CSI – Principles
CSI & Organizational Change
It is important to identify and differentiate between two basic
role groupings within CSI: production vs. project.
Production: focus on CSI as a way of life within an
organization. Include permanent roles that deal with ongoing
service improvement efforts.
Project: reflects more traditional approach to improvement
efforts based on formal programs and projects.
External & Internal Drivers
There are two major areas within every organization driving
Aspects which are external to the organization such as
regulation, legislation, competition, external customer
requirements, market pressures and economics.
Aspects which are internal to the organization such as
organizational structures, culture, capacity to accept change, existing and projected staffing levels, union rules etc.
Benchmarking is a process used in management,
particularly strategic management, in which organizations
evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to
best practices, usually within their own sector.
This allows organizations to develop plans on how to
adopt such best practice, usually with the aim of
increasing some aspect of performance.
Benchmarking may be a one-time event, but is often
treated as a continual process in which organizations
continually seek to challenge their practices.
Benchmarking – as a Lever
Benchmarking is sometimes the only way to persuade
organization in to adopting new methods and tools that
improve their effectiveness and efficiency. Presenting the
facts with the support of proven ‘best practice’ can
combat resistance to change.
“We don’t need to change, we’ve always done it this way and its worked fine most of the time”
Benchmarking – Steering Instrument
Benchmarking is a management technique to improve
It provides an ongoing method of measuring and improving
products, services and practices against the best that can be
found in any industry anywhere.
It has been defined as ‘the search for industry best
practices which lead to superior performance’.
Benchmarking is a great tool for identifying improvement
areas and evaluating improvement implementation
activities. Organizations can conduct internal or external
Improving service management can be as simple as: ‘Are
we better today than we were yesterday?’
These are incremental improvements.
Benchmarking – Value
Benchmarking is the basis for:
Profiling quality in the market
Boosting self confidence and pride in employees as well as motivating and tying employees to an organization.
Trust from customers that the organization is a good IT service management provider.
Benchmarking – Benefits
Benchmarking reveals quick wins: opportunities for
improvement that are easy and cheap to implement, but
that will provide substantial benefit e.g. within process
effectiveness, reduced costs, staff resourcing.
When benchmarking is used successfully the costs of
change will be more than repaid through the
Identify problem areas. Because benchmarking can be
applied to any business process or function, a range of
research techniques may be required. They include:
Informal conversations with customers, employees, or suppliers
In-depth marketing research
Financial ratio analysis
Quality control variance reports
Benchmarking is a moderately expensive process, but
most organizations find that it more than pays for itself.
The 3 main types of costs are:
Benchmarking database costs
Within an organization there will be 3 parties involved in
The user or consumer
The internal service provider
There will also be participation from external parties:
External service providers
Members of the public
Complimentary Industry Guidance?
Governance has been around the IT arena for decades.
IT is forced to comply with sweeping legislation and an
ever increasing number of external regulations.
IT organizations must operate under full transparency.
“IT governance is the responsibility of the board of
directors and executive management.
It is an integral part of enterprise governance and
consists of the leadership, organizational structures
and processes that ensure that the organization’s IT
sustains and extends the organization’s strategies
Source: Board briefing on IT Governance, 2nd Edition, 2003,
IT Governance Institute – ITGI
Governance, Standards & Frameworks
Process Maturity – CMMi
The CMMI v1.2 contains 22 process areas:
CMMI Causal Analysis and Resolution
CMMI Configuration Management
CMMI Decision Analysis and Resolution
CMMI Integrated Project Management
CMMI Measurement and Analysis
CMMI Organizational Innovation and Deployment
CMMI Organizational Process Definition
CMMI Organizational Process Focus
CMMI Organizational Process Performance
CMMI Organizational Training
CMMI Product Integration
CMMI Project Monitoring and Control
CMMI Project Planning
CMMI Process and Product Quality Assurance
CMMI Quantitative Project Management
CMMI Requirements Development
CMMI Requirements Management
CMMI Risk Management
CMMI Supplier Agreement Management
CMMI Technical Solution
Recognizing some of the weaknesses and vagueness of
previous management approaches, the balanced scorecard
approach provides a clear prescription as to what companies
should measure in order to ‘balance’ the financial perspective.
There are distinct advantages of tying an organization’s
ITSM processes, and Service Operation processes in
particular, to its quality management system. If an
organization has a formal quality management system such as
ISO9000 and Six Sigma. Then this can be used to assess
progress regularly and drive forward agreed service
improvement initiatives through regular reviews and reporting.
Around the same time ITIL Version 1 was being written, the
International Standards Organization launched an initiative that
resulted in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) framework.
Although ITIL and OSI cover much of the same ground their
processes are classified differently and
use different terminology.
Pioneered by Motorola in 1986 and originally defined as a
metric for measuring defects and improving quality, and a
methodology to reduce defect levels below six standard
deviations or six sigma.
In 1995 is was implemented by GE and has since
become the most widely recognized and accepted quality
system in the world.