What is involved in Economies of Scale
Find out what the related areas are that Economies of Scale connects with, associates with, correlates with or affects, and which require thought, deliberation, analysis, review and discussion. This unique checklist stands out in a sense that it is not per-se designed to give answers, but to engage the reader and lay out a Economies of Scale thinking-frame.
How far is your company on its Economies of Scale journey?
Take this short survey to gauge your organization’s progress toward Economies of Scale leadership. Learn your strongest and weakest areas, and what you can do now to create a strategy that delivers results.
To address the criteria in this checklist for your organization, extensive selected resources are provided for sources of further research and information.
Start the Checklist
Below you will find a quick checklist designed to help you think about which Economies of Scale related domains to cover and 152 essential critical questions to check off in that domain.
The following domains are covered:
Economies of Scale, Reverse auction, Welfare economics, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Mass production, Homogeneous function, Mathematical economics, Network effect, Process steam, Failure demand, Economies of density, Computational economics, Indifference curve, Market failure, Economic profit, Operations research, Income–consumption curve, Experimental economics, Ideal firm size, Managerial economics, Sunk costs, Theory of the firm, Pulp and paper industry, Production set, Bilateral monopoly, Economic shortage, Variable cost, General equilibrium theory, Social choice theory, Statistical decision theory, Family economics, Social Science Research Network, Opportunity cost, Toyota Production System, Game theory, National Diet Library, Ragnar Frisch, Economic surplus, Economies of scope, Working capital, Consumer choice, Budget set, Intertemporal choice, Expected utility hypothesis, Mathematical optimization, Labor economics, Perfect competition, Integrated Authority File, Marginal cost, Natural monopoly, Aggregation problem, Market structure, Deadweight loss, Returns to scale, Industrial organization, Risk aversion, Behavioral economics, Convexity in economics, Business economics, Free trade, Cost curve, Cost–benefit analysis:
Economies of Scale Critical Criteria:
Huddle over Economies of Scale leadership and finalize the present value of growth of Economies of Scale.
– Who is responsible for ensuring appropriate resources (time, people and money) are allocated to Economies of Scale?
– Are assumptions made in Economies of Scale stated explicitly?
– What are internal and external Economies of Scale relations?
Reverse auction Critical Criteria:
Debate over Reverse auction decisions and remodel and develop an effective Reverse auction strategy.
– Who will be responsible for documenting the Economies of Scale requirements in detail?
– Why should we adopt a Economies of Scale framework?
Welfare economics Critical Criteria:
Air ideas re Welfare economics leadership and transcribe Welfare economics as tomorrows backbone for success.
– What prevents me from making the changes I know will make me a more effective Economies of Scale leader?
– Does the Economies of Scale task fit the clients priorities?
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 Critical Criteria:
Track Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 strategies and finalize the present value of growth of Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844.
– How do we measure improved Economies of Scale service perception, and satisfaction?
– How will you know that the Economies of Scale project has been successful?
– Does our organization need more Economies of Scale education?
Mass production Critical Criteria:
See the value of Mass production risks and document what potential Mass production megatrends could make our business model obsolete.
– Is Economies of Scale dependent on the successful delivery of a current project?
– Is Supporting Economies of Scale documentation required?
– How do we maintain Economies of Scales Integrity?
Homogeneous function Critical Criteria:
Bootstrap Homogeneous function visions and know what your objective is.
– Who sets the Economies of Scale standards?
Mathematical economics Critical Criteria:
Graph Mathematical economics outcomes and modify and define the unique characteristics of interactive Mathematical economics projects.
– How can we incorporate support to ensure safe and effective use of Economies of Scale into the services that we provide?
– Do several people in different organizational units assist with the Economies of Scale process?
– What business benefits will Economies of Scale goals deliver if achieved?
Network effect Critical Criteria:
Canvass Network effect outcomes and look at the big picture.
– What will be the consequences to the business (financial, reputation etc) if Economies of Scale does not go ahead or fails to deliver the objectives?
Process steam Critical Criteria:
Illustrate Process steam tasks and sort Process steam activities.
– Does Economies of Scale include applications and information with regulatory compliance significance (or other contractual conditions that must be formally complied with) in a new or unique manner for which no approved security requirements, templates or design models exist?
– What is our Economies of Scale Strategy?
Failure demand Critical Criteria:
Communicate about Failure demand failures and change contexts.
– How will we insure seamless interoperability of Economies of Scale moving forward?
– Who are the people involved in developing and implementing Economies of Scale?
– What is our formula for success in Economies of Scale ?
Economies of density Critical Criteria:
Debate over Economies of density visions and plan concise Economies of density education.
– Will Economies of Scale have an impact on current business continuity, disaster recovery processes and/or infrastructure?
– What sources do you use to gather information for a Economies of Scale study?
– What will drive Economies of Scale change?
Computational economics Critical Criteria:
Accelerate Computational economics goals and transcribe Computational economics as tomorrows backbone for success.
Indifference curve Critical Criteria:
Troubleshoot Indifference curve engagements and drive action.
– Will new equipment/products be required to facilitate Economies of Scale delivery for example is new software needed?
– Meeting the challenge: are missed Economies of Scale opportunities costing us money?
– Is Economies of Scale Required?
Market failure Critical Criteria:
Have a meeting on Market failure engagements and sort Market failure activities.
– Think about the kind of project structure that would be appropriate for your Economies of Scale project. should it be formal and complex, or can it be less formal and relatively simple?
Economic profit Critical Criteria:
Trace Economic profit goals and find out.
– Are we making progress? and are we making progress as Economies of Scale leaders?
Operations research Critical Criteria:
Investigate Operations research failures and shift your focus.
– How do you determine the key elements that affect Economies of Scale workforce satisfaction? how are these elements determined for different workforce groups and segments?
Income–consumption curve Critical Criteria:
Categorize Income–consumption curve tactics and sort Income–consumption curve activities.
– Have you identified your Economies of Scale key performance indicators?
– Are there Economies of Scale Models?
Experimental economics Critical Criteria:
Focus on Experimental economics failures and stake your claim.
– What are your key performance measures or indicators and in-process measures for the control and improvement of your Economies of Scale processes?
– Think about the functions involved in your Economies of Scale project. what processes flow from these functions?
– Can Management personnel recognize the monetary benefit of Economies of Scale?
Ideal firm size Critical Criteria:
Collaborate on Ideal firm size management and look for lots of ideas.
– How do mission and objectives affect the Economies of Scale processes of our organization?
– Is Economies of Scale Realistic, or are you setting yourself up for failure?
Managerial economics Critical Criteria:
Depict Managerial economics issues and forecast involvement of future Managerial economics projects in development.
– How do we know that any Economies of Scale analysis is complete and comprehensive?
Sunk costs Critical Criteria:
Give examples of Sunk costs results and probe the present value of growth of Sunk costs.
– What potential environmental factors impact the Economies of Scale effort?
– Should sunk costs be included when estimating cash flows?
– How can skill-level changes improve Economies of Scale?
– Are there Economies of Scale problems defined?
Theory of the firm Critical Criteria:
Guide Theory of the firm tactics and cater for concise Theory of the firm education.
– Do we cover the five essential competencies-Communication, Collaboration,Innovation, Adaptability, and Leadership that improve an organizations ability to leverage the new Economies of Scale in a volatile global economy?
– How do we make it meaningful in connecting Economies of Scale with what users do day-to-day?
Pulp and paper industry Critical Criteria:
Accumulate Pulp and paper industry governance and assess what counts with Pulp and paper industry that we are not counting.
– When a Economies of Scale manager recognizes a problem, what options are available?
Production set Critical Criteria:
Trace Production set risks and look in other fields.
– Does Economies of Scale create potential expectations in other areas that need to be recognized and considered?
Bilateral monopoly Critical Criteria:
Frame Bilateral monopoly leadership and reinforce and communicate particularly sensitive Bilateral monopoly decisions.
– Are there any disadvantages to implementing Economies of Scale? There might be some that are less obvious?
– Does Economies of Scale appropriately measure and monitor risk?
Economic shortage Critical Criteria:
Distinguish Economic shortage failures and plan concise Economic shortage education.
– Think of your Economies of Scale project. what are the main functions?
– How do we Improve Economies of Scale service perception, and satisfaction?
Variable cost Critical Criteria:
Chat re Variable cost results and catalog Variable cost activities.
– Does Economies of Scale analysis isolate the fundamental causes of problems?
General equilibrium theory Critical Criteria:
Differentiate General equilibrium theory issues and finalize the present value of growth of General equilibrium theory.
Social choice theory Critical Criteria:
Scan Social choice theory issues and achieve a single Social choice theory view and bringing data together.
– For your Economies of Scale project, identify and describe the business environment. is there more than one layer to the business environment?
– Is the scope of Economies of Scale defined?
Statistical decision theory Critical Criteria:
Meet over Statistical decision theory quality and find the ideas you already have.
– How likely is the current Economies of Scale plan to come in on schedule or on budget?
Family economics Critical Criteria:
Investigate Family economics leadership and cater for concise Family economics education.
– What is the total cost related to deploying Economies of Scale, including any consulting or professional services?
– What is the source of the strategies for Economies of Scale strengthening and reform?
– Is there any existing Economies of Scale governance structure?
Social Science Research Network Critical Criteria:
Align Social Science Research Network decisions and look for lots of ideas.
– Do we aggressively reward and promote the people who have the biggest impact on creating excellent Economies of Scale services/products?
– What are the usability implications of Economies of Scale actions?
Opportunity cost Critical Criteria:
Read up on Opportunity cost tactics and visualize why should people listen to you regarding Opportunity cost.
– What is the opportunity cost of providing staff with the potential to learn new technologies or increase their expertise?
– What are the opportunity costs for conducting the program?
– How can we improve Economies of Scale?
Toyota Production System Critical Criteria:
Review Toyota Production System leadership and spearhead techniques for implementing Toyota Production System.
– Think about the people you identified for your Economies of Scale project and the project responsibilities you would assign to them. what kind of training do you think they would need to perform these responsibilities effectively?
Game theory Critical Criteria:
Categorize Game theory failures and develop and take control of the Game theory initiative.
– What are the success criteria that will indicate that Economies of Scale objectives have been met and the benefits delivered?
– Who will be responsible for deciding whether Economies of Scale goes ahead or not after the initial investigations?
– Is the Economies of Scale organization completing tasks effectively and efficiently?
National Diet Library Critical Criteria:
Experiment with National Diet Library leadership and oversee National Diet Library requirements.
– What are the disruptive Economies of Scale technologies that enable our organization to radically change our business processes?
Ragnar Frisch Critical Criteria:
Gauge Ragnar Frisch adoptions and proactively manage Ragnar Frisch risks.
– What are the business goals Economies of Scale is aiming to achieve?
Economic surplus Critical Criteria:
Set goals for Economic surplus adoptions and work towards be a leading Economic surplus expert.
– What are your current levels and trends in key measures or indicators of Economies of Scale product and process performance that are important to and directly serve your customers? how do these results compare with the performance of your competitors and other organizations with similar offerings?
– Marketing budgets are tighter, consumers are more skeptical, and social media has changed forever the way we talk about Economies of Scale. How do we gain traction?
Economies of scope Critical Criteria:
Pilot Economies of scope planning and ask questions.
Working capital Critical Criteria:
Apply Working capital outcomes and summarize a clear Working capital focus.
– Distinguish between permanent working capital and temporary working capital. Why is the difference important to financial managers?
– Do you monitor the effectiveness of your Economies of Scale activities?
– How do we go about Comparing Economies of Scale approaches/solutions?
Consumer choice Critical Criteria:
Substantiate Consumer choice risks and acquire concise Consumer choice education.
– Who is the main stakeholder, with ultimate responsibility for driving Economies of Scale forward?
Budget set Critical Criteria:
Read up on Budget set planning and report on the economics of relationships managing Budget set and constraints.
– What is the purpose of Economies of Scale in relation to the mission?
Intertemporal choice Critical Criteria:
Grasp Intertemporal choice engagements and test out new things.
– How do we ensure that implementations of Economies of Scale products are done in a way that ensures safety?
– How do we keep improving Economies of Scale?
Expected utility hypothesis Critical Criteria:
Examine Expected utility hypothesis goals and define what our big hairy audacious Expected utility hypothesis goal is.
– What are our Economies of Scale Processes?
Mathematical optimization Critical Criteria:
Systematize Mathematical optimization quality and triple focus on important concepts of Mathematical optimization relationship management.
– What are your most important goals for the strategic Economies of Scale objectives?
Labor economics Critical Criteria:
Steer Labor economics goals and develop and take control of the Labor economics initiative.
Perfect competition Critical Criteria:
Experiment with Perfect competition issues and create Perfect competition explanations for all managers.
– Consider your own Economies of Scale project. what types of organizational problems do you think might be causing or affecting your problem, based on the work done so far?
Integrated Authority File Critical Criteria:
Weigh in on Integrated Authority File decisions and look in other fields.
– What knowledge, skills and characteristics mark a good Economies of Scale project manager?
– Is a Economies of Scale Team Work effort in place?
– What threat is Economies of Scale addressing?
Marginal cost Critical Criteria:
Nurse Marginal cost management and report on setting up Marginal cost without losing ground.
– How is the value delivered by Economies of Scale being measured?
Natural monopoly Critical Criteria:
Bootstrap Natural monopoly failures and assess and formulate effective operational and Natural monopoly strategies.
Aggregation problem Critical Criteria:
Investigate Aggregation problem leadership and differentiate in coordinating Aggregation problem.
– What are the key elements of your Economies of Scale performance improvement system, including your evaluation, organizational learning, and innovation processes?
Market structure Critical Criteria:
Ventilate your thoughts about Market structure goals and figure out ways to motivate other Market structure users.
– Can we add value to the current Economies of Scale decision-making process (largely qualitative) by incorporating uncertainty modeling (more quantitative)?
– What are the barriers to increased Economies of Scale production?
– What are the implications for market structure?
Deadweight loss Critical Criteria:
Align Deadweight loss failures and get the big picture.
– Does Economies of Scale systematically track and analyze outcomes for accountability and quality improvement?
– Is there a Economies of Scale Communication plan covering who needs to get what information when?
Returns to scale Critical Criteria:
Concentrate on Returns to scale adoptions and track iterative Returns to scale results.
– What are current Economies of Scale Paradigms?
– How to deal with Economies of Scale Changes?
Industrial organization Critical Criteria:
Do a round table on Industrial organization goals and describe which business rules are needed as Industrial organization interface.
– How do senior leaders actions reflect a commitment to the organizations Economies of Scale values?
– What are the long-term Economies of Scale goals?
– How can the value of Economies of Scale be defined?
Risk aversion Critical Criteria:
Scrutinze Risk aversion decisions and pay attention to the small things.
– How do your measurements capture actionable Economies of Scale information for use in exceeding your customers expectations and securing your customers engagement?
– Are we Assessing Economies of Scale and Risk?
Behavioral economics Critical Criteria:
Derive from Behavioral economics visions and look for lots of ideas.
– What are all of our Economies of Scale domains and what do they do?
Convexity in economics Critical Criteria:
Be clear about Convexity in economics quality and gather Convexity in economics models .
– What tools and technologies are needed for a custom Economies of Scale project?
Business economics Critical Criteria:
Track Business economics tactics and test out new things.
– What are the short and long-term Economies of Scale goals?
Free trade Critical Criteria:
Survey Free trade projects and arbitrate Free trade techniques that enhance teamwork and productivity.
Cost curve Critical Criteria:
Judge Cost curve issues and intervene in Cost curve processes and leadership.
– Where do ideas that reach policy makers and planners as proposals for Economies of Scale strengthening and reform actually originate?
– What are specific Economies of Scale Rules to follow?
Cost–benefit analysis Critical Criteria:
Value Cost–benefit analysis adoptions and describe the risks of Cost–benefit analysis sustainability.
– In the case of a Economies of Scale project, the criteria for the audit derive from implementation objectives. an audit of a Economies of Scale project involves assessing whether the recommendations outlined for implementation have been met. in other words, can we track that any Economies of Scale project is implemented as planned, and is it working?
– Are accountability and ownership for Economies of Scale clearly defined?
This quick readiness checklist is a selected resource to help you move forward. Learn more about how to achieve comprehensive insights with the Economies of Scale Self Assessment:
Author: Gerard Blokdijk
CEO at The Art of Service | theartofservice.com
Gerard is the CEO at The Art of Service. He has been providing information technology insights, talks, tools and products to organizations in a wide range of industries for over 25 years. Gerard is a widely recognized and respected information expert. Gerard founded The Art of Service consulting business in 2000. Gerard has authored numerous published books to date.
To address the criteria in this checklist, these selected resources are provided for sources of further research and information:
Reverse auction External links:
[PDF]PROCEDURES FOR REVERSE AUCTION …
What is REVERSE AUCTION – Black’s Law Dictionary
Energy Market Exchange: Reverse Auction E …
Welfare economics External links:
Welfare Economics Flashcards | Quizlet
Welfare Economics – Quora
Welfare Economics – YouTube
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 External links:
Economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844 – JH …
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 – SparkNotes
Mass production External links:
[PPT]MASS PRODUCTION – Ki?isel Sayfalar – deu.edu.tr
Mass Production – Firecracker!! – YouTube
Mass production. (Journal, magazine, 1946) [WorldCat.org]
Homogeneous function External links:
Homogeneous function – Encyclopedia of Mathematics
Determine if a Function is a Homogeneous Function – …
Mathematical economics External links:
Mathematical economics (eBook, 1988) [WorldCat.org]
Mathematical economics (Book, 1988) [WorldCat.org]
Journal of Mathematical Economics – Official Site
Network effect External links:
Bazaarvoice Summit 2017 – The Network Effect – March 8 & …
Battery Ventures Network Effect Index – Powered by Battery
The Network Effect is coming to healthcare – Ingenious Med
Process steam External links:
Process Steam | Definition of Process Steam by Merriam-Webster
Pressure Reducing Valves for Process Steam (with Built …
Process Steam and Heat | Vapor Power
Failure demand External links:
Reducing Failure Demand in Banking | Case Study
What is Failure Demand? – Demand Analysis Limited
Failure Demand – Insights & Solutions
Economies of density External links:
Economies of Density in E-commerce: A Study of …
[PDF]Economies of Density in E-Commerce: A Study of …
The Diffusion of Wal-Mart and Economies of Density – YouTube
Computational economics External links:
Computational economics (Book, 2006) [WorldCat.org]
Computational Economics – Springer
Indifference curve External links:
8. An Example of Indifference Curve Analysis – YouTube
Indifference Curve – Investopedia
Definition of ‘Indifference Curve’ – The Economic Times
Market failure External links:
ERIC – Unemployment as Market Failure., Economics, 1992
Economics- Market Failure Flashcards | Quizlet
Market Failure – Investopedia
Economic profit External links:
Economic Profit (Or Loss) – Investopedia
Economic Profit financial definition of Economic Profit
Monopoly – Economic Profit – YouTube
Operations research External links:
Operations Research Analysis Manager Salaries – Salary.com
home – Operations Research Graduate Program
Systems Engineering and Operations Research
Experimental economics External links:
“Experimental Economics” by Elizabeth Hoffman
Experimental Economics Replication Project
Experimental economics (Book, 1993) [WorldCat.org]
Ideal firm size External links:
What is the ideal firm size for your business? | Vulkan Forge
Translation of Ideal firm size in English
Managerial economics External links:
Managerial economics (Book, 1996) [WorldCat.org]
Home – Managerial Economics, UC Davis
Managerial economics. (Book, 2014) [WorldCat.org]
Sunk costs External links:
Examples of Sunk Costs in the Workplace | Chron.com
Sunk Costs Chap 8 Flashcards | Quizlet
What Are Sunk Costs? – Small Business Trends
Theory of the firm External links:
Theory Of The Firm Definition | Investopedia
[DOC]Theory of the Firm – USI
www.usi.edu/business/cashel/308/Theory of the Firm1.doc
Bilateral monopoly External links:
Long-Term Bilateral Monopoly: The Case of an …
Variable cost External links:
What is a variable cost? — AccountingTools
Variable Cost Essay – 2969 Words – StudyMode
[PPT]Variable Cost Structure – ? Nucor Corporation
General equilibrium theory External links:
Classical General Equilibrium Theory | The MIT Press
General Equilibrium Theory – Investopedia
Social choice theory External links:
[PDF]Social choice theory, populism, and popular control
wpsa.research.pdx.edu/papers/docs/Ingham – WPSA 2013.pdf
[PDF]FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIAL CHOICE THEORY
Statistical decision theory External links:
ERIC – FUNDAMENTALS OF STATISTICAL DECISION THEORY…
ERIC – From Statistical Decision Theory to Practice: …
Social Science Research Network External links:
Social Science Research Network (SSRN) | Edmond J. …
Social Science Research Network (SSRN)
SSRN: Social Science Research Network – University of …
Opportunity cost External links:
“StartUp” Opportunity Cost (TV Episode 2017) – IMDb
Opportunity Cost Flashcards | Quizlet
Toyota Production System External links:
Lean Six Sigma and the Toyota Production System
Toyota Production System (TPS) Terminology
Toyota Production System in the Lean Lexicon
Game theory External links:
Game theory – IS Theory
Game Theory (TV Series 2011– ) – IMDb
National Diet Library External links:
Online Gallery | National Diet Library
National Diet Library law. (Book, 1961) [WorldCat.org]
Ragnar Frisch External links:
Ragnar Frisch – The Mathematics Genealogy Project
Ragnar Frisch – Investopedia
Ragnar Frisch Jr. | Facebook
Economic surplus External links:
Chapter 4: Economic Surplus Flashcards | Quizlet
What is economic surplus? – Quora
Economic Surplus Figures, Jun 26 2000 | Video | C-SPAN.org
Economies of scope External links:
[PDF]Estimate Economies of Scope Using Profit Function …
Economies of Scale vs Economies of Scope – YouTube
Working capital External links:
eCapital | Invoice Factoring | Working Capital
working capital ratio – Investopedia
Consumer choice External links:
[PDF]Information about Consumer Choice Plans
TeamCCM – Welcome! To Consumer Choice Marketing.
Home – Coalition for Contact Lens Consumer Choice
Budget set External links:
Budget Set Go – Home | Facebook
Intertemporal choice External links:
Time Horizons, Discounting, and Intertemporal Choice – …
Reference-dependence in intertemporal choice — ISDM
Expected utility hypothesis External links:
Expected Utility Hypothesis | Utility | Risk Aversion
Expected utility hypothesis – Revolvy
www.revolvy.com/topic/Expected utility hypothesis
Mathematical optimization External links:
Mathematical optimization — NYU Scholars
[1403.1166] Mathematical optimization for packing problems
Labor economics External links:
IZA Institute of Labor Economics – Official Site
Tenured Associate Professor in Labor Economics …
The Fed – Labor Economics
Perfect competition External links:
Perfect Competition, Part IV – Reffonomics.com
1.5.2 Perfect Competition – The Economics Classroom
Perfect competition | Economics Help
Integrated Authority File External links:
MEDLARS indexing: integrated authority file
Marginal cost External links:
[PDF]Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR) …
Calculating Marginal Cost – CBS News
Why does the marginal cost curve slope upwards? – Quora
Natural monopoly External links:
What is example of natural monopoly? – Quora
Natural Monopoly – Investopedia
Aggregation problem External links:
Percentage Meeting a Target (aggregation problem) …
The Aggregation Problem – ResearchGate
Market structure External links:
Free market structure Essays and Papers – 123HelpMe
Deadweight loss External links:
Deadweight Loss Of Taxation – Investopedia
modified deadweight loss graph.png: ECON111.N06 (Fall …
Deadweight Loss Flashcards | Quizlet
Returns to scale External links:
Returns to Scale – YouTube
Returns to Scale – ThoughtCo
What is returns to scale? – Quora
Industrial organization External links:
Industrial Organization Society – IIOC
Industrial Organization Definition | Investopedia
Risk aversion External links:
Title: Risk aversion as an evolutionary adaptation – arXiv
Behavioral economics External links:
Wellth: Better Patient Outcomes with Behavioral Economics
Health Incentives & Behavioral Economics | UPENN
Behavioral Economics Consulting & Incentives — VAL Health
Business economics External links:
Small Business Economics on JSTOR
Business economics (eBook, 1999) [WorldCat.org]
Business Economics Careers | Ashford University
Free trade External links:
RAK Free Trade Zone Company Registration – RAK FTZ Dubai
Cost curve External links:
[PDF]BENDING THE COST CURVE – Member | SOA
[PDF]Cost Curves – Economics
[XLS]Project Cumulative Cost Curve – Dollars – CVR/IT