Enterprise Resource Planning, 1st Edition by Mary Sumner
Chapter 3:
Planning, Design, and Implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems
Objective
Understand the information systems development process for enterprise systems, including planning, design, and implementation
Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
Detailed analysis of system using tools and techniques to determine problem areas
Process models
Data models
Phases
Problem definition
Feasibility study
Systems analysis
Systems design
Detailed design
Implementation
Maintenance

Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle, continued
Automating current system is counter-productive
Inherit old problems and flaws
Provides opportunity to re-engineer current system
Create logical database design before details are refined
Takes too much time
Uses a great deal of resources
Expensive

New Approaches
Prototyping
Models shown to end-users for feedback, guidance
Not necessarily faster
End-user development
End-users create information systems using spreadsheets and databases
Not effective for large-scale development
Software packages
Economies of scale in development, enhancement, maintenance
ERP Systems Design Process
Phases
Planning
Requirements analysis
Design
Detailed design
Implementation
Maintenance
Planning and Requirements Phases
Planning
Needs assessment
Business justification
Tangible and intangible benefits
Requirements analysis
Identify business processes to be supported
Best practices offered by vendors
Models of supported functions
Checklist of activities and factors

Design Phase
Re-engineering business processes to fit software
Traditional SDLC defines new business requirements and implements conforming software
Re-engineering versus customization
Re-engineering can disrupt organization
Changes in workflow, procedures
Customizing
Upgrading can be difficult
Alternative Designs
Vanilla
Easy to implement
Follow vendor prescribed methodology
Employ consultants with specialized vendor expertise
Usually on time and on budget implementations
Customized
Time and costs increase
Not easily integrated into new version

Alternative Designs, continued
Maintain legacy systems and add ERP modules
Support specific functions
Cost-effective
Organization doesn’ t get full benefit of ERP
Less disruptive
Lacks integration
Outsourcing
External vendor operates
ASPs provide on time-sharing basis
Depends on reliability and stability of vendor

Detailed Design Phase
Team selects the models, processes, and information to be supported
Best practices methodology provides models
Select applicable business processes
Discard inapplicable processes
Those processes that do not match the system will serve as foundation for re-engineering
Identify any areas not covered as candidates for customization
Interactive prototyping
Extensive user involvement

Implementation Phase
Implementation
Address configuration issues
Data ownership and management
Security issues
Migrate data
Ensure accuracy
Build interfaces
Documentation review
User training
Reporting
Testing

Implementation Strategies
Big bang
Cutover approach
Rapid
Requires many resources
Small firms can employ
Mini big bang
Partial vendor implementation
Phased by module
Module-by-module
Good for large projects
Phased by site
Location-based implementation
Case: Response to Request for Proposal for an ERP System
Wingate Electric
Mid-sized manufacturer of electric motors
Owned by Dick, CEO, and Steve, COO
MIS system
Supports major accounting and financial functions
Sales order processing, inventory control, accounts payable, accounts receivable, general ledger
Multiple legacy systems
Redundant data
Inconsistent data
Queries difficult

Case: Response to Request for Proposal for an ERP System, continued
Competitors adopting ERP systems
Integrating financial and manufacturing
Web-based front ends
Order processing, tracking, follow-up
RFP for ERP system
Initially to support accounting, financials
Additional support for production, manufacturing
Eventual support for sales and marketing, HR, CRM, eBusiness
$1,000,000 budget for system
Determination made by five executives, representing different user groups
10 scored criteria
Vendor presentations, supplemental materials

Summary
Traditional SDLC has been modified by the use of prototyping, end-user developments, and software packages
ERP systems design process consists of six phases: planning, requirements analysis, design, detailed design, implementation, and maintenance
The design phase considers the use of traditional methods, re-engineering, and customization, as well as outsourcing

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