kind of authentication used, other than it ends with the server either sending an acceptance or a refusal packet.

X Window System core protocol – Authorization

During the regular interaction between a client and a server, the only requests related to authentication are about the host-based access method

X Window authorization

In the X Window System, Computer program|programs run as X clients, and as such they connect to the X display server, possibly via a computer network. Since the network may be accessible to other User (computing)|users, a method for forbidding access to programs run by users different from the one who is logged in is necessary.

X Window authorization

There are five standard access control mechanisms that control whether a client application can connect to an X display server. They can be grouped in three categories:

X Window authorization

Additionally, like every other network connection, tunnelling protocol|tunnelling can be used.

X Window authorization – Host-based access

The host-based access method consists in specifying a set of hosts that are authorized to connect to the X display server

X Window authorization – Cookie-based access

The cookie-based authorization methods are based on choosing a magic cookie (an arbitrary piece of data) and passing it to the server when it is started; every client that can prove having knowledge of this cookie is then authorized connection to the server.

X Window authorization – Cookie-based access

These cookies are created by a separate program and stored in the file .Xauthority in the user’s home directory, by default

X Window authorization – Cookie-based access

The two systems using this method are MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 and XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1. In the first method, the client simply sends the cookie when requested to authenticate. In the second method, a secret key is also stored in the .Xauthority file. The client creates a string by concatenating the current time, a transport-dependent identifier, and the cookie, encrypts the resulting string, and sends it to the server.

X Window authorization – Cookie-based access

The ‘xauth’ application is a utility for accessing the .Xauthority file.

X Window authorization – User-based access

The user-based access methods work by authorizing specific users to connect to the server. When a client establishes a connection to a server, it has to prove being controlled by an authorized user.

X Window authorization – User-based access

The two methods based on authenticating users are SUN-DES-1 and MIT-KERBEROS-5. The first system is based on a mechanism of secure remote procedure call developed in SunOS. The second mechanism is based on both client and server trusting a Kerberos (protocol)|Kerberos server.

X Window authorization – Tunneling

Connection between client and server over a network can be protected using a secure tunnelling protocol such as Transport Layer Security|SSL or Secure Shell|SSH.

Business system planning – Study authorization

The essential first step in BSP is to obtain authorization for the study from management or an interested department. A number of roles must agree on the purpose and range of the study:

Business system planning – Study authorization

** Verifies and approves study results

Business system planning – Study authorization

** Provides financial support

Business system planning – Study authorization

** Documents and implements study (usually longer than eight weeks)

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq

The ‘Iraq Resolution’ or the ‘Iraq War Resolution’ (formally the ‘Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002′,[http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ243/pdf/PLAW-107publ243.pdf Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002] (pdf) , ) is a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Act of Congress|Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing Iraq War|military action against Iraq.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

The resolution cited many factors as justifying the use of military force against Iraq:

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Iraq’s noncompliance with the conditions of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 687|1991 ceasefire agreement, including interference with United Nations Special Commission|U.N. weapons inspectors.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Iraq continuing to possess and develop a significant chemical and biological weapons capability and actively seeking a nuclear weapons capability posed a threat to the national security of the United States and international peace and security in the Persian Gulf region.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Iraq’s Human rights in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq|brutal repression of its civilian population.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Iraq’s capability and willingness to use weapons of mass destruction against Iran–Iraq War|other nations and Al-Anfal Campaign|its own people.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Iraq’s hostility towards the United States as demonstrated by the List_of_United_States_Presidential_assassination_attempts#George_H._W._Bush|1993 assassination attempt on former President George H. W. Bush and firing on coalition aircraft enforcing the Iraqi no-fly zones|no-fly zones following the 1991 Gulf War.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Members of al-Qaeda, an organization bearing responsibility for attacks on the United States, its citizens, and interests, including the attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, are known to be in Iraq.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Iraq’s continu[ing] to aid and harbor other Terrorism|international terrorist organizations, including anti-United States terrorist organizations.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Iraq paid bounty (reward)|bounty to families of suicide attack|suicide bombers.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists|efforts by the Congress and the President to fight terrorists, and those who aided or harbored them.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* The authorization by the United States Constitution|Constitution and the United States Congress|Congress for the President of the United States|President to fight anti-United States terrorism.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* The governments in Turkey, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia feared Saddam and wanted him removed from power.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

* Citing the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, the resolution reiterated that it should be the policy of the United States to remove the Saddam Hussein regime and promote a democracy|democratic replacement.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

The resolution supported and encouraged diplomatic efforts by President George W. Bush to strictly enforce through the U.N. Security Council United Nations actions regarding Iraq|all relevant Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq and obtain prompt and decisive action by the Security Council to ensure that Iraq abandons its strategy of delay, evasion, and noncompliance and promptly and strictly complies with all relevant Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Contents

The resolution authorized President Bush to use the Military of the United States|Armed Forces of the United States as he determines to be necessary and appropriate in order to defend the national security of the United States against the continuing threat posed by Iraq; and enforce all relevant United Nations Security Council Resolutions regarding Iraq.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Passage

An authorization by Congress was sought by President George W. Bush soon after his September 12, 2002, statement before the U.N. General Assembly asking for quick action by the Security Council in enforcing the resolutions against Iraq.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Passage

Of the legislation introduced by Congress in response to President Bush’s requests,[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HJ00114:@@@K Legislation related to the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq], Congressional Record, Library of Congress

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Passage of the full resolution

Introduced in Congress on October 2, 2002, in conjunction with the Administration’s proposals,[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HJ00114:@@@R Major Congressional Actions of H.J.Res

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – United States House of Representatives

* 215 (96.4%) of 223 Republican Representatives voted for the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – United States House of Representatives

* 82 (39.2%) of 209 Democratic Representatives voted for the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – United States House of Representatives

* 6 ( 2.7%) of 223 Republican Representatives voted against the resolution: Reps

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – United States House of Representatives

* 126 (~60.3%) of 209 Democratic Representatives voted against the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – United States House of Representatives

* The only Independent Representative voted against the resolution: Rep. Bernie Sanders|Sanders (Independent (politician)|I-Vermont|VT)

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – United States House of Representatives

** Reps. Solomon P. Ortiz|Ortiz (Democratic Party (United States)|D-Texas|TX), Marge Roukema|Roukema (Republican Party (United States)|R-New Jersey|NJ), and Bob Stump|Stump (Republican Party (United States)|R-Arizona|AZ) did not vote on the resolution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Lee Amendment

: Amendment in the nature of a substitute sought to have the United States work through the United Nations to seek to resolve the matter of ensuring that Iraq is not developing weapons of mass destruction, through mechanisms such as the resumption of weapons inspections, negotiation, enquiry, mediation, regional arrangements, and other peaceful means.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Lee Amendment

:: Sponsored by Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA).[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HZ00608: H.AMDT.608 – Amendment in the nature of a substitute of H.J.RES.114], 107th Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Lee Amendment

::: Failed by the Yeas and Nays: 72 – 355[http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll452.xml On Agreeing to the Lee of California Substitute Amendment], 107th Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Clerk of the House, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Spratt Amendment

Provided expedited consideration for authorization in the latter case.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Spratt Amendment

:: Sponsored by Rep. John Spratt (D-SC-5).[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HZ00609: H.AMDT.609 – Amendment in the nature of a substitute of H.J.RES.114], 107th Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Spratt Amendment

::: Failed by the Yeas and Nays: 155 – 270[http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll453.xml On Agreeing to the Spratt of South Carolina Substitute Amendment], 107th Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Clerk of the House, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The House Rules Amendment

: An amendment considered as adopted pursuant to the provisions of [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:h.res.00574: H.RES.574 – Providing for the consideration of the joint resolution (H.J.RES.114)], 107th Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Library of Congress, 2002-10-08

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The House Rules Amendment

:: Sponsored by House Rules.[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HZ00610: H.AMDT.610 – Amendment considered as adopted pursuant to the provisions of H.Res.574], 107th Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The House Rules Amendment

::: Resolution (H.RES.574) agreed to by voice vote[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HE00574:@@@X On Agreeing to Resolve H.RES.574], 107th Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Library of Congress, 2002-10-08

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Byrd Amendments

: To provide statutory construction that constitutional authorities remain unaffected and that no additional grant of authority is made to the President not directly related to the existing threat posed by Iraq.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Byrd Amendments

:: Sponsored by Sen. Robert Byrd (D-WV).[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:SP04868: S.AMDT.4868 – Providing for Statuary Construction in the Consideration of the Joint Resolution (S.J.RES.45)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Byrd Amendments

::: Amendment SA 4868 not agreed to by Yea-Nay Vote: 14 – 86[http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=107session=2vote=00234 On Agreeing to the Amendment (Byrd Amdt. No. 4868)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Byrd Amendments

: To provide a termination date for the authorization of the use of the Armed Forces of the United States, together with procedures for the extension of such date unless Congress disapproves the extension.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Byrd Amendments

:: Sponsored by Sen. Robert Byrd (D-WV).[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:SP04869: S.AMDT.4869 – Providing for Congressional Construction in the Consideration of the Joint Resolution (S.J.RES.45)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Byrd Amendments

::: Amendment SA 4869 not agreed to by Yea-Nay Vote: 31 – 66[http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=107session=2vote=00232 On Agreeing to the Amendment (Byrd Amdt. No. 4869)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Levin Amendment

: To authorize the use of the United States Armed Forces, pursuant to a new resolution of the United Nations Security Council, to destroy, remove, or render harmless Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons-usable material, long-range ballistic missiles, and related facilities, and for other purposes.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Levin Amendment

[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:SP04862: S.AMDT.4862 – Providing for Congressional Construction in the Consideration of the Joint Resolution (S.J.RES.45)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Levin Amendment

::: Amendment SA 4862 not agreed to by Yea-Nay Vote: 24 – 75[http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=107session=2vote=00235 On Agreeing to the Amendment (Levin Amdt. No. 4862)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Durbin Amendment

: To amend the authorization for the use of the Armed Forces to cover an imminent threat posed by Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction rather than the continuing threat posed by Iraq.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Durbin Amendment

:: Sponsored by Sen. Dick Durbin (D-IL).[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:SP04865: S.AMDT.4865 – Providing for Congressional Amendment in the Consideration of the Joint Resolution (S.J.RES.45)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – The Durbin Amendment

::: Amendment SA 4865 not agreed to by Yea-Nay Vote: 30 – 70[http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=107session=2vote=00236 On Agreeing to the Amendment (Byrd Amdt. No. 4865)], 107th Congress, U.S. Senate, Library of Congress, 2002-10-10

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – International law

There have been no findings by any legal tribunal with both legal authority and legal jurisdiction that any laws were violated

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – International law – right of pre-emptive self defense

There is no requirement in international law that the United States (or any nation) seek permission to initiate any war of self-defense.Case of the S.S

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – U.S. law

The invasion was reviewed by the US federal courts and it was determined to be legal.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – U.S. law

In early 2003, the Iraq Resolution was challenged in court to stop the invasion from happening

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Legal debates – U.N. security council resolutions

Debate about the legality of the 2003 invasion of Iraq under international law, centers around ambiguous language in parts of U.N

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Legal debates – U.N. security council resolutions

The position of the U.S. and U.K. is that the invasion was authorized by a series of U.N. resolutions dating back to 1990 and that since the U.N. security council has made no Article 39UN Charter Article 39 http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter5.shtml Accessed 12/28/2011. finding of illegality that no illegality exists.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Legal debates – U.N. security council resolutions

Resolution 1441 declared that Iraq was in material breach of the cease-fire under United Nations Security Council Resolution 687|U.N

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Legal debates – U.N. security council resolutions

It remains unclear whether any party other than the Security Council can make the determination that Iraq breached Resolution 1441, as U.N. members commented that it is not up to one member state to interpret and enforce U.N. resolutions for the entire council.US not allowed to speak for the entire council

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Legal debates – U.N. security council resolutions

*[http://www.worldpress.org/specials/iraq/ The United Nations, International Law, and the War in Iraq] Rachel S. Taylor, World Press Review

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Legal debates – U.N. security council resolutions

*[http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forum/forumnew73.php UN RESOLUTION 1441: COMPELLING SADDAM, RESTRAINING BUSH] Professor Mary Ellen O’Connell, Moritz School of Law, Ohio State University, JURIST, November 21, 2002

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq – Legal debates – U.N. security council resolutions

It would be argued that, in light of the emphasis in the Charter on peaceful dispute settlement, Resolution 678 could not be used as an authorization for the use of force after twelve years of cease fire, unless the Security Council says so

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists

The authorization granted the President of the United States|President the authority to use all necessary and appropriate force against those whom he determined planned, authorized, committed or aided the September 11th attacks, or who harbored said persons or groups

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists – House of Representatives

On September 14, 2001 the House passed [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HJ00064: House Joint Resolution 64]

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists – Senate

On September 14, 2001 [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:s.j.res.00023: Senate Joint Resolution 23] passed in the Senate by roll call vote. The totals in the Senate were: 98 Ayes, 0 Nays, 2 Present/Not Voting (Senators Larry Craig – R and Jesse Helms – R).

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists – Citations in Law

*The AUMF was unsuccessfully cited by the George W. Bush administration in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, in which the Supreme Court of the United States|U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the administration’s Guantanamo military commission|military commissions at Guantanamo Bay detainment camp|Guantanamo Bay were not competent tribunals as constituted and thus illegal.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists – Citations in Law

*The AUMF has also been cited by the United States Department of Justice|Department of Justice as authority for engaging in electronic surveillance in ACLU v. NSA without obtaining a warrant of the special Court as required by the constitution.

Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists – Use by the DOD

The AUMF has also been cited by a wide variety of US officials as justification for continuing US military actions all over the world. Often the phrases Al-Qaeda and associated forces or affiliated forces have been used by these officials. However, that phrase does not appear in the AUMF.NPR, 4/18/14. Radiolab. [http://www.radiolab.org/story/60-words/ 60 Words] In collaboration with Buzzfeed. Reporter, Gregory Johnsen.

March of Dimes – SCHIP reauthorization

The March of Dimes has lobbied the United States’ Congress to support the continuation of the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 2007 and 2009. SCHIP is a program that provides health insurance to 11 million low-income children and pregnant women. March of Dimes partnered with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the National Association of Children’s Hospitals (NACH) on the issue.

Coinage Act of 1792 – Authorization and free coinage

The Act authorized production of the following coins:

Coinage Act of 1792 – Authorization and free coinage

*The reverse side of each of the gold and silver coins was to have the figure or representation of an eagle with the inscription UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

Coinage Act of 1792 – Authorization and free coinage

The Act defined the proportional value of gold and silver as 15 units of pure silver to 1 unit of pure gold

Coinage Act of 1792 – Authorization and free coinage

Under Wikisource:United States Statutes at Large/Volume 1/2nd Congress/1st Session/Chapter 16|Sec.14, any person could bring gold or silver bullion and have it coined free of charge, or later for a small fee, exchange it immediately for an equivalent value of coin. The paragraph summary states: Persons may bring gold and silver bullion, to be coined free of expense;

Coinage Act of 1792 – Authorization and free coinage

Quality control measures were implemented in that from each separate mass of gold or silver used to produce coins, three coins were set aside by the treasurer

Coinage Act of 1792 – Authorization and free coinage

Section 19 of the Act established a penalty of death for debasing the gold or silver coins authorized by the Act, or embezzlement of the metals for those coins, by officers or employees of the mint; this section of the Act apparently remains in effect and would, in theory, continue to apply in the case of any of the gold or silver coins which shall be struck or coined at the said mint

HealthVault – Authorization

An individual interacts with their HealthVault record through the HealthVault site, or, more typically, through an application that talks to the HealthVault platform

Paris-Madrid race – Problems in getting authorizations

The French government was against the idea of races being held on public streets. After the Paris–Berlin race of 1901, the minister of internal affairs M. Waldeck-Rousseau stated that no other races would be authorized.

Paris-Madrid race – Problems in getting authorizations

The Paris–Madrid was strongly supported by King Alphonse XIII of Spain, and French media suggested that France could not withdraw from the competition, being the country with the most advanced technology in car manufacturing.

Paris-Madrid race – Problems in getting authorizations

Etienne van Zuylen van Nyevelt|Baron de Zuylen, president of the Automobile Club de France|ACF, managed to overcome the opposition of Prime Minister Émile Combes by stating that the roads were indeed public, the public wanted the races, and many local administrators were eager to have a race pass through their towns.

Paris-Madrid race – Problems in getting authorizations

Many French car manufacturers supported the request, employing of over 25 thousand workers and producing 16 million Francs per year of export alone. Since races were necessary to promote the brands, they interceded with the government who finally agreed with the race. The Council of Ministries and the President gave their support to the race on February 17, 1903, while the ACF had been accepting applications since January 15.

Google AJAX APIs – Authentication and authorization

Usage of some of the APIs require authentication and authorization using the OAuth 2.0 protocol.

Google AJAX APIs – Authentication and authorization

OAuth 2.0 is a simple protocol. To start, it is necessary to obtain credentials from the Developers Console. Then the client app can request an access token from the Google Authorization Server, and uses that token for authorization when accessing a Google API service.

E-Rate – Authorization

The Schools and Libraries portion of the Universal Service Fund, more widely known as E-Rate, was authorized as part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996

Merchant account – Authorization fee

The Authorization fee (actually an authorization request fee) is charged each time a transaction is sent to the card-issuing bank to be authorized. The fee applies whether or not the request is approved. Note this is not the same as Transaction fee.

Al Udeid Air Base – Congress Appropriations and Authorizations

From FY2003 to FY2007, Congress Authorization for Expenditure|authorized and Appropriation_bill#United_States|appropriated $126 million for U.S. military construction activities in Qatar.

Al Udeid Air Base – Congress Appropriations and Authorizations

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (P.L. 110-181) authorized $81.7 million in FY2008 spending to build new Air Force and United States special operations forces|Special Operations facilities in Qatar.

Al Udeid Air Base – Congress Appropriations and Authorizations

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 (P.L. 110-417) authorizes $69.6 million in FY2009 spending to build new Air Force and Special Operations facilities.

Al Udeid Air Base – Congress Appropriations and Authorizations

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (P.L. 111-84) authorizes $117 million in FY2010 spending to build new Air Force recreational, dormitory, and other facilities at Al Udeid.

Al Udeid Air Base – Congress Appropriations and Authorizations

The Administration’s FY2011 military construction request for Qatar was $64.3 million, for Air Force facilities and a National Security Agency warehouse.

Al Udeid Air Base – Congress Appropriations and Authorizations

The FY2012 request includes $37 million to continue the dormitory and recreation facility project.

California Cadet Corps – Authorization

The California Cadet Corps is referenced under sections 500 through 520.1 of the California Military and Veterans Code (CMVC)

Central Pacific Railroad – Authorization and construction

Planned by Theodore Judah, the Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by Congress in 1862

Central Pacific Railroad – Authorization and construction

In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad was leased by the Southern Pacific Company. Technically the CPRR remained a corporate entity until 1959, when it was formally merged into Southern Pacific. (It was reorganized in 1899 as the Central Pacific Railway.) The original right-of-way is now controlled by the Union Pacific Railroad|Union Pacific, which purchased Southern Pacific in 1996.

Central Pacific Railroad – Authorization and construction

The Union Pacific-Central Pacific (Southern Pacific) mainline followed the historic Overland Trail|Overland Route from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco Bay.

Library Services and Construction Act – Reauthorizations

In its thirty year history, the Library Services and Construction Act has undergone numerous reauthorizations

EMV – Online transaction authorization

Transactions go online when an ARQC has been requested

Japanese history textbook controversies – Textbook authorization system

School textbooks in Japan are not written by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology|Ministry of Education

Japanese history textbook controversies – Textbook authorization system

The process of textbook authorization is ongoing and conducted every four years, the results of which are presented to the public the following year.

Japanese history textbook controversies – Textbook authorization system

Critics claim that the government textbook authorization system has been used to reject textbooks that depict Imperial Japan in a negative light

Japanese history textbook controversies – Textbook authorization system

Defenders of the system counter that a book which fails to mention specific negative facts regarding the aggression and atrocities committed by Japan during World War II would also fail the Ministry of Education’s approval process

Japanese history textbook controversies – Textbook authorization system

Today there are 30 unique textbooks for , from 5 different publishers, in Japanese primary schools. Additionally, there are 8 unique textbooks for , from 8 different publishers, for junior high schools. In Japanese high schools, the number of available options is much greater, with 50 unique textbook editions available for teaching Japanese, and world history.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

On 4 February 1919 Congress, in the same act that created the Navy Cross (United States)|Navy Cross and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Congress provided:

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

! class=unsortable|Image !! Name !! Service !! Date of action !! Combat !!class=unsortable|Action

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Ingram was killed while attempting to release depth charges in the face of an oncoming torpedo. He is one of thirteen recipients receiving the Tiffany Cross from a single Department of the Navy announcement issued 11 November 1920, many of whom present photographic evidence. His action meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|United States Navy|Navy, Dental Corps

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Lyle exposed himself to hostile fire to treat a wounded man. He is one of thirteen recipients receiving the Tiffany Cross from a single Department of the Navy announcement issued 11 November 1920, many of whom present photographic evidence. He has a museum display,On display at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD. and meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Sullivan secured a group of live depth charges. He is one of thirteen recipients receiving the Tiffany Cross from a single Department of the Navy announcement issued 11 November 1920, many of whom present photographic evidence. He meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Izac gathered intelligence while a prisoner of war; he then escaped and brought the information to the Allies. There is a photograph of his medal’s engraving.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|United States Marine Corps|Marine Corps

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Janson single-handedly attacked and dispersed a machine gun detachment. He meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|align=left style=background:#e3d9ff;|

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Osborne was killed while rescuing wounded men from under heavy fire. There is a museum display of his medal.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|United States Navy|Naval Reserve, Medical Corps

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Petty tended the wounded despite artillery and gas attacks, even after his gas mask was rendered useless. There is a photograph of the recipient wearing his Tiffany Cross.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Cukela single-handedly attacked and captured a German strongpoint. There is a photograph of the recipient wearing his Tiffany Cross.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|align=left style=background:#e3d9ff;|

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Kocak single-handedly silenced a machine gun nest and led a successful attack on a second nest. He meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Boone exposed himself to intense fire in order to treat the wounded and bring in supplies. There is a photograph of the recipient wearing his Tiffany Cross.One of the 13 recipients reported in the New York Times.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Hammann escued a fellow pilot who had been shot down. He is one of thirteen recipients receiving the Tiffany Cross from a single Department of the Navy announcement issued 11 November 1920, many of whom present photographic evidence. He meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Hayden reached a wounded man, treated him, and carried him to safety despite intense fire. He is one of thirteen recipients receiving the Tiffany Cross from a single Department of the Navy announcement issued 11 November 1920, many of whom present photographic evidence. The is a museum display of his medal,On display at the Legion of Valor Museum, Fresno, CA. and he meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Kelly single-handedly attacked a machine gun nest under an artillery barrage. There is a painting of the recipient wearing his Tiffany Cross, and there is a museum display of his medal.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Pruitt single-handedly captured two machine guns and forty prisoners. There is a museum display of his medal,On display at the National Museum of the Marine Corps, Quantico, VA. and he meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Madison continued to lead his ship after being severely wounded during a U-boat attack. There is a photograph of the recipient wearing his Tiffany Cross.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Balch exposed himself to intense fire in order to treat the wounded and establish a dressing station. He is one of thirteen recipients receiving the Tiffany Cross from a single Department of the Navy announcement issued 11 November 1920, many of whom present photographic evidence. He has a museum display of his medal, and he meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Robinson continued to fire his weapon after being severely wounded in an aerial battle against twelve German planes. There is a photograph of his medal’s engraving, and museum display of the medal.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Talbot, with gunner Robert G. Robinson, shot down one plane in an aerial battle against twelve German aircraft. He is one of thirteen recipients receiving the Tiffany Cross from a single Department of the Navy announcement issued 11 November 1920, many of whom present photographic evidence. There is a museum display of his medal, and he meets the actual conflict criterion.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Byrd’s award is for leading what was thought to be the first successful heavier-than-air flight to the North Pole and back. There is a photograph of the recipient receiving his medal.

Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor – Authorization

|Schilt evacuated wounded Marines by plane while under fire. There is a photograph of the recipient wearing his medal.

Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011

The ‘Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011′ (, ), is a law in the United States signed by President Barack Obama on January 7, 2011. As a bill it was originally H.R.5136 in the 111th Congress and later co-sponsored by Representative Ike Skelton as H.R. 6523 and renamed. The overall purpose of the law is to authorize funding for the defense of the United States and its interests abroad, for military construction, and for national security-related energy programs.

American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial – Authorization extension

With nowhere nearly enough money on hand to begin construction by the legislatively-mandated deadline, the memorial foundation petitioned Congress for an extension, arguing that fundraising would be complete by 2010

American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial – Authorization extension

S. 824 passed on October 24, 2007, and a day later President George W. Bush signed P.L. 110-106 into law. The law extended the deadline for construction to begin to October 24, 2015.

Lead-Free Toys Act – Budget authorization

The law increases the CPSC budget authorization from $80 million in 2008 to $136 million in 2014. It also increases staffing to at least 500 personnel by 2013.Staff writer(s), [http://www.consumersunion.org/campaigns/pdf/hr4040-nimc-summary.pdf Summary of Major Provisions of H.R. 4040], the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) of 2008, Consumers Union, (accessed 6 December 2008)

Fossil Cycad National Monument – Deauthorization of the monument

Even before formal approval of the new national monument, all of the visible fossils had been removed. Excavations in 1935 uncovered many new fossils. The site was retained for some years in the expectation that erosion would uncover new fossils. This did not happen, however, and on September 1, 1957 Fossil Cycad National Monument was transferred to the Bureau of Land Management. In 1980, construction of a highway through the site uncovered more fossil cycads.

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

The Post article continues that sensory deprivation, through the use of hoods and spraypainted goggles, sleep deprivation, and selective use of painkillers for at least one captive who was shot in the groin during his apprehension are also used

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

Based on the Justice Department analyses, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld later approved in 2003 the use of 24 classified interrogation techniques for use on detainees at Guantanamo Bay, which after use on one prisoner were withdrawn

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

Manfred Nowak, United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture, said that numerous cases of torture ordered by U.S. officials and perpetrated by U.S. authorities are well documented.

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

We possess all the evidence which proves that the torture methods used in interrogation by the U.S. government were explicitly ordered by former U.S. defence minister Donald Rumsfeld…Obviously, these orders were given with the highest U.S. authorities’ knowledge. [http://www.commondreams.org/headline/2009/02/02 Call to Try Bush], Inter Press Service, February 2, 2009

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

Allegations emerged that in the Coalition occupation of Iraq after the second Gulf war, there was extensive use of torture techniques, allegedly supported by American military intelligence agents, in Iraqi jails such as Abu Ghraib and others. In 2004 photos showing humiliation and abuse of prisoners leaked from Abu Ghraib prison, causing a political and media scandal in the U.S. and the whole world.

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State ultimately told the CIA the harsher interrogation tactics were acceptable,[http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/04/22/timeline-released-senate-shows-condoleezza-rice-okd-waterboarding/ As Bush Adviser, Rice Gave OK to Waterboard Fox News, April 22, 2009]Senate Report: Rice, Cheney OK’d CIA use of waterboarding CNN, April 23, 2009 In 2009 Rice stated, We never tortured anyone

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

On February 14, 2010, in an appearance on American Broadcasting Company|ABC’s This Week (ABC TV series)|This Week, Vice-President Dick Cheney reiterated his support of waterboarding and enhanced interrogation techniques for captured terrorist suspects, saying, I was and remain a strong proponent of our enhanced interrogation program.

Torture in the United States – Authorization and methods of torture and abuse

Pressed by the BBC in 2010 on his personal view of waterboarding, Presidential Advisor Karl Rove said: “I’m proud that we kept the world safer than it was, by the use of these techniques. They’re appropriate, they’re in conformity with our international requirements and with U.S. law.” http://www.timesonline.co.uk, March 13, 2010, Karl Rove says water torture is justified – and a source of pride by Giles Whittell

National Defense Authorization Act

The authorization bill determines the agencies responsible for defense, establishes funding levels, and sets the policies under which money will be spent.

National Defense Authorization Act – Current legislation

The current NDAA is the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 (; NDAA 2014), a United States federal law which specifies the budget and expenditures of the United States Department of Defense (DOD) for Fiscal Year 2014. The law authorized the DOD to spend $607 billion in Fiscal Year 2014. On December 26, 2013, President Barack Obama signed the bill into law. This was the 53rd consecutive year that a National Defense Authorization Act has been passed.

National Defense Authorization Act – Current legislation

The Howard P. Buck McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 (H.R. 4435; 113th Congress) is one of the proposed NDAA bills for fiscal year 2015. On May 8, 2014, the House Armed Services Committee ordered the bill reported (amended) by a vote of 61-0. The Committee spent 12 hours debating the bill and voting on hundreds of different amendments before voting to pass it.

National Defense Authorization Act – Notable or controversial NDAA legislation

* John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007|National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007, . This NDAA is formally named after John Warner, a U.S. war veteran and former long-term Senator and Senate Armed Services Committee chairman and U.S. Secretary of the Navy from Virginia.

National Defense Authorization Act – Notable or controversial NDAA legislation

* National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, . This NDAA is notable for including a signing statement, one of many that President George W. Bush controversially (see articles) used in attempting to project a strong unitary executive theory — one that he hoped would consolidate and expand Executive Branch power.

National Defense Authorization Act – Notable or controversial NDAA legislation

* National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, . This NDAA contains important (see article) hate crimes legislation.

National Defense Authorization Act – Notable or controversial NDAA legislation

* National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011, . This NDAA is formally named after Ike Skelton, a former long-term Congressman and Chairman of the United States House Committee on Armed Services|House Armed Services Committee from Missouri.

National Defense Authorization Act – Notable or controversial NDAA legislation

* National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, . This NDAA contains several controversial sections (see article), the chief being §§ 1021-1022, which affirm provisions authorizing the indefinite military detention of civilians, including U.S. citizens, without habeas corpus or due process, contained in the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists|Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), .

Authorization to Transport

An ‘authorization to transport’ [ATT] is a permit issued under the Canadian Firearms Program allowing transportation of restricted and prohibited firearms in Canada

Authorization to Transport

While not a specific requirement under the Firearms Act, ATTs issued for regular trips for up to five years are usually reserved for people who belong to an approved shooting range

Authorization to Transport

In theory, a CFO should issue an ATT to any authorized individual who provides one of the listed reasons, as long as the CFO is satisfied that the transport will not endanger public safety. A CFO can impose a variety of conditions on an ATT, under section 58(1) of the Firearms Act. Exercise of this discretion has led to proposed litigation against the CFO in Ontario.[http://www.sunnewsnetwork.ca/sunnews/politics/archives/2013/01/20130128-153941.html]

Authorization to Transport

In order to transport a restricted or prohibited firearm it must be unloaded. It also must have a functional trigger lock and be kept in a locked case. Ammunition may be carried with the firearm or separately stored, provided it is not loaded in the gun (i.e., magazines may contain ammo, but may not be loaded in the firearm).

Authorization to Transport

Restricted firearms include, but are not limited to, handguns. All handguns are, at a minimum, restricted in Canada. Many handguns (common in the United States) are prohibited firearms in Canada, as their barrel length is 105mm or less, or they are a prohibited caliber.[http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-46/page-42.html#h-37]

Invasion of Canada (1775) – Congressional authorization

The First Continental Congress, meeting in 1774, had previously invited the French-Canadians to join in a second meeting of the Congress to be held in May 1775, in a Letters to the inhabitants of Canada|public letter dated October 26, 1774. The Second Continental Congress sent a second such letter in May 1775, but there was no substantive response to either one.#Alden|Alden, pp. 195–198

Invasion of Canada (1775) – Congressional authorization

Following the capture of Ticonderoga, Arnold and Allen noted that it was necessary to hold Ticonderoga as a defense against attempts by the British to militarily divide the colonies, and also noted that Quebec was poorly defended

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Attenuation

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Attenuation

Optical fiber – Mechanisms of attenuation

Empirical research has shown that attenuation in optical fiber is caused primarily by both scattering and absorption.

Particle size distribution – Acoustic spectroscopy or ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy

The resulting ultrasound attenuation frequency spectra are the raw data for calculating particle size distribution

Alzheimer’s disease research – Metal-protein interaction attenuation

PBT2 is an 8-hydroxy quinoline that removes copper and zinc from cerebrospinal fluid, which are held to be necessary catalysts for amyloid beta aggregation. This drug has been in a Phase II trial for early Alzheimers and which has reported preliminarily promising, but not detailed, results.

Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy

‘Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy’ is a method for characterizing properties of fluids and dispersed particles. It is also known as ‘acoustic spectroscopy’

Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy

There is an international standard for this method. ISO 20998-1:2006 Measurement and characterization of particles by acoustic methodsDukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J. Ultrasound for characterizing colloids, Elsevier, 2002

Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy

Measurement of attenuation coefficient versus ultrasound frequency yields raw data for further calculation of various system properties. Such raw data are often used in the calculation of the particle size distribution in heterogeneous systems such as emulsions and colloids. In the case of acoustic rheometers, the raw data are converted into extensional viscosity or volume viscosity.

Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy

Instruments that employ ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy are referred to as Acoustic spectrometers.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, ‘attenuation’ (in some contexts also called ‘extinction’) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium. For instance, sunlight is attenuated by dark glasses, X-rays are attenuated by lead, and light and sound are attenuated by water.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation)

In electrical engineering and telecommunications, attenuation affects the propagation of waves and signals in electrical circuits, in optical fibers, and in air (radio waves).

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Background

In many cases, attenuation is an exponential function of the path length through the medium. In chemical spectroscopy, this is known as the Beer-Lambert law.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Background

In engineering, attenuation is usually measured in units of decibels per unit length of medium (dB/cm, dB/km, etc.) and is represented by the attenuation coefficient of the medium in question.Essentials of Ultrasound Physics, James A. Zagzebski, Mosby Inc., 1996.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Background

Attenuation also occurs in earthquakes; when the seismic waves move farther away from the epicenter, they grow smaller as they are attenuated by the Earth|ground.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Ultrasound

By knowing the attenuation that an ultrasound beam experiences traveling through a medium, one can adjust the input signal amplitude to compensate for any loss of energy at the desired imaging depth.Diagnostic Ultrasound, Stewart C

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Ultrasound

*Ultrasound attenuation measurement in heterogeneous systems, like emulsions or colloids, yields information on particle size distribution. There is an ISO standard on this technique.ISO 20998-1:2006 Measurement and characterization of particles by acoustic methods

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Ultrasound

*Ultrasound attenuation can be used for extensional rheology measurement. There are acoustic rheometers that employ Stokes’ law for measuring extensional viscosity and volume viscosity.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Ultrasound

Wave equations which take acoustic attenuation into account can be written on a fractional derivative form, see the article on acoustic attenuation or e.g. the survey paper.S. P. Näsholm and S. Holm, On a Fractional Zener Elastic Wave Equation, Fract. Calc. Appl. Anal. Vol. 16, No 1 (2013), pp. 26-50, DOI: 10.2478/s13540-013–0003-1 [http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4024 Link to e-print]

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficients are used to quantify different media according to how strongly the transmitted ultrasound amplitude decreases as a function of frequency. The attenuation coefficient (\alpha) can be used to determine total attenuation in decibel|dB in the medium using the following formula:

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Attenuation coefficient

As this equation shows, besides the medium length and attenuation coefficient, attenuation is also linearly dependent on the frequency of the incident ultrasound beam. Attenuation coefficients vary widely for different media. In biomedical ultrasound imaging however, biological materials and water are the most commonly used media. The attenuation coefficients of common biological materials at a frequency of 1MHz are listed below:

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Attenuation coefficient

There are two general ways of acoustic energy losses: absorption (acoustics)|absorption and scattering, for instance light scattering.Bohren,C. F. and Huffman, D.R. Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, Wiley, (1983), isbn= 0-471-29340-7

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Attenuation coefficient

Ultrasound propagation through Homogeneous (chemistry)|homogeneous media is associated only with absorption and can be characterized with absorption coefficient only. Propagation through heterogeneous media requires taking into account scattering.Dukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J. Ultrasound for characterizing colloids, Elsevier, 2002 Fractional derivative wave equations can be applied for modeling of lossy acoustical wave propagation, see also acoustic attenuation and Ref.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Light attenuation in water

Shortwave radiation emitted from the sun wavelengths in the visible spectrum of light that range from 360nm (violet) to 750nm (red). When the sun’s radiation reaches the sea-surface, the shortwave radiation is attenuated by the water, and the intensity of light decreases exponentially with water depth. The intensity of light at depth can be calculated using the Beer-Lambert Law.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Light attenuation in water

In clear open waters, visible light is absorbed at the longest wavelengths first. Thus, red, orange, and yellow wavelengths are absorbed at higher water depths, and blue and violet wavelengths reach the deepest in the water column. Because the blue and violet wavelengths are absorbed last compared to the other wavelengths, open ocean waters appear deep-blue to the eye.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Light attenuation in water

In near-shore (coastal) waters, sea water contains more phytoplankton than the very clear central ocean waters

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Earthquake

The energy with which an earthquake affects a location depends on the running distance. The attenuation in the signal of ground motion intensity plays an important role in the assessment of possible strong groundshaking. A seismic wave loses energy as it propagates through the earth (attenuation). This phenomenon is tied in to the Dispersive mass transfer|dispersion of the seismic energy with the distance. There are two types of Dissipation|dissipated energy:

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Earthquake

* geometric dispersion caused by distribution of the seismic energy to greater volumes

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Electromagnetic

Attenuation decreases the intensity of electromagnetic radiation due to absorption (electromagnetic radiation)|absorption or scattering of photons. Attenuation does not include the decrease in intensity due to inverse-square law geometric spreading. Therefore, calculation of the total change in intensity involves both the inverse-square law and an estimation of attenuation over the path.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Electromagnetic

The primary causes of attenuation in matter are the photoelectric effect, compton scattering, and, for photon energies of above 1.022 MeV, pair production.

Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation) – Radiography

See Attenuation coefficient.

Oncolytic virus – Attenuation

Attenuation involves deleting viral genes, or gene regions, to eliminate viral functions that are expendable in tumour cells, but not in normal cells, thus making the virus safer and more tumour-specific

Oncolytic virus – Attenuation

The enzymes thymidine kinase and ribonucleotide reductase in cells are responsible for DNA replication|DNA synthesis and are only expressed in cells which are actively replicating. These enzymes also exist in the genomes of certain viruses (E.g. HSV, vaccinia) and allow viral replication in G0 phase|quiescent(non-replicating) cells, so if they are inactivated by mutation the virus will only be able to replicate in proliferating cells, such as cancer cells.

Fiber-optic communication – Attenuation

Other forms of attenuation are caused by physical stresses to the fiber, microscopic fluctuations in density, and imperfect splicing techniques.

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

X-ray photons used for medical purposes are formed by an event involving an electron, while gamma ray photons are formed from an interaction with the nucleus of an atom.Radiation Detection and Measurement 3rd Edition,

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

Glenn F. Knoll : Chapter 1, Page 1: John Wiley Sons; 3rd Edition (26 January 21615461651: ISBN 0-471-07338-5 In general, medical radiography is done using X-rays formed in an X-ray tube. Nuclear medicine typically involves gamma rays.

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

The types of electromagnetic radiation of most interest to radiography are X-ray and gamma radiation. This radiation is much more energy|energetic than the more familiar types such as radio waves and visible light. It is this relatively high energy which makes gamma rays useful in radiography but potentially hazardous to living organisms.

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

The radiation is produced by X-ray tubes, high energy X-ray equipment or natural radioactive elements, such as radium and radon, and artificially produced radioactive isotopes of elements, such as Cobalt#Isotopes|cobalt-60 and Iridium#Isotopes|iridium-192

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

Gamma rays are indirectly ionizing radiation

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

For the range of energies commonly used in radiography, the interaction between gamma rays and electrons occurs in two ways

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

In both of these effects the emergent electrons lose their kinetic energy by ionizing surrounding atoms. The density of ions so generated is a measure of the energy delivered to the material by the gamma rays.

Radiography – Theory of X-ray attenuation

The most common means of measuring the variations in a beam of radiation is by observing its effect on a photographic film. This effect is the same as that of light, and the more intense the radiation is, the more it darkens, or Exposure (photography)|exposes, the film. Other methods are in use, such as the ionizing effect measured electronically, its ability to discharge an electrostatically charged plate or to cause certain chemicals to florescence|fluoresce as in fluoroscopy.

Weather radar – Attenuation

Microwaves used in weather radars can be absorbed by rain, depending on the wavelength used. For 10 cm radars, this attenuation is negligible. That is the reason why countries with high water content storms are using 10cm wavelength, for example the US NEXRAD. The cost of a larger antenna, klystron and other related equipment is offset by this benefit.

Weather radar – Attenuation

For a 5cm radar, absorption becomes important in heavy rain and this attenuation leads to underestimation of echoes in and beyond a strong thunderstorm

Weather radar – Attenuation

Shorter wavelengths are even more attenuated and are only useful on short range radar. Many television stations in the United States have 3cm radars to cover their audience area. Knowing their limitations and using them with the local NEXRAD can supplement the data available to a meteorologist.

Transparency (optics) – Mechanisms of attenuation

Light leakage due to bending, splices, connectors, or other outside forces are other factors resulting in attenuation.

Contrast media – X-ray attenuation

Iodine and barium are the most common types of contrast medium for enhancing x-ray-based imaging methods

Compliance (physiology) – Natural factors of attenuation of the reduction on arterial compliance

A study concluded that arterial compliance, which diminishes with menopause, was significantly improved with red clover isoflavones

Compliance (physiology) – Natural factors of attenuation of the reduction on arterial compliance

Another study concluded that one important measure of arterial health, systemic arterial compliance, was significantly improved in perimenopausal and menopausal women taking soy isoflavones to about the same extent as is achieved with conventional hormone replacement therapy.

Attenuation coefficient

:For attenuation coefficient as it applies to electromagnetic theory and telecommunications see Attenuation constant|propagation constant. For the mass attenuation coefficient, see the article mass attenuation coefficient.

Attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficient is measured using units of reciprocal length.

Attenuation coefficient

The attenuation coefficient is also called ‘linear attenuation coefficient’, ‘pencil beam|narrow beam attenuation coefficient’. Although all four terms are often used interchangeably, they can occasionally have a subtle distinction, as explained #Attenuation versus absorption|below.

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

The attenuation coefficient describes the extent to which the intensity of an energy beam is reduced as it passes through a specific material. This might be a beam of electromagnetic radiation or sound.

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

*It is used in the context of X-rays or Gamma rays, where it is represented using the symbol \mu, and measured in cm?1.

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

*It is used in the context of neutrons and nuclear reactors, where it called macroscopic cross section (although actually it is not a section dimensionally speaking) being represented using the symbol \Sigma, and measured in m?1.

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

*It is also used for modeling visible spectrum|solar and infrared radiative transfer in the atmosphere, albeit usually denoted with another symbol (given the standard use of \mu = \cos(\theta) for slant paths).

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

*In the case of ultrasound attenuation it is usually denoted as \alpha and measured in dB/cm/MHz.ISO 20998-1:2006 Measurement and characterization of particles by acoustic methodsDukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J. Ultrasound for characterizing colloids, Elsevier, 2002

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

*The attenuation coefficient is widely used in acoustics for characterizing particle size distribution. A common unit in this contexts is inverse metres, and the most common symbol is the Greek letter \alpha.

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

*It is also used in acoustics for quantifying how well a wall in a building absorbs sound. Wallace Sabine was a pioneer of this concept. A unit named in his honor is the sabin: the absorption by a slab of perfectly absorptive material (the same amount of sound loss as if there were a 1-square-metre window). Note that the sabin is not a unit of attenuation coefficient; rather, it is the unit of a related quantity.

Attenuation coefficient – Overview

Generally, for electromagnetic radiation, the higher the energy of the incident photons and the less dense the material in question, the lower the corresponding linear attenuation coefficient will be.

Attenuation coefficient – Definitions and formulae

The measured intensity I of transmitted through a layer of material with thickness z is related to the incident intensity I_0 according to the inverse exponential power law that is usually referred to as Beer–Lambert law:

Attenuation coefficient – Definitions and formulae

where z denotes the path length. The attenuation coefficient is \alpha (z’). If it is uniform, the situation is referred to as linear attenuation and the law simplifies:

Attenuation coefficient – Definitions and formulae

The Half Value Layer (HVL) signifies the thickness of a material required to reduce the intensity of the emergent radiation to half its incident magnitude. It is from these equations that engineers decide how much protection is needed for safety from potentially harmful radiation. The attenuation factor of a material is obtained by the ratio of the emergent and incident radiation intensities I/I_0.

Attenuation coefficient – Definitions and formulae

The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient are related such that the mass attenuation coefficient is simply \alpha/\rho, where \rho is the density in g/cm3. When this coefficient is used in the Beer-Lambert law, then mass thickness (defined as the mass per unit area) replaces the product of length times density.

Attenuation coefficient – Definitions and formulae

The linear attenuation coefficient is also inversely related to mean free path. Moreover, it is very closely related to the absorption cross section.

Attenuation coefficient – Attenuation versus absorption

The terms attenuation coefficient and absorption coefficient are generally used interchangeably. However, in certain situations they are distinguished, as follows. Bohren,C. F. and Huffman, D.R. Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, Wiley, (1983), isbn= 0-471-29340-7

Attenuation coefficient – Attenuation versus absorption

When a narrow (Collimated light|collimated) beam of light passes through a substance, the beam will lose intensity due to two processes: The light can be absorbed by the substance, or the light can be scattering|scattered (i.e., the photons can change direction) by the substance

Attenuation coefficient – Attenuation versus absorption

In this context, the absorption coefficient measures how quickly the beam would lose intensity due to the absorption alone, while attenuation coefficient measures the total loss of narrow-beam intensity, including scattering as well. Narrow-beam attenuation coefficient always unambiguously refers to the latter. The attenuation coefficient is always larger than the absorption coefficient, although they are equal in the idealized case of no scattering.

Fibre optic – Mechanisms of attenuation

Empirical research has shown that attenuation in optical fiber is caused primarily by both scattering and absorption (electromagnetic radiation)|absorption

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation)

‘Stokes law of sound attenuation’ is a formula for the attenuation of sound in a Newtonian fluid, such as water or air, due to the fluid’s viscosity. It states that the amplitude of a plane wave decreases exponential decay|exponentially with distance traveled, at a rate \alpha given by

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation)

where \eta is the dynamic viscosity|dynamic viscosity coefficient of the fluid, \omega is the sound’s frequency, \rho is the fluid density, and V is the sound speed|speed of sound in the medium:Stokes, G.G. On the theories of the internal friction in fluids in motion, and of the equilibrium and motion of elastic solids, Transaction of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol.8, 22, pp. 287-342 (1845

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation)

The law and its derivation were published in 1845 by physicist George Gabriel Stokes|G. G. Stokes, who also developed the well-known Stokes’ law for the friction force in fluid motion.

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation) – Interpretation

Stokes’ law applies to sound propagation in an isotropic and homogeneous Newtonian medium. Consider a plane sinusoidal pressure wave that has amplitude A_0 at some point. After traveling a distance d from that point, its amplitude A(d) will be

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation) – Interpretation

In the International System of Units (SI), it is expressed in neper per metre|meter or simply Multiplicative inverse|reciprocal of meter (\mathrm^). That is, if \alpha = 1 \mathrm^, the wave’s amplitude decreases by a factor of 1/e for each meter traveled.

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation) – Importance of volume viscosity

The law is amended to include a contribution by the volume viscosity \eta^\mathrm:

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation) – Importance of volume viscosity

The volume viscosity coefficient is relevant when the fluid’s compressibility cannot be ignored, such as in the case of ultrasound in water.Happel, J

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation) – Modification for very high frequencies

Stokes’s law is actually an asymptotic approximation for low frequencies of a more general formula:

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation) – Modification for very high frequencies

where the relaxation time \tau is given by:

Stokes’ law (sound attenuation) – Modification for very high frequencies

The relaxation time is about 10^ \mathrm (one picosecond), corresponding to a frequency of about 1000 GHz. Thus Stokes’ law is adequate for most practical situations.

Attenuation to crosstalk ratio

In order for a signal to be received with an acceptable bit error rate, the attenuation and the crosstalk must both be minimized

Attenuation to crosstalk ratio

Positive ACR calculations mean that transmitted signal strength is stronger than that of near-end crosstalk.[http://inetco.com.vn/list.aspx?cat=014], De-Mystifying Cabling Specifications – Important Definitions

RG-6 – Attenuation/signal loss

Cables attenuate the signal proportional with the length. Attenuation of higher frequency signals is greater than for frequencies down to about 7 MHz. Below 7 MHz the loss of RG-6 coaxial cables with a solid copper center conductor continues to decrease; however, the loss of RG-6 with a copper clad steel center conductor increases below 7 MHz because of skin effect.

Acoustic attenuation

Acoustic attenuation in a lossy medium plays an important role in many scientific researches and engineering fields, such as medical ultrasonography, vibration and noise reduction.

Acoustic attenuation – Power-law frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation

Many experimental and field measurements show that the acoustic attenuation coefficient of a wide range of Viscoelasticity|viscoelastic materials, such as soft tissue, polymers, soil and porous rock, can be expressed as the following power law with respect to frequency:Szabo T

Acoustic attenuation – Power-law frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation

S., 1986, “Frequency dependence of ultrasound attenuation and backscatter in breast tissue,” Ultrasound Med

Acoustic attenuation – Power-law frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation

695-703, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.09.033 [http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6507 Link to e-print] for a recent paper which compares fractional wave equations which model power-law attenuation

Acoustic attenuation – Power-law frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation

The phenomenon of attenuation obeying a frequency power-law may be described using a causal wave equation, derived from a fractional constitutive equation between stress and strain. This wave equation incorporates fractional time derivatives:

Acoustic attenuation – Power-law frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation

See alsoS. Holm and S. P. Näsholm, A causal and fractional all-frequency wave equation for lossy media, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 130, Issue 4, pp. 2195-2201 (October 2011) and the references therein.

Acoustic attenuation – Power-law frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation

Holm, Linking multiple relaxation, power-law attenuation, and fractional wave equations, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 130, Issue 5, pp

Acoustic attenuation – Power-law frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation

For frequency band-limited waves, Ref.S. P. Näsholm: Model-based discrete relaxation process representation of band-limited power-law attenuation. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol. 133, Issue 3, pp. 1742-1750 (2013) DOI: 10.1121/1.4789001 [http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.5256 Link to e-print] describes a model-based method to attain causal power-law attenuation using a set of discrete relaxation mechanisms within the Nachman et al. framework.

Attenuator (genetics) – Small-molecule-mediated attenuation (riboswitches)

Riboswitch sequences (in the mRNA leader transcript) bind molecules such as amino acids, nucleotides, sugars, vitamins, metal ions and other small ligands which cause a conformational change in the mRNA. Most of these attenuators are inhibitory and are employed by genes for biosynthetic enzymes or transporters whose expression is inversely related to the concentration of their corresponding metabolites.

Attenuator (genetics) – Protein-mediated attenuation

Protein-RNA interactions may prevent or stabilize the formation of an anti-terminator structure.

Attenuator (genetics) – Ribosome-mediated attenuation

‘In this situation RNA polymerase’ is dependent on (lagging) ribosome activity; if the ribosome pauses due to insufficient charged tRNA then the anti-terminator structure is favoured. The canonical attenuator example of Attenuator (genetics)#Mechanism in the trp operon|the trp operon uses this mechanism in E. coli.

Attenuator (genetics) – Other operons controlled by attenuation

The discovery of this type of mechanism to control the expression of genes in a biosynthetic operon lead to its rediscovery in a wide variety of such operons for which repressors had never been discovered. For example:

Attenuator (genetics) – Attenuation in eukaryotes

Research conducted on microRNA processing showed an evidence of attenuation process in Eukaryotes. After co-transcriptional endonucleolitical cleavage by Drosha 5′- 3′ exonuclease XRN2 may terminate further transcription by torpedo mechanism.

Attenuation (disambiguation)

‘Attenuation’ is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium, including:

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Acoustic attenuation, the loss of sound energy in a viscous medium

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Anelastic attenuation factor, a way to describe attenuation of seismic energy in the earth

Attenuation (disambiguation)

‘Attenuation’ may also refer to:

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Attenuation (brewing), the percent of sugar converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide by the yeast in brewing

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Attenuation coefficient, a basic quantity used in calculations of the penetration of materials by quantum particles or other energy beams

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Mass attenuation coefficient, a measurement of how strongly a chemical species or substance absorbs or scatters light at a given wavelength, per unit mass

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Regression dilution, a cause of statistical bias

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* The process of producing an attenuated vaccine by reducing the virulence of a pathogen

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Attenuation constant, the real part of the propagation constant

Attenuation (disambiguation)

* Attenuator (genetics), form of regulation in prokaryotic cells.

Projectional radiography – X-ray attenuation

Conversely, areas on the image receptor that receive the least radiation (portions of the remnant beam experience the most attenuation) will be less exposed and will be processed as being lighter

Attenuation length

In physics, the ‘attenuation length’ or ‘absorption length’ is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a Elementary particle|particle has not been Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)|absorbed. Alternatively, if there is a beam of particles incident on the material, the attenuation length is the distance where the intensity (physics)|intensity of the beam has dropped to 1/e, or about 63% of the particles have been stopped.

Attenuation length

Mathematically, the probability of finding a particle at depth x into the material is calculated by Beer-Lambert law:

Doppler weather radar – Attenuation

Microwaves used in weather radars can be absorbed by rain, depending on the wavelength used. For 10cm radars, this attenuation is negligible. That is the reason why countries with high water content storms are using 10cm wavelength, for example the US NEXRAD. The cost of a larger antenna, klystron and other related equipment is offset by this benefit.

Laser beam profiler – Attenuation techniques

Since CCD sensors are highly sensitive, attenuation is almost always needed for proper beam profiling. For example, 40 dB (neutral density|ND 4 or 10?4) of attenuation is typical for a milliwatt HeNe laser. Proper attenuation has the following properties:

Laser beam profiler – Attenuation techniques

* It does not result in multiple reflections leaving a ghost image on the CCD sensor

Laser beam profiler – Attenuation techniques

* It does not result in interference fringes due to reflections between parallel surfaces or diffraction by defects

Laser beam profiler – Attenuation techniques

* It does not distort the wavefront and will be an optical element with sufficient optical flatness (less than one tenth of a wavelength) and homogeneity

Laser beam profiler – Attenuation techniques

* It can handle the required optical power

Laser beam profiler – Attenuation techniques

For laser beam profiling with CCD sensors, typically two types of attenuators are used: neutral density filters, and wedges or thick optical flats.

Pure tone audiometry – Cross hearing and interaural attenuation

When sound is applied to one ear the contralateral cochlea can also be stimulated to varying degrees, via vibrations through the bone of the skull

Pure tone audiometry – Cross hearing and interaural attenuation

A reduction or loss of energy occurs with cross hearing, which is referred to as interaural attenuation (IA) or transcranial transmission loss. IA varies with transducer type. It varies from 40 dB to 80 dB with supra-aural headphones. However, with insert earphones it is in the region of 55 dB. The use of insert earphones reduces the need for masking, due to the greater IA which occurs when they are used (See Figure 1).

Pure tone audiometry – Cross hearing and interaural attenuation

Air conduction results in isolation, give little information regarding the type of hearing loss

Mass attenuation coefficient

The ‘mass attenuation coefficient’ is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species or substance absorbance|absorbs or scattering|scatters light at a given wavelength, per unit mass. In addition to visible light, mass attenuation coefficients can be defined for other electromagnetic radiation (such as X-rays), sound, or any other beam that attenuates.

Mass attenuation coefficient

The mass attenuation coefficient is also called ‘mass absorption coefficient’ or ‘mass extinction coefficient’. Although all three terms are usually used interchangeably, they can occasionally have a subtle distinction, as explained #Attenuation versus absorption|below.

Mass attenuation coefficient

The mass extinction coefficient should not be confused with the different definition of index of refraction|extinction coefficient used more commonly in physics, namely the imaginary part of the complex index of refraction (which is unitless). In fact, they have a straightforward but nontrivial relationship; see Mathematical descriptions of opacity.

Mass attenuation coefficient – Defining equations

The defining equation for the mass attenuation coefficient is essentially a different way to write the Beer-Lambert law. The Beer-Lambert law is normally written

Mass attenuation coefficient – Defining equations

:I is the intensity of the beam at distance \ell into the substance,

Mass attenuation coefficient – Defining equations

:e is e (mathematical constant)|Euler’s number, about 2.718,

Mass attenuation coefficient – Defining equations

:\mu is the attenuation coefficient.

Mass attenuation coefficient – Defining equations

When discussing the mass attenuation coefficient, this equation is rewritten

Mass attenuation coefficient – Defining equations

:\rho is the density, (\mu/\rho) is the mass attenuation coefficient and \rho \ell is the area density known also as mass thickness.

Mass attenuation coefficient – Defining equations

In accordance with the above, the mass attenuation coefficient is equal to the attenuation coefficient divided by the density.

Mass attenuation coefficient – In solutions

In chemistry, mass attenuation coefficients are often used for a chemical species dissolved in a solution. In that case, the mass attenuation coefficient is defined by the same equation, except that the density is the density of only that one chemical species, and the attenuation is the attenuation due to only that one chemical species. The actual attenuation coefficient is computed by

Mass attenuation coefficient – In solutions

where each term in the sum is the mass attenuation coefficient and density of a different component of the solution (the solvent must also be included). This is a convenient concept because the mass attenuation coefficient of a species is approximately independent of its concentration (as long as Beer-Lambert law#Prerequisites|certain assumptions are fulfilled).

Mass attenuation coefficient – In solutions

A closely related concept is molar absorptivity. They are quantitatively related by:

Mass attenuation coefficient – In solutions

:(Mass attenuation coefficient)×(Molar mass) = (Molar absorptivity).

Mass attenuation coefficient – Units

The attenuation coefficient has units of inverse-length, while density has units of mass per volume. Since the mass attenuation coefficient is the ratio of these two, we find that it has units of (length-squared) per mass. The SI unit is m2kg-1. Other common units include cm2g-1 (the most common unit for X-ray mass attenuation coefficients) and mL×g-1cm-1 (sometimes used in solution chemistry).

Mass attenuation coefficient – Mass attenuation coefficients for X-rays

Tables of photon ‘mass attenuation coefficients’ are essential in radiological physics, radiography (for medical and security purposes), dosimetry, diffraction, interferometry, crystallography and other branches of physics. The photons can be in form of x-ray, gamma-ray, and bremsstrahlung.

Mass attenuation coefficient – Mass attenuation coefficients for X-rays

The values of mass attenuation coefficients are dependent upon the absorption (electromagnetic radiation)|absorption and scattering of the incident ray|incident radiation caused by several different mechanisms such as:

Mass attenuation coefficient – Mass attenuation coefficients for X-rays

*Pair production – electron-positron production in the fields of the nucleus and atomic electrons

Mass attenuation coefficient – Mass attenuation coefficients for X-rays

The actual values have been thoroughly examined and are available to the general public through three databases run by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST):

Mass attenuation coefficient – Calculating the composition of a solution

If several known chemicals are dissolved in a single solution, the concentrations of each can be calculated using a light absorption analysis. First, the mass attenuation coefficients of each individual solute or solvent, ideally across a broad spectrum of wavelengths, must be measured or looked up. Second, the attenuation coefficient of the actual solution must be measured. Finally, using the formula

Mass attenuation coefficient – Calculating the composition of a solution

the spectrum can be fitted using \rho_1,\rho_2,\ldots as adjustable parameters. (Remember, \mu and each (\mu/\rho)_i are functions of wavelength.)

Mass attenuation coefficient – Calculating the composition of a solution

If there are N solutes or solvents, this procedure requires at least N measured wavelengths to create a solvable system of simultaneous equations, although using more wavelengths gives more reliable data.

Mass attenuation coefficient – Attenuation versus absorption

The terms mass attenuation coefficient, mass absorption coefficient, and mass extinction coefficient are almost always used interchangeably. However, in certain situations they are distinguished, as follows.

Mass attenuation coefficient – Attenuation versus absorption

When a narrow (collimated) beam of light passes through a substance, the beam will lose intensity due to two processes: The light can be absorbed by the substance, or the light can be scattering|scattered (i.e., the photons can change direction) by the substance

Mass attenuation coefficient – Attenuation versus absorption

In this context, the mass absorption coefficient measures how quickly the beam would lose intensity due to the absorption alone, while mass attenuation coefficient measures the total loss of narrow-beam intensity, including scattering as well. The mass extinction coefficient can be either.

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Access Point

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Access Point

Wi-Fi Multiple access points

Except for the smallest implementations (such as home or small office networks), Wi-Fi implementations have moved toward “thin” access points, with more of the network intelligence housed in a centralized network appliance, relegating individual access points to the role of “dumb” transceivers

MobileMe – URL access points

There were subdirectory (private) and subdomain (public) access points to each MobileMe user’s individual account functions. These provided direct web access to each MobileMe user’s account, via links to each function directly. See list:

iCloud – URL access points

There are subdirectory (private) access points to each iCloud user’s individual account functions on the main iCloud.com portal. Once signed in, these provide web access to each iCloud user’s account via direct links to each function. See list:

iCloud – URL access points

As well as private subdirectory access points, the previous similar MobileMe service also had subdomains for public access to certain user account functions, which are not offered in iCloud.

WiFi – Multiple access points

Except for the smallest implementations (such as home or small office networks), Wi-Fi implementations have moved toward thin access points, with more of the network intelligence housed in a centralized network appliance, relegating individual access points to the role of dumb transceivers

Wireless access point

In computer networking, a ‘wireless access point’ (‘WAP’) is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards. The AP usually connects to a Router (computing)|router (via a wired network) as a standalone device, but it can also be an integral component of the router itself.

Wireless access point – Introduction

With the creation of the wireless Access Point (AP), network users are now able to add devices that access the network with few or no cables

Wireless access point – Common AP applications

The wireless access points are managed by a Wireless LAN controller|WLAN Controller which handles automatic adjustments to RF power, channels, authentication, and security

Wireless access point – Common AP applications

The concept has become common in large cities, where a combination of coffeehouses, libraries, as well as privately owned open access points, allow clients to stay more or less continuously connected to the Internet, while moving around

Wireless access point – Wireless access point vs. ad hoc network

An ad hoc network is used in situations such as a quick data exchange or a multiplayer LAN game because setup is easy and does not require an access point

Wireless access point – Wireless access point vs. ad hoc network

Internet access via ad hoc networks, using features like Microsoft Windows|Windows’ Internet Connection Sharing, may work well with a small number of devices that are close to each other, but ad hoc networks don’t scale well. Internet traffic will converge to the nodes with direct internet connection, potentially congesting these nodes. For internet-enabled nodes, access points have a clear advantage, with the possibility of having multiple access points connected by a wired LAN.

Wireless access point – Limitations

By 2012, 802.11n based access points and client devices have already taken a fair share of the marketplace and with the IEEE 802.11n-2009|finalization of the 802.11n standard in 2009 inherent problems integrating products from different vendors are less prevalent.

Wireless access point – Security

Wireless access has special security considerations. Many wired networks base the security on physical access control, trusting all the users on the local network, but if wireless access points are connected to the network, anybody within range of the AP (which typically extends farther than the intended area) can attach to the network.

Wireless access point – Security

The most common solution is wireless traffic encryption. Modern access points come with built-in encryption. The first generation encryption scheme Wired Equivalent Privacy|WEP proved easy to crack; the second and third generation schemes, Wi-Fi Protected Access|WPA and IEEE 802.11i|WPA2, are considered secure if a strong enough password or passphrase is used.

Wireless access point – Security

say that every wireless access point should be locked down with a password.

Wireless access point – Specialized APs

Unlike some home consumer models, industrial wireless access points can also act as a Wireless bridge|bridge, router, or a client.

SGSN – Access point

When a GPRS mobile phone sets up a PDP context, the access point

SGSN – Access point

This access point is then used in a Domain Name System|DNS query to a private DNS

SGSN – Access point

address of the GGSN which should serve the access point. At this

Inter-Access Point Protocol

‘IEEE 802.11F’ or Inter-Access Point Protocol is a recommendation that describes an optional extension to IEEE 802.11 that provides wireless access point communications among multivendor systems.[http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.11F-2003.pdf The 802.11F-2003 Recommendation] 802.11 is a set of IEEE standards that govern wireless networking transmission methods

Inter-Access Point Protocol

The IEEE 802.11 standard doesn’t specify the communications between access points in order to support users roaming from one access point to another and Load_balancing_(computing)|load balancing. The 802.11 WG purposely didn’t define this element in order to provide flexibility in working with different wired and wireless distribution systems (i.e., wired backbones that interconnect access points).

Inter-Access Point Protocol – Protocol operation

The protocol is designed for the enforcement of unique association throughout an Extended Service Set and for secure exchange of station’s security context between the current wireless access point|Access Point (AP) and the new AP during the handoff period. Based on security level, communication session keys between Access Points are distributed by a RADIUS server. The RADIUS server also provides a mapping service between AP’s MAC address and IP address.

Trainer (games) – Static access pointers vs. API hooking

Searching and following access pointers reverse to pointers on static memory can be cumbersome. It doesn’t provide the size of the object and if there are multiple objects of the same class, these often can’t be handled correctly as there can be e.g. vectors or lists in between on the heap. But the advantage is that this method can be used to attach to an already running process if it works.

Rogue access point

Rogue access points of the second kind target networks that do not employ mutual authentication (client-server server-client) and may be used in conjunction with a rogue RADIUS server, depending on security configuration of the target network

Rogue access point

To prevent the installation of rogue access points, organizations can install wireless intrusion prevention systems to monitor the radio spectrum for unauthorized access points.

Rogue access point

Presence of a large number of wireless access points can be sensed in airspace of a typical enterprise facility. These include managed access points in the secure network plus access points in the neighborhood. A wireless intrusion prevention system facilitates the job of auditing these access points on a continuous basis to learn whether there are any rogue access points among them.

Rogue access point

In order to detect rogue access points, two conditions need to be tested:

Rogue access point

However, automated testing of the second condition can become challenging in the light of following factors: a) Need to cover different types of access point devices such as bridging, NAT (router), unencrypted wireless links, encrypted wireless links, different types of relations between wired and wireless MAC addresses of access points, and soft access points, b) necessity to determine access point connectivity with acceptable response time in large networks, and c) requirement to avoid both false positives and negatives which are described below

Rogue access point

False positive (crying wolf) occurs when the wireless intrusion prevention system detects an access point not actually connected to the secure network as wired rogue. Frequent false positives result in wastage of administrative bandwidth spent in chasing them. Possibility of false positives also creates hindrance to enabling automated blocking of wired rogues due to the fear of blocking friendly neighborhood access point.

Rogue access point

False negative occurs when the wireless intrusion prevention system fails to detect an access point actually connected to the secure network as wired rogue. False negatives result in security holes.

Rogue access point

Among the external access points, if any is found to be mischievous or potential risk (e.g., whose settings can attract or have already attracted secure network wireless clients), it is tagged as rogue access point of the second kind, which is often called an Evil twin (wireless networks)|evil twin.

Rogue access point – Soft Rogue Access Point

If any employee sets up a soft Access Point on their machine inside the corporate premises and share the corporate network through it, then this soft AP behaves as Rogue AP.

Wireless security – Open access points

Many people consider it proper etiquette to leave access points open to the public, allowing free access to Internet

Wireless security – Open access points

The density of access points can even be a problem – there are a limited number of channels available, and they partly overlap. Each channel can handle multiple networks, but places with many private wireless networks (for example, apartment complexes), the limited number of Wi-Fi radio channels might cause slowness and other problems.

Wireless security – Open access points

According to the advocates of Open Access Points, it shouldn’t involve any significant risks to open up wireless networks for the public:

Wireless security – Open access points

Thus the exposure is low with an open wireless access point, and the risks with having an open wireless network are small

Wireless security – Open access points

On the other hand, in some countries including Germany,http://netzpolitik.org/2006/offene-netzwerke-auch-fuer-deutschland/ persons providing an open access point may be made (partially) liable for any illegal activity conducted via this access point. Also, many contracts with ISPs specify that the connection may not be shared with other persons.

Beach – Creation of beach access points

These measures are often associated with the construction of structures at these access points to allow traffic to pass over or through the dunes without causing further damage.

Access Point Name

An ‘Access Point Name’ (APN) is the name of a Gateway (telecommunications)|gateway between a GPRS, 3G or 4G mobile network and another computer network, frequently the public Internet.

Service Access Point

A ‘Service Access Point’ (‘SAP’) is an identifying label for network endpoints used in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking.

Service Access Point

The SAP is a conceptual location at which one OSI layer can request the services of another OSI layer. As an example, PD-SAP or PLME-SAP in IEEE 802.15.4 can be mentioned, where the Media Access Control (MAC) layer requests certain services from the Physical Layer. Service access points are also used in IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control in Ethernet and similar Data Link Layer protocols.

Service Access Point

OSI Application Layer protocols as well as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) can use Transport (TSAP), Session (SSAP) or Presentation (PSAP) Service Access Points to specify a destination address for a connection

Access Point (Antarctica)

‘Access Point’ is a rocky point immediately southeast of Biscoe Point and northwest of Cape Lancaster on the south side of Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. First charted by the French Antarctic Expedition under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, 1903–05. Surveyed in 1955 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) and so named because there is a landing place for boats on the northwest tip of the point which provides access to the inland parts of the island.

Access Point (disambiguation)

*Wireless access point, a device to connect to a wireless computer network

Access Point (disambiguation)

*Subject access point, a method in a bibliographic database by which books, journals, and other documents are accessed

Aruba Networks – Access Points

Wireless access points from Aruba are targeted at the corporate market and support the IEEE 802.11n-2009|IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11ac standards. Some APs can use external antennas both for improved indoor-coverage or outdoor usage. One model AP is weather-proof to be used with up to 4 external antennas. All Aruba access points offer ARM: Adaptive Radio Management, integrated security features, integrated spectrum analysis and support mesh features for campus-wide deployment.

Aruba Networks – Instant Access Points

The Aruba Instant solution uses a dynamically-elected Wireless access point|access point to distribute a network over the air. There are five AP series and two Remote Access Point series that offer: Adaptive Radio Management (ARM) technology, built-in security features, easy set-up and software updating, and no deployment limits.

Aruba Networks – Remote Access Points

For small branches or working from home Aruba offers ‘RAPs’: Remote Access Points that communicate with Aruba’s #Mobility Controllers|Mobility Controller. There are several RAPs: small single-radio AP’s, a wired-only device and multi-user wired/wireless models.

Access point base station

Femtocells are an alternative way to deliver the benefits of Technological convergence#Fixed-mobile Convergence|fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The distinction is that most FMC architectures require a new (dual-mode) handset which works with existing unlicensed spectrum home/enterprise wireless access points, while a femtocell-based deployment will work with existing handsets but requires installation of a new access point that uses licensed spectrum.

Access point base station – Standardised architectures

# The femtocell access points themselves, which embody greater network functionality than found in macrocell basestations, such as the radio resource control functions. This allows much greater autonomy within the femtocell, enabling self-configuration and self-optimisation. Femtocells are connected using broadband IP, such as DSL or cable modems, to the network operator’s core switching centres.

Access point base station – Standardised architectures

The key interface in these architectures is that between the femtocell access points and the femtocell gateway

Access point base station – Lawful interception

Access point base stations, in common with all other public communications systems, are, in most countries, required to comply with lawful interception requirements.

Access point base station – Equipment location

There are issues in this regard for access point base stations sold to consumers for home installation, for example

Access point base station – Emergency calls

Access Point Base Stations are also required, since carrying voice calls, to provide a 9-1-1|911 (or 999 (emergency telephone number)|999, 1-1-2|112, emergency telephone number|etc.) emergency service, as is the case for VoIP phone providers in some jurisdictions

Access point base station – Quality of service

When using an ethernet or ADSL home backhaul connection, an Access Point Base Station must either share the backhaul bandwidth with other services, such as Internet browsing, gaming consoles, set-top boxes and triple play (telecommunications)|triple-play equipment in general, or alternatively directly replace these functions within an integrated unit. In shared-bandwidth approaches, which are the majority of designs currently being developed, the effect on quality of service may be an issue.

Network Service Access Point Identifier

A ‘Network (Layer) Service Access Point Identifier’ (‘NSAPI’), is an identifier used in GPRS (cellular data) networks.

ITunes Match – URL access points for web apps

There are subdirectory (private) access points to each iCloud user’s individual account web application|web apps via the main iCloud.com portal. Once signed in, these provide web access to each iCloud user’s account via direct links to each web app.

Manchester Network Access Point

‘Manchester Network Access Point’ is the Manchester-based internet exchange point (IXP). The access point provides an exchange point for internet service providers and businesses in northern England and the Midlands and is the only access point outside London.

Manchester Network Access Point – History

In June 1997 Manchester Network Access Point Ltd (MaNAP) was formed as a not-for-profit regional Internet exchange. In April 2005, MaNAP was taken over by NWIX Group Ltd and the network was expanded to better serve the North West region. MaNAP remained on a not-for-profit basis.

Connecticut River Greenway State Park – River access points

There are over 12 miles of permanently protected shoreline, and numerous access points to the river. The DCR has identified the following places where the river can be tackled:

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