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Practitioner Course?Incident Management &?Service Desk



09.00 Start

10.30 Morning tea / coffee

12.30 Lunch

15.00 Afternoon tea / coffee

17.00 End


Day One:

General Introduction

Overview Service Management

Overview IT Infrastructure Library

Service Desk

Incident Management (part I)

Case Analysis

Day Two

Incident Management (part II)




Exam preparation

Course Objectives

In-depth understanding of the Incident Management process and its activities.

In-depth understanding of the Service Desk function.

Good understanding of the relationships with all other IT Service Management processes.

Ability to execute the Incident Management activities and work within the Service Desk function.

Preparation for the EXIN Practitioner Exam

Case based

120 minutes

40 multiple choice questions (pass mark = 26 points)

Course Approach


Slides handouts in your binders


Exchange experiences


Going through the process of reaching a solution

Hand outs

Reference materials for back in the office:


Case studies (source: Internet)

White Papers (source: Internet)

Why Service Management?

Business more and more dependent on IT

Complexity of technology increases

Customers demand more

Environment becomes more competitive

Focus on controlling costs of IT

Low customer satisfaction

Service Management?= The Objective Tree =

The Functionally Oriented Organisation

the lines decide

The Process Driven Organisation

the processes decide

Positioning ITSM Processes

IT Service Management (ITSM) Focus

Continuous Improvement


ITIL Jigsaw

What is ITIL all about?

Developed by the British Government

Official standard (BSI No: PD0005) in the UK

De facto standard in Europe

A “framework” and not a methodology

A non-proprietary set of best practices

A process based approach

A quality approach (and can support ISO certification)

Providing “optimal service provision” (balanced with costs)

Aligning IT services with business requirements

Who is involved in ITIL?

OGC – Office of Government Commerce

Before April 2001: CCTA

“Owns” ITIL

itSMF – IT Service Management Forum

Membership based networking forum for ITIL

EXIN, ISEB and others

Examining bodies

The Art of Service and others

Accredited providers of ITIL education and consultancy

ITIL: Service Support Processes

ITIL: Service Delivery Processes

Key Relationships

ITIL Service Management


The Service Desk

supports the agreed IT service provision ?by ensuring the accessibility and ?availability of the IT-organisation ?and by performing various supporting activities.

The Service Desk Role


Contact with / supporting the users

processing of incidents

processing of service requests

processing of (standard) requests for change

Management tasks

controlling maintenance suppliers

backups, restores, user accounts, …

Reactive or Proactive ? (I)

Reactive or Proactive ? (II)

Service Desk Types (I)

Service Desk Types (II)

Call Centre

only logging of calls

rapid response through short conversations

doesn’t offer solutions

direct transfer to specialised IT personnel

Unskilled Service Desk

raw data quick routing (“call dispatch”)

skilled in supervising incident progress

standards and procedures necessary

(telephone-)scripts necessary

Service Desk Types (III)

Skilled Service Desk

solves large % incidents

little routing

various specialisms present


too involved with complex problems

expertise causes certain level of arrogance

perform only the “nice tasks” that go with their own specialisation

Service Desk Types (IV)

Expert Service Desk

all incidents and problems are solved

strong interlink with Problem Management

very well educated personnel (expensive)

qualified personnel is hard to get and /or to keep

extensive and intensive training (expensive)

use of specialised / dedicated diagnostic tools (expensive)

Organisation (I)

Organisation (II)

Organisation (III)

Organisation (IV)

Knowledge & Skills


Number of SD staff will depend on:

Size of organisation (number of users)

Type of organisation

Complexity of IT infrastructure

Reliability of infrastructure

Diversity of systems (degree of standard / non standard systems)

Geographical locations

Service Level Agreements


Statements – What do you think?


Service Management?= The Objective Tree =

The Service Support Set?= Interconnection between the processes =

Incident Management?= Goal of the process =

restores normal service operation as quickly as possible?with minimal disruption to the business, thus ensuring?that the agreed levels of availability and service are maintained.

Terminology (I)


any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes, ?or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in the quality of that service

can be reported by:


IT service provision

IT systems events

Terminology (II)

service request

a request by a user for information, advice or documentation

functional question

request information

request status account

request batch jobs

request back ups / restores

request password / authorisation

Process Model

Incident Detection & Recording

Which incidents?

Incident sources? (where from?)

What information?

How much detail?

Who’s responsibility

Classification & Initial Support (I)

Priority, based on:

Impact &


Type of incident:

Eg mainframe, desktop, application

Need clear guidelines for quick entry:




Classification & Initial Support (II)

Classification & Initial Support (III)

Incident Matching

Has a similar Incident occurred before?

is a provisional solution known (work around)?

Can the Incident be related to an already existing Problem or Known Error?

Investigation & Diagnosis (I)

Can take place anywhere in support area

If necessary, escalate!

Dependant on CMDB

Investigation & Diagnosis (II)

Resolution & Recovery

Not interested in underlying cause

Focus on removing symptoms

Solved when original functionality retained (e.g. user can print again)

Incident closure

Only after consulting with user

Only done by Service Desk

Ownership, Monitoring, Tracking & Communication

Service Desk accountable for ALL incidents, regardless of who’s dealing with them

Service Desk should have authority to (re)allocate resources in other areas

Hierarchical escalation to inform management

Focus on SLAs

Support tool helps keep track of multiple incidents


Process, Procedure & Work Flow (I)

Process, Procedure & Work Flow (II)

Process, Procedure & Work Flow (III)

Incident Management ?= Costs, Points of Attention, Advantages =


P ersonnel

A ccommodation

also for physical storage of process documents, …

S oftware tools and equipment for analysis, reporting and

H ardware communication (e.g. adjustments to telephone system)

E ducation

ITIL Master Class / IM-Practitioner, telephone training, communication training, …

P rocedures

design & manage Incident Management, documentation, instruction sets (telephone scripts), …

Incident Management ?= Costs, Points of Attention, Advantages =

Points of Attention – general

social skills of the service personnel

work overload / stress

bottleneck if many incidents

through lack of time incidents are no longer optimally ?(or even not at all any more) registered

bypassing by users

the “FUTZ-factor” (valuable data is lost) Gartner

in starting phase a lot of 2nd line involvement

process discipline

the process driven way of working often demands a change in culture: resistance within the organisation

Incident Management ?= Costs, Points of Attention, Advantages =

Points of Attention – incident handling

are all calls registered?

under a unique number?

which priority codes do we use and ?how is the priority determined?

organisation of the 1st line

organisation of the 2nd line

which % “closed on first call” is possible through Incident Management?

Incident Management ?= Costs, Points of Attention, Advantages =

Points of Attention – incident handling

coding system for incident categorisation

coding system for priority codes

agreements on the long and short ?error description (form + content + language)

the incident categorisation is related to / depends on other incidents, problems or known errors.

procedures for closing incidents


Incident Management ?= Costs, Points of Attention, Advantages =

General Advantages

ongoing optimisation of the (availability of) IT service provision

reduction of the number of incidents

independent, customer oriented tracking and guarding of incidents

no more “lost” or “forgotten” incidents

better deployment of IT-personnel

useful reporting by effective usage of ?the available information

Incident Management ?= Costs, Points of Attention, Advantages =

Advantages to the Customer

enhanced relationship between customer and IT through optimal and clear communication

there is no need for the customer to have extensive IT-knowledge

development of a knowledge centre for the customer

increase in productivity through:

quick, timely solutions

decrease of the number of incidents

pro-active warning with potential problems

pro-active identification of the consequences when problems arise

Incident Management ?= Functionally Oriented vs. Process Driven =


Service Desk Support Tools (I)

Service Desk / Help Desk tools

Telephony tools

Service Management tools (Configuration, Problem, Change Management)

Network monitoring tools (availability, capacity)

Network Management tools (remote support, user account management)

Release Management tools

Knowledge Management tools

Service Desk Support Tools (II)

Websites to check out:

Search on Google:?Service Desk, Call Centre, Helpdesk tool, Support tool (support tools) (white papers)

Tool Selection (I)

Tool requirements:

Determine need / nice to haves

Which fields to support process?

User friendliness


Knowledge base: search on historical info?

Security: read / write access


Reporting functionality

Tool Selection (II)

Vendor requirements:

Reputation / history

Support focus

Training & consulting?

Future plans (new modules?)

ITIL awareness?

References (visit them!)


Costs associated with tools

Tool costs:

Back end

Front end: licenses

Equipment costs:

Server / disk space

Network capacity

Desktop requirements?


Support staff

Tool maintenance staff


Tool configuration

(Future) changes: adaptability?

Selection Process

Set up a project structure

Project manager & team


Deadlines / time frame (project plan)

Selection criteria

Request for tender (optional)

Short list vendors

Presentations / demo’s

Final cost benefit analysis



Aligning Goals

Reporting (I)

Reporting (II)







Reporting (III)

Report to various target groups


other process managers,

company management

Report on (e.g.)

# reported and registered incidents,

# solved incidents

perhaps divided according to processing time and solution time

# open incidents + their status

list of incidents

per time frame, customer(group), solution group, category, priority,

per …