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CSI – Principles


CSI & Organizational Change

Role Definitions

It is important to identify and differentiate between two basic

role groupings within CSI: production vs. project.

Production: focus on CSI as a way of life within an

organization. Include permanent roles that deal with ongoing

service improvement efforts.

Project: reflects more traditional approach to improvement

efforts based on formal programs and projects.

External & Internal Drivers

There are two major areas within every organization driving


Aspects which are external to the organization such as

regulation, legislation, competition, external customer

requirements, market pressures and economics.

Aspects which are internal to the organization such as

organizational structures, culture, capacity to accept change, existing and projected staffing levels, union rules etc.

Knowledge Management


Benchmarking is a process used in management,

particularly strategic management, in which organizations

evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to

best practices, usually within their own sector.

This allows organizations to develop plans on how to

adopt such best practice, usually with the aim of

increasing some aspect of performance.


Benchmarking may be a one-time event, but is often

treated as a continual process in which organizations

continually seek to challenge their practices.

Benchmarking – as a Lever

Benchmarking is sometimes the only way to persuade

organization in to adopting new methods and tools that

improve their effectiveness and efficiency. Presenting the

facts with the support of proven ‘best practice’ can

combat resistance to change.

“We don’t need to change, we’ve always done it this way and its worked fine most of the time”

Benchmarking – Steering Instrument

Benchmarking is a management technique to improve


It provides an ongoing method of measuring and improving

products, services and practices against the best that can be

found in any industry anywhere.

It has been defined as ‘the search for industry best

practices which lead to superior performance’.

Benchmarking categories

Benchmarking is a great tool for identifying improvement

areas and evaluating improvement implementation

activities. Organizations can conduct internal or external

benchmark studies.

Improving service management can be as simple as: ‘Are

we better today than we were yesterday?’

These are incremental improvements.

Benchmarking – Value

Benchmarking is the basis for:

Profiling quality in the market

Boosting self confidence and pride in employees as well as motivating and tying employees to an organization.

Trust from customers that the organization is a good IT service management provider.

Benchmarking – Benefits

Benchmarking reveals quick wins: opportunities for

improvement that are easy and cheap to implement, but

that will provide substantial benefit e.g. within process

effectiveness, reduced costs, staff resourcing.

When benchmarking is used successfully the costs of

change will be more than repaid through the

improvements implemented.

Benchmarking procedure

Identify problem areas. Because benchmarking can be

applied to any business process or function, a range of

research techniques may be required. They include:

Informal conversations with customers, employees, or suppliers

Focus groups

In-depth marketing research

Quantitative research



Process mapping

Financial ratio analysis

Quality control variance reports

Benchmarking costs

Benchmarking is a moderately expensive process, but

most organizations find that it more than pays for itself.

The 3 main types of costs are:

Visit costs

Time costs

Benchmarking database costs

Who’s involved?

Within an organization there will be 3 parties involved in


The customer

The user or consumer

The internal service provider

There will also be participation from external parties:

External service providers

Members of the public

Benchmarking partners

Complimentary Industry Guidance?

IT Governance


ISO 20000


Balanced Scorecard

Quality Management

OSI Framework

Six Sigma


Governance has been around the IT arena for decades.

IT is forced to comply with sweeping legislation and an

ever increasing number of external regulations.

IT organizations must operate under full transparency.

IT Governance

“IT governance is the responsibility of the board of

directors and executive management.

It is an integral part of enterprise governance and

consists of the leadership, organizational structures

and processes that ensure that the organization’s IT

sustains and extends the organization’s strategies

and objectives”.

Source: Board briefing on IT Governance, 2nd Edition, 2003,

IT Governance Institute – ITGI

Governance, Standards & Frameworks


ISO/IEC 20000

Process Maturity – CMMi

Process Areas

The CMMI v1.2 contains 22 process areas:

CMMI Causal Analysis and Resolution

CMMI Configuration Management

CMMI Decision Analysis and Resolution

CMMI Integrated Project Management

CMMI Measurement and Analysis

CMMI Organizational Innovation and Deployment

CMMI Organizational Process Definition

CMMI Organizational Process Focus

CMMI Organizational Process Performance

CMMI Organizational Training

CMMI Product Integration

CMMI Project Monitoring and Control

CMMI Project Planning

CMMI Process and Product Quality Assurance

CMMI Quantitative Project Management

CMMI Requirements Development

CMMI Requirements Management

CMMI Risk Management

CMMI Supplier Agreement Management

CMMI Technical Solution

CMMI Validation

CMMI Verification

Balanced Scorecard

Recognizing some of the weaknesses and vagueness of

previous management approaches, the balanced scorecard

approach provides a clear prescription as to what companies

should measure in order to ‘balance’ the financial perspective.

Quality Management

There are distinct advantages of tying an organization’s

ITSM processes, and Service Operation processes in

particular, to its quality management system. If an

organization has a formal quality management system such as

ISO9000 and Six Sigma. Then this can be used to assess

progress regularly and drive forward agreed service

improvement initiatives through regular reviews and reporting.

OSI Framework

Around the same time ITIL Version 1 was being written, the

International Standards Organization launched an initiative that

resulted in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) framework.

Although ITIL and OSI cover much of the same ground their

processes are classified differently and

use different terminology.

Six Sigma

Pioneered by Motorola in 1986 and originally defined as a

metric for measuring defects and improving quality, and a

methodology to reduce defect levels below six standard

deviations or six sigma.

In 1995 is was implemented by GE and has since

become the most widely recognized and accepted quality

system in the world.

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